|Publication number||US4072703 A|
|Application number||US 05/567,752|
|Publication date||Feb 7, 1978|
|Filing date||Apr 14, 1975|
|Priority date||Mar 28, 1974|
|Also published as||CA1058168A, CA1058168A1, DE2513842A1|
|Publication number||05567752, 567752, US 4072703 A, US 4072703A, US-A-4072703, US4072703 A, US4072703A|
|Original Assignee||Chimie & Biologie|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (1), Non-Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (4), Classifications (27)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
R'--S--CH --CH --CH(NHR)--C)--X--R"
This is a continuation-in-part of my copending application Ser. No. 559,508, filed Mar. 21, 1975.
Amino-3 dihydrothiophenon-2 or homocystein thiolactone, hereinafter called ADT, was described by Du Vigneaud in 1935. It is prepared by dealkylation of methionine or another alcoyl homocystein by reduction by sodium in ammonia or hydriodic acid, followed by cyclization. Being relatively undeveloped, it is relatively costly because, being soluble in water, its isolation is delicate. Some N-acylated derivatives thereof are known, but the S-acyl homocysteins are unknown. The new reactions of the invention provide access, sometimes very economically, to numerous derivatives which are useful in therapeutics, cosmetology, photography, etc., and permit a more economic access to the known derivatives.
In the line of new industrial products, the invention relates, in the free form or in the form of basic or acidic organic or inorganic salts of the new ADT derivatives which include the characteristic grouping --S--CH2 --CH2 --CH(NHR)--CO, in which R represents a hydrogen or a C1 -C4 acyl group. The structure of the compounds is either cyclical, according to formula ##STR2## where R then has more than 4 carbons and it is substituted when it is a benzoyl or nicothinoyl and unsubstituted when it is a cinnamoyl, or open according to the formula (B) R'--S--CH2 --CH2 --CH(NHR)--CO--X--R", where X represents a sulfur or oxygen atom, R and R", being identical or different, represent hydrogen or acyl groups, R" representing a hydrogen or a possibly substituted alcoyl, wherein R" has at least 2 carbons when X is oxygen, R a benzoyl or lower (C1 -C5) acyl and R' is hydrogen.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the compounds have the cyclical structure (A) and R is a radical selected of the following: p-chlorophenoxy-2 isobutyryl, pivaloyl, m-fluorobenzoyl, trimethoxy-3,4,5 benzoyl, succinoyl, p-chlorophenoxy acetyl, salicyloyl, acetyl-salicyloyl, thenoyl-2, chromone-2 carbonyl.
According to another embodiment, the compounds have the open structure (B) where X is oxygen, R' and R" hydrogen and R is one of the radicals identified in the preceding paragraph, plus the radicals nicotinoyl and propionyl.
According to another embodiment, the products have the open structure (B) where --XR" is a --OH and R and R', being identical or different, represent one of the following list of radicals: acetyl, propionyl, pivaloyl, succinoyl, benzoyl, m-fluorobenzoyl, trimethoxy-3,4,5 benzoyl, salicyloyl, acetylsalicyloyl, thenoyl-2, p-chlorophenoxy acetyl, p-chlorophenoxy-2 isobutyryl, nicotinoyl, chromone-2 carbonyl.
Another embodiment relates to the homologs of the products of the preceding paragraph in which R" becomes a methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl radical.
The N-acyl ADT has been obtained by acylation of ADT in anhydrous media, and the N-acyl ADT of the invention thus can be obtained. The Yoshitomi Japanese Pat. No. 16712/62 refers to the acetylation of ADT in a bicarbonate solution with acetic anhydride.
The present invention also relates to new methods of N-acylation of ADT, where it is dissolved in an aqueous solvent, preferably water. A weak base, such as a bicarbonate, or a stronger one, such as sodium hydroxide, is added, but in a quantity calculated to avoid the hydrolysis of the thiolactone. An anhydride or an acid halide is added to this solution at a specific temperature of the reagent, optionally between -10° and ambient temperature , the acetic anhydride being excluded from the reagents used.
The invention furthermore relates to methods of S-acylation of the ADT's, either N-acylated or not, preferably in water, in two phases, namely, hydrolysis of the thiolactone and then acylation. The hydrolysis is accelerated when the pH and the temperature are elevated. These parameters are then lowered and an acid halide or anhydride is added. Sodium hydroxide is preferably used in excess and acylation is carried out between -10° and ambient temperature. At the end of the reaction the S-acyl homocystein is acidified and isolated. This technique makes it possible to arrive at compounds acylated identically or differently on sulfur and nitrogen atoms.
The invention also relates to methods for synthesis of S-acylated homocystein esters or thiolesters, which consist of saturating a solvent, such as an alcohol or reactive mercaptan, with anhydrous hydrochloric acid, dissolving therein the homocystein and letting the mixture stand, frequently at room temperature. The ester is isolated by evaporating off the solvent and by adding to the residue a bicarbonate solution to eliminate the residual homocystein.
The invention also relates to the methods of N- and S-acylation of homocystein esters and thiolesters. An acid anhydride or halide is added to the substratum in very mild alkaline medium, which either may be anhydrous, or aqueous at a moderated pH and cold temperature.
The invention also relates to the synthesis of S-acyl homocysteins, consisting of S-acylating a previously prepared ester, then hydrolyzing it by the action of an alkaline reagent, generally while cold.
The invention also relates to the preparation of N-acyl ADT and N and/or S-acylated homocysteins or unacylated homocysteins, from S-alcoyl homocysteins, which may or may not be N-acylated, preferably methionine or acetyl methionine. The reaction is initiated by dealkylating the substratum according to known methods; the solvent is evaporated without isolating the intermediate product, and the acylation is carried out successively on nitrogen and sulfur, in accordance with the previously described methods. If the dealkylation takes place in hydriodic acid, the evaporation residue is dissolved in water. The N-acylation is carried out at mild pH, and the pH is increased for the S-acylation. If the dealkylation is made with sodium in ammonia, the latter is evaporated and the residue dissolved in water. In order to identically N and S-acylate, the acylation is carried out directly. To N and S-aceylate differently, it is necessary to recycle in ADT by returning to the acid medium, return to the mild alkaline pH to N-acylate, then to the higher pH for the S-aceylation. These means are very economical because they avoid the delicate isolation of ADT; only the final product is to be isolated and frequently being insoluble, it precipitates directly.
The invention also relates to the methods of fabricating N,S-diacyl homocysteins which consist of N and then S-acylating the ADT without isolating the intermediate N-acyl ADT.
The invention likewise relates to medications for human or veterinary therapeutics which contain one or several of the new derivatives of the invention. It has been found that selected ones are relatively non-toxic and present various activities such as hepaprotective, cicatrizing, mucolytic, hypolipemiating, hypocholestrolemiating, vasoprotective, tranquilizing, platelets, anti-aggregating activities, etc. The homocystein support itself is atoxic and has interesting therapeutic properties which may be completed, synergized or modified by acid remnants, alcohols and mercaptans which themselves have therapeutic properties and whose products of the invention may serve as introduction factors to improve their pharmacological qualities or resolve problems of stability, solubility, time delaying effect, wall passage or others.
The products of this invention also have use as pharmaceutical compounds and can be used in forms for local, oral, parental, rectal administration in otorhinolaryngology and oththamology, such as pommades, solutions, milks, aerosols, pills, wafers, lozenges, gelatin-coated pills, chromules, syrups, capsules, drops, solutions for drinking or injections, all ready or to be prepared for use, cones, suppositories, enemas, containing in pure or in mixture condition one of the several derivatives of the invention.
Finally, the invention relates to the use of the new products of this invention for cosmetological applications and more specifically for skin, hair and nail care.
The following examples and tables, furnished in a non-limitative manner, illustrate the invention, but numerous other variants thereof can be visualized.
1.535 grams ADT, HCl are dissolved in 10 cc caustic soda N and 1.1 cc acetic anhydride are added. The temperature rises from 22° to 29°, 10 minutes later 4 cc acetic acid are added and evaporated to dryness. This is taken up byaacetone, the salt is filtered and the filtrate evaporated. The product crystallizes by adding ether.
Example 1 is modified by replacing the calculated quantity of sodium hydroxide, often referred to as caustic soda, by an excess of sodium bicarbonate and the acetic anhydride by propionic anhydride.
Dissolve 3.07 grams ADT, HCl in 20 cc dimethyl formamide. Heat until dissolution, cool to 50° and add 5.8 cc triethyl amine whose chlorohydrate precipitates, then 4.70 grams clofibryl chloride. The temperature rises to 70°. Heat for 2 minutes at 100° and cool, filter and add 80 cc water to the filtrate. An oil rapidly precipitates and crystallizes.
Example 2 is followed using pivaloyl chloride instead of propionic anhydride.
11.2 grams N-acetyl ADT are dissolved in 40 cc 14% caustic soda, and at 10° C 7.15 grams acetic anhydride are gently added. A few minutes later, this is acidified with 10% HCl, saturated with salt, the excess of which is filtered. This is extracted with methylene chloride, evaporated to dryness and taken up with ether. An oil subsequently precipitates and crystallizes.
The method is the same as in Example 5, but using ADT, HCl, whose molar quantity is tripled in caustic soda and doubled in acetic anhydride.
The procedure is the same as in Example 5, but replacing the anhydride with acetyl chloride and operating at 0° C.
According to Example 6, replacing the anhydride with acetyl chloride and operating at 0° C.
Dissolve 1.54 grams ADT, HCl in 20 cc caustic soda 2N and, at 10° add gently under agitation 2.9 grams benzoyl chloride. When the mixture is clear, add 10% HCl until pH 2. The product precipitates and crystallizes by freezing.
Dissolve 1.59 grams N-acetyl ADT in 15 cc caustic soda 2N. At 10° gently add 1.45 grams benzoyl chloride. Return to 20° and when the mixture is clear, add 10% HCl until pH 2. The product rapidly precipitates and crystallizes.
Introduce 3.28 grams N-acetyl methyl homocysteinate into 30 cc dry benzene and 2.06 grams triethyl amine. At 10° C, introduce 3.10 grams benzoyl chloride, let stand for 2 days and filter the salt. Wash the filter with diluted HCl, with bicarbonate, then with water. Dry the benzoic phase and evaporate 60 dryness, add a bicarbonate solution: the product crystallizes.
The reagents of the preceding example are treated in 1N sodium hydroxide. The precipitate formed is immediately filtered and washed with water, producing only a low yield because of the hydrolysis.
In the preceding example, replacing the caustic soda with excess bicarbonate and allowing it to return to 20° C, the reaction is completed, and the hydrolysis avoided, leading to an excellent yield.
The methyl ester is stirred for one hour in 1N sodium hydroxide solution, then acidify to pH 2 with 10% HCl. The product rapidly precipitates and crystallizes.
Dissolve 1.41 grams N-acetyl, S-benzoyl homocystein in 15 ml methyl alcohol saturated with anhydrous hydrochloric acid. Let stand for 12 hours and evaporate to dryness. Take up the residue again with 10% bicarbonate. By freezing, the product crystallizes.
Equimolar quantities of N-acetyl, S-benzoyl homocystein and N-acetyl methyl homocysteinate are dissolved in hydrochloric dioxane. Let stand for one day and treat like in the preceding example.
Dissolve 1.69 grams ADT, HCl in 22 cc 10% bicarbonate, and at 20° add 1.3 cc acetic anhydride. Allow to react for 10 minutes, cool to 15° C and add, by stirring, 1.41 grams benzoyl chloride. When the solution is clear, acidify to pH 2 with 10% HCl. The product precipitates and crystallizes.
15 grams methionine are demethylized in 40% hydriodic acid according to known methods. The acid is evaporated to dryness under vacuum and the residue is taken up in 100 cc 10% sodium bicarbonate, and while being sure that the medium always is alkaline, add gently 14.65 grams thenoyl chloride at 15° C. The product solidifies in half an hour and it is filtered.
7.5 grams methionine are demethylized by sodium reduction in ammonia and the latter is evaporated off. For precaution, the residue of evaporation is destroyed with 5 cc alcohol, then neutralized to pH 2 with 10% HCl. Heat for 1/2 hour at 80° to cyclize and neutralize with excess sodium bicarbonate and at 20° C, add 6 cc acetic anyydride, then proceed with isolation like in Example 1.
7.5 grams methionine are likewise demethylized by sodium in ammonia which is evaporated off. After destruction of the residue with alcohol, dilute in water, cool to 15°-20° C and add 12 cc acetic anhydride. After a few minutes, acidify and isolate, as in Example 5.
According to Example 20, replacing the acetic anhydride with benzoyl chloride. At the end of the reaction, the product precipitates and crystallizes upon acidification.
The procedure is like Example 19 but N-acetyl ADT is not isolated. At this moment, 5 grams caustic soda in pellets are added to the mixture. Cool to 15° C and add 7.35 grams thenoyl chloride. When the mixture has become clear it is acidified at pH 2 and the product precipitates and crystallizes.
All products obtained according to methods A to V are in the form of white crystals, although this is not a characteristic for the invention. The following tabulation expands upon the examples by identification of the compounds and reactants as well as the method by which they are produced.
TABLE I__________________________________________________________________________N-acyl ADT Melting Solvent of PointEx. No. Temp. recrystal- KoflerProduct R Method ° C ization Bank° C__________________________________________________________________________1.19 a acetyl A,S 20-30 eth.acetate 1122 propionyl B 20 trichloro- 96-6 ethylene3 & 28 p.chlorophenoxy- 2 isobutyryl C,D 50-100 isopropanol 103-44 pivaloyl D 0-5 water 13318 thenoyl-2 R -30-1523 benzoyl D 10 isopropanol 14824 m.fluorobenzoyl D 10 isopropanol 14325 trimethoxy-3,4, 5-benzoyl D 20 ethanol 172-326 succinyl B 10 water 136-727 p.chlorophenoxy- acetyl D 15-20 isopropanol 11629 nicotinoyl D -8 water 12930 salicyloyl D 10 isopropanol 142-3 (acetyl)31 chromone-2 D 10 ethanol 206 carbonyl__________________________________________________________________________
TABLE II__________________________________________________________________________Open Form (B) Melting R" (not indi- Point cated if H) Method (Temp. Recrystall- bancEx. No. R of the re- ization KoflerProduct R' action ° C) solvent ° C__________________________________________________________________________5,6,7,8,20 Acetyl E(10),F(10) ethyl acet. 100 G(0),H(0) or Acetyl T(-30 then dichloro- 15) ethane9, 21 Benzoyl I (10) isopropanol 172-3 Benzoyl U (-30 then 15°)10,17,41,34 Acetyl J(5-20),R(15) water-ethanol 153 Benzoyl N(room) V(-30 then 15)11,12,13 Methyl K(10),L(10)15,53 Acetyl M(10),0 xylene 89 Benzoyl (effected with H2 SO4 at 20°14,36 Acetyl N(room) water-ethanol 128-9 p.Clphenoxy-2 V(-30 then isobutyryl 15)16 N-acetyl homo- cysteinate methyl Acetyl P(room) xylene 80 Benzoyl22,54 Acetyl V(-30 then water-isopro- 152 15) panol Thenoyl-2 J(10)32 m.Fbenzoyl m.Fbenzoyl I(10) isopropanol 14833 Acetyl J(5-10) water-isopr. 154 m.F benzoyl35 Acetyl J(10) isopropanol 130 o,Cl-phenoxy acetyl37 Methyl M(10) xylene 114 Acetyl Trimethoxy-3,4, 5 benzoyl38 Methyl Acetyl M(10) isopropanol 114 p.Cl-phenoxy- acetyl39 Methyl Acetyl M(10) Isopropanol 92 p.Cl-phenoxy-2 isobyryl40 Methyl Acetyl M910) isopropanol 141-2 Chromone-2 carbonyl42 Ethyl toluene- Acetyl 0(room) cyclohexane 84 Benzoyl43 Propyl-2 toluene- Acetyl 0(room) cyclohexane 86 Benzoyl44 Butyl-2 toluene Acetyl 0(room) petroleum ether 63-4 Benzoyl45 Ethyl toluene Acetyl 0(room) cyclohexane 90 Thenoyl-246 Ethyl toluene- Acetyl 0(room) cyclohexane 83 m.F-benzoyl47 Benzoyl J(10)start by toluene 120 Acetyl hydrolyzing N-benzoyl ADT by heating to 90°48 Methyl Benzoyl 0(room) toluene 142 Acetyl49 Acetyl J(10)with water-ethanol 157-8 malicyloyl acetyl sali- cyloyl chloride whose acetyl hydrolyzes50 Acetyl J(10-2) water-ethanol 163 Pivaloyl51 Methyl Acetyl 0(room) water-ethanol 84 Pivaloyl52 Acetyl J(15) using water 134 succinic anhydride__________________________________________________________________________
In order to obtain a molar solution of this salt, 1/200 mole of MgCO3 are agitated for 15 minutes, with 1/100 mole N-acetyl, S-benzoyl homocystein, in 10 cc of water.
By operating as in the following Example 57, with the corresponding reagents, a molar solution of the salt is obtained.
The molar solution of the salt is obtained by dissolution in 10 cc of water, 1/100 mole of dimethyl amino ethanol and N-acetyl, S-pCl phenoxyacetyl homocystein, which originally were insoluble.
By mixing acetyl aspartic acid and N-nicotinoyl ADT in equimolecular quantities at the rate of 1 mole per liter of water, the dissolution of the reagents and the formation of the salt are observed.
Equimolecular quantities of N,S-diacetyl homocystein and the oxy tetracycline base are dissolved in methyl alcohol, and this is evaporated while cold under vacuum. A yellow powder, soluble in water, is obtained which melts at 125°.
The industrial interest of the products of the invention is illustrated by the following examples given without limitation; it being understood that the DL 50 determinations were made orally in the mouse.
Product 24 DL 50: 1.9 grams/kilogram. In the rabbit undergoing a hypercaloric regime, it reduces to 250 mg/kg the circulating lipid rate. In human therapeutics, the daily dose is 100 to 2000 mg/day.
Product 25: DL 0 above 2.5 grams/kg. From 400 mg/kg, notable sedation is observed, and at 1 g/kg meeting of animals then hypnosis is observed.
Product 26: DL 0 above 2 grams/kg. At 400 mg/kg it is very clearly mucolytic in the rat according to the test of chronic bronchitis with SO2, by Auevauvillier. It is usable to treat respiratory ailments at the daily rate from 100 to 3000 mg/day.
Product 27: DL 50 1.9 grams/kg. At 200 mg/kg it protects the mouse from hypobare hypnoxy at least as well as neclophenoxate. In human therapeutics it may be taken at the daily dose of 50 to 1000 mg/kg.
Product 30: DL 50 - 2.3 g/kg. The Randall-Selito test shows that the product has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. On the strain test causing gastric ulcer in the rate, the compound protects notably. It also protects in vitro platelet aggregation caused by collagen, 50% better than aspirin. In human therapeutics it may be used as anti-inflammatory analgesic and in the in depth treatment of cardiovascular seizures.
Product 5: DL 0 - above 5 grams/kg. It is a very active mucolytic according to the Quevauvillier and Eichler tests, which consists of measuring the volume of the bronchial secretions in the anesthetized guinea pig which was subjected to an intragastric injection of physiological liquid. It also has trophic properties for skin and hair and its taste is pleasant, contrary to that of acetyl-ADT for example. In man it may be used for restoring injured mucous, bronchial ones in particularl, at daily doses from 100 to 2500 mg/day.
Product 22: DL 50 - 2.15 mg/kg. sub-chronical treatment in the rat during 16 days at 500 mg/kg, proving the innocuousness of the treatment. According to the Quevauvillier test, the product is a good mucolytic, however, slightly inferior to Product 5. It is usable in pneumology in man at daily doses of 100 to 1000 mg/day.
Product 40: DL 0 higher than 3 g/kg. The product is a vitamin P factor comparable to diethyl amine chromone-2 carboxylate. cm I claim:
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2935529 *||Dec 9, 1957||May 3, 1960||Degussa||Process for the production of homocysteine compounds|
|1||Chem. Abst. vol. 59, pp. 11659.|
|2||Dissertation Abst. vol. 25, pp. 4968 (1965).|
|3||J. Amer. Chem. Soc. vol. 85, pp. 1337-1341, (1963).|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4146639 *||May 4, 1978||Mar 27, 1979||E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc.||Carboxyalkylacylamino acids|
|US4269849 *||Dec 12, 1979||May 26, 1981||Chevron Research Company||Fungicidal 3-(N-cycloalkylcarbonyl-N-arylamino)-gamma-butyrolactones and gamma-butyrothiolactones|
|US5274122 *||Oct 15, 1992||Dec 28, 1993||Merck & Co., Inc.||Acidic derivatives of homocysteine thiolactone|
|EP0052910A1 *||Nov 25, 1981||Jun 2, 1982||Real S.a.s. di Alberto Reiner & C.||Derivative of N-acetilcysteine having therapeutical activity, process for its preparation and related pharmaceutical compositions|
|U.S. Classification||558/254, 549/63, 562/556, 562/426|
|International Classification||A61K31/38, C07C323/58, C07D409/12, C07C327/34, A61P3/06, C07C67/00, C07D311/24, A61P9/00, C07D333/36, A61K31/381, A61K31/195, A61K31/365, A61P11/10, C07C313/00, C07D333/38, C07D213/30, A61P25/20, A61P25/04, A61K31/22, A61P29/00, C07D213/82|