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Publication numberUS4104151 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 05/849,919
Publication dateAug 1, 1978
Filing dateNov 9, 1977
Priority dateNov 8, 1976
Publication number05849919, 849919, US 4104151 A, US 4104151A, US-A-4104151, US4104151 A, US4104151A
InventorsMae K. Rubin, Charles J. Plank, Edward J. Rosinski
Original AssigneeMobil Oil Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Organic compound conversion over ZSM-23
US 4104151 A
Abstract
Catalytic conversion of organic compounds in the presence of crystalline zeolite ZSM-23, or a thermal decomposition product thereof, is provided. Zeolite ZSM-23 has a composition, in the anhydrous state, expressed in terms of mole ratios ofoxides, as follows:
(0.58 to 3.4)M2/n O : Al2 O3 : (40 to 25)SiO2 
wherein M is at least one cation having a valence n, and is characterized by a specified X-ray powder diffraction pattern.
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Claims(32)
What is claimed is:
1. A process for effecting catalytic conversion of an organic compound charge which comprises contacting said charge under catalytic conversion conditions with a catalyst comprising a synthetic crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite having a composition expressed in terms of mole ratios of oxides in the anhydrous state as follows:
(0.58 to 3.4)M2/n O : Al2 O3 : (40 to 250)SiO2 
wherein M is at least one cation having a valence n and having an X-ray powder diffraction pattern substantially as shown in Table I of the specification, or a thermal decomposition product thereof.
2. The process of claim 1 wherein said catalyst has a composition in terms of mole ratios of oxides in the anhydrous state as follows:
(0.5 to 3.0)R2 O : (0.08 to 0.4)M2 O : Al2 O3 : (40 to 250)SiO2 
wherein R is a nitrogen-containing organic cation and M is an alkali metal cation.
3. The process of claim 2 wherein said catalyst has a composition in terms of mole ratios of oxides in the anhydrous state as follows:
(0.7 to 2.8)R2 O : (0.08 to 0.25)M2 O : Al2 O3 : (50 to 220)SiO2 
wherein R is a nitrogen-containing organic cation and M is an alkali metal cation.
4. The process of claim 2 wherein R is the organic cation derived from pyrrolidine.
5. The process of claim 3 wherein R is the organic cation derived from pyrrolidine.
6. The process of claim 1 wherein said zeolite has its original cations replaced, at least in part, by ion exchange with a cation or a mixture of cations selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and hydrogen precursors, rare earth metals and metals from Groups IIA, IIIA, IVA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VIB and VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements.
7. The process of claim 6 wherein said zeolite has its original cations replaced, at least in part, by ion exchange with hydrogen or hydrogen precursor cations.
8. The process of claim 6 wherein said catalyst has its original cations replaced, at least in part, by ion exchange with rare earth metal cations.
9. The process of claim 6 wherein said catalyst has its original cations replaced, at least in part, by Group VIII metal cations.
10. The process of claim 9 wherein said metal cations are nickel.
11. The process of claim 1 wherein said catalytic conversion is conducted in a flow apparatus and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 35 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 10,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a WHSV of from about 0.1 to about 50 hr-1.
12. The process of claim 1 wherein said catalytic conversion is conducted in a batch apparatus and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 35 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 10,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a contact time of from about 0.01 to about 48 hours.
13. The process of claim 11 wherein said conversion is aromatization and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 315 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about 15 to about 10,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a weight hourly space velocity of from about 0.1 to about 10 hr-1.
14. The process of claim 12 wherein said conversion is aromatization and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 315 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about 15 to about 10,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a contact time of from about 0.1 to about 48 hours.
15. The process of claim 11 wherein said conversion is cracking and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 370 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 200 psig and a weight hourly space velocity of from about 0.5 to about 50 hr-1.
16. The process of claim 12 wherein said conversion is cracking and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 370 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 200 psig and a contact time of from about 0.01 to about 24 hours.
17. The process of claim 11 wherein said conversion is hydrocracking and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 200 to about 540 C, a pressure of from about 100 psig to about 3,500 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from about 1 to about 20 and a weight hourly spaced velocity of from about 0.1 to about 10 hr-1.
18. The process of claim 12 wherein said conversion is hydrocracking and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 200 to about 540 C, a pressure of from about 100 to about 3,500 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from about 1 to about 20 and a contact time of from about 0.1 to about 10 hours.
19. The process of claim 11 wherein said conversion is polymerization and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 35 to about 500 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 4,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a weight hourly space velocity of from about 0.1 to about 50 hr-1.
20. The process of claim 12 wherein said conversion is polymerization and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 35 to about 500 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 4,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a contact time of from about 0.1 to about 48 hours.
21. The process of claim 6 wherein said catalytic conversion is conducted in a flow apparatus and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 35 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 10,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a weight hourly space velocity of from about 0.1 to about 50 hr-1.
22. The process of claim 6 wherein said catalytic conversion is conducted in a batch apparatus and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 35 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 10,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a contact time of from about 0.1 to about 48 hours.
23. The process of claim 21 wherein said conversion is aromatization and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 315 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about 15 to about 10,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a weight hourly space velocity of from about 0.1 to about 10 hr-1.
24. The process of claim 22 wherein said conversion is aromatization and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 315 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about 15 to about 10,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a contact time of from about 0.1 to about 48 hours.
25. The process of claim 21 wherein said conversion is cracking and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 370 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 200 psig and a weight hourly space velocity of from about 0.5 to about 50 hr-1.
26. The process of claim 22 wherein said conversion is cracking and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 370 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 200 psig and a contact time of from about 0.01 to about 24 hours.
27. The process of claim 21 wherein said conversion is hydrocracking and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 200 to about 540 C, a pressure of from about 100 to about 3,500 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from about 1 to about 20 and a weight hourly space velocity of from about 0.1 to about 10 hr-1.
28. The process of claim 22 wherein said conversion is hydrocracking and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 200 to about 540 C, a pressure of from about 100 to about 3,500 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from about 1 to about 20 and a contact time of from about 0.1 to about 10 hours.
29. The process of claim 21 wherein said conversion is polymerization and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 35 to about 500 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 4,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a weight hourly space velocity of from about 0.1 to about 50 hr-1.
30. The process of claim 22 wherein said conversion is polymerization and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 35 to about 500 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 4,000 psig, a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20 and a contact time of from about 0.1 to about 48 hours.
31. The process of claim 7 wherein said conversion is cracking and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 370 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 200 psig and a weight hourly space velocity of from about 0.5 to about 50 hr-1.
32. The process of claim 7 wherein said conversion is cracking and said conversion conditions include a temperature of from about 370 to about 650 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 200 psig and contact time of from about 0.01 to about 24 hours.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 739,414, filed Nov. 8, 1976, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,076,842, which was a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 585,632, filed June 10, 1975, now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates to organic compound, e.g. hydrocarbon compound, conversion in the presence of a novel crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite designated "ZSM-23".

2. Description of the Prior Art

Zeolitic materials, both natural and synthetic, have been demonstrated in the past to have catalytic properties for various types of hydrocarbon conversions. Certain zeolitic materials are ordered, porous crystalline aluminosilicates having a definite crystalline structure within which there are a large number of smaller cavities which may be interconnected by a number of still smaller channels. Since the dimensions of these pores are such as to accept for adsorption molecules of certain dimensions while rejection those of larger dimensions, these materials have come to be known as "molecular sieves" and are utilized in a variety of ways to take advantage of these properties.

Such molecular sieves, both natural and synthetic, include a wide variety of positive ion-containing cyrstalline aluminosilicates. These aluminosilicates can be described as a rigid three-dimensional framework of SiO4 and AlO4 in which the tetrahedra are cross-linied by the sharing of oxygen atoms whereby the ratio of the total aluminum and silicon atoms to oxygen is 1:2. The electrovalence of the tetrahedra containing aluminum is balanced by the inclusion in the crystal of a cation, for example, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal cation. This can be expressed wherein the ratio of aluminum to the number of various cations, such as Ca/2, Sr/2, Na, K or Li is equal to unity. One type of cation may be exchanged either entirely or partially by another type of cation utilizing ion exchange techniques in a conventional manner. By means of such cation exchange, it has been possible to vary the properties of a given aluminosilicate by suitable selection of the cation. The spaces between the tetrahedra are occupied by molecules of water prior to dehydration.

Prior art techniques have resulted in the formation of a great variety of synthetic aluminosilicates. These aluminosilicates have come to be designated by letter or other convenient symbols, as illustrated by zeolite A (U.S. Pat. No. 2,882,243), zeolite X (U.S. Pat. No. 2,882,244), zeolite Y (U.S. Pat. No. 3,130,007), zeolite ZK-5 (U.S. Pat. No. 3,247,195), zeolite ZK-4 (U.S. Pat. No. 3,314,752) and zeolite ZSM-5 (U.S. Pat. No. 3,702,886) merely to name a few.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the use of a synthetic crystalline aluminosilicate, hereinafter designated "zeolite ZSM-23" or simply "ZSM-23" as a catalyst for conversion of organic compounds. The ZSM-23 composition has a characteristic X-ray diffraction pattern, the values of which are set forth in Table I, hereinafter. The ZSM-23 composition can also be identified, in terms of mole ratios of oxides and in the anhydrous state, as follows:

(0.58 to 3.4)M2/n O : Al2 O3 : (40 to 250)SiO2 

wherein M is at least one cation and n is the valence thereof. It will be noticed that the ratio of M2/n O may exceed unity in this material. This is probably due to the occlusion of excess organic species, used in the preparation of ZSM-23, within the zeolite pores.

In a preferred synthesized form, the zeolite has a formula, in terms of mole ratios of oxides and in the anhydrous state, as follows:

(0.5 to 3.0)R2 O : (0.08 to 0.4)M2 O : Al2 O3 : (40 to 250)SiO2 

wherein R is a nitrogen-containing organic cation and M is an alkali metal cation. It will be noticed that in this preferred form the ratio of R2 O to Al2 O3 may exceed unity, probably due to the occlusion of excess nitrogen-containing organic species (R2 O) within the zeolite pores.

In a more preferred synthesized form, the zeolite has a formula, in terms of mole ratios of oxides and in the anhydrous state, as follows:

(0.7 to 2.8)R2 O : (0.08 to 0.25)M2 O : Al2 O3 : (50 to 220)SiO2 

wherein R is a nitrogen-containing organic cation, such as, for example, that derived from pyrrolidine and M is an alkali metal cation, especially sodium.

The original cations of the as synthesized ZSM-23 can be replaced in accordance with techniques well known in the art, at least in part, by ion exchange with other cations. Preferred replacing cations include metal ions, ammonium ions, hydrogen ions and mixtures thereof. Particularly preferred cations are those which render the zeolite catalytically active especially for hydrocarbon conversion. These include hydrogen, rare earth metals, and metals of Groups IIA, IIIA, IVA, VIII, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB and VIB of the Periodic Table of Elements.

The synthetic ZSM-23 zeolite possesses a definite distinguishing crystalline structure whose X-ray diffraction pattern shows substantially the significant lines set forth in Table I.

              TABLE I______________________________________d(A)                 I/Io______________________________________11.2   0.23      Medium10.1   0.20      Weak7.87  0.15       Weak5.59  0.10       Weak5.44  0.10       Weak4.90  0.10       Weak4.53  0.10       Strong3.90  0.08       Very Strong3.72  0.08       Very Strong3.62  0.07       Very Strong3.54  0.07       Medium3.44  0.07       Strong3.36  0.07       Weak3.16  0.07       Weak3.05  0.06       Weak2.99  0.06       Weak2.85  0.06       Weak2.54  0.05       Medium2.47  0.05       Weak2.40  0.05       Weak2.34  0.05       Weak______________________________________

These values were determined by standard technique. The radiation was the K-alpha doublet of copper, and a scintillation counter spectrometer with a strip chart pen recorder was used. The peak heights, I, and the positions as a function of 2 times theta, where theta is the Bragg angle, were read from the spectrometer chart. From these, the relative intensities, 100 I/Io, where Io is the intensity of the strongest line or peak, and d (obs.), the interplanar spacing in Angstrom units, corresponding to the recorded lines, were calculated. It should be understood that this X-ray diffraction pattern is characteristic of all the species of ZSM-23 compositions. Ion exchange of the sodium ion with cations reveals substantially the same pattern with some minor shifts in interplanar spacing and variation in relative intensity. Other minor variations can occur depending on the silicon to aluminum ratio of the particular sample, as well as if it has previously been subjected to thermal treatment.

While synthetic ZSM-23 zeolites may be used in a wide variety of organic compound conversion reactions, they are notably useful in the processes of polymerization, aromatization, reforming, esterification and cracking. Other hydrocarbon conversion processes for which ZSM-23 may be utilized in one or more of its active forms include, for example, hydrocracking and converting light aliphatics to aromatics such as in U.S. Pat. No. 3,760,024.

Synthetic ZSM-23 zeolites can be used either in the alkali metal containing form, the alkali metal form and hydrogen form or another univalent or multivalent cationic form. They can also be used in intimate combination with a hydrogenating component such as tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, or a noble metal such as platinum or palladium where a hydrogenation-dehydrogenation function is to be performed. Combinations of the aforenoted metals may also be used. Such components can be exchanged into the composition, impregnated thereon or physically intimately admixed therewith. Such components can be impregnated in or on to ZSM-23 such as, for example, by, in the case of platinum, treating the zeolite with a platinum metal-containing ion. Thus, suitable platinum compounds for this purpose include chloroplatinic acid, platinous chloride and various compounds containing the platinum amine complex. Combinations of metals and methods for their introduction can also be used.

As prepared, R can be a cation derived from pyrrolidine present in a quantity not less than 70 percent of the cation content.

M can be one or more of a variety of alkali metal cations, suitably defined as including all alkali metal ions derived from alkali metal oxide or hydroxide as well as alkali metal ions included in alkali metal silicates and aluminates (not including alkali metal salts such as sodium chloride or sodium sulfate which may be derived from neutralization of added inorganic acids such as HCl or H2 SO4 or acid salts such as Al2 (SO4)3). Non-limiting examples of such suitable alkali metal ions include sodium and potassium.

Zeolite ZSM-23 can be synthesized by preparing a solution containing sources of an alkali metal oxide, preferably sodium oxide, sources of nitrogen-containing cation, preferably pyrrolidine, an oxide of aluminum, an oxide of silicon and water and having a composition, in terms of mole ratios of oxides, falling within the following ranges:

______________________________________R+______________________________________R+ + M+          0.85 - 0.95OH- /SiO2           0.01 - 0.049H2 O/OH-          200 - 600SiO2 /Al2 O3          55 - 70______________________________________

wherein R is an organic nitrogen-containing cation and M is an alkali metal ion, and maintaining the mixture until crystals of the zeolite are formed. (The quantity of OH- is calculated only from the inorganic sources of alkali without any organic base contribution). Thereafter, the crystals are separated from the liquid and recovered, as by cooling the whole to room temperature, filtering and washing. Typical reaction conditions consist of heating the foregoing reaction mixture to a temperature above about 135 C to about 205 C for a period of time of from about 6 hours to about 14 days. A more preferred temperature range is from about 148 to about 190 C with the amount of time at a temperature in such range being from about 24 hours to about 11 days.

Synthetic ZSM-23, when employed as a catalyst in an organic compound, e.g. hydrocarbon compound, conversion process, should be dehydrated at least partially. This can be done by thermal treatment, i.e. heating, to a temperature in the range of 50 to about 900 C in an atmosphere such as air, nitrogen, etc. and at atmospheric or subatmospheric pressures for between 1 and 48 hours. Dehydration can also be performed at lower temperature merely by placing the catalyst in a vacuum, but a longer time is required to obtain a sufficient amount of dehydration.

The composition for the synthesis of synthetic ZSM-23 can be prepared utilizing materials which can supply the appropriate oxide. Such compositions include aluminates, alumina, silicates, silica hydrosol, silica gel, silicic acid and hydroxides. It will be understood that each oxide component utilized in the reaction mixture for preparing ZSM-23 can be supplied by one or more essential reactants and they can be mixed together in any order. For example, sodium oxide can be supplied by an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide or by an aqueous solution of a suitable silicate; the cation derived from pyrrolidine can be either supplied by pyrrolidine or a salt thereof. The reaction mixture can be prepared either batchwise or continuously. Crystal size and crystallization time of the ZSM-23 composition will vary with the nature of the reaction mixture employed.

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS

Synthetic ZSM-23 for use herein can have the original cations associated therewith replaced by a wide variety of other cations according to techniques well known in the art. Typical replacing cations include hydrogen, ammonium and metal cations including mixtures thereof. Of the replacing metallic cations, particular preference is given to cations of metals such as rare earth, Mn, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cd, Pd, Ni, Co, Ti, Al, Sn, Fe and Cu.

A typical ion exchange technique would be to contact the synthetic ZSM-23 zeolite with a salt of the desired replacing cation or cations. Although a wide variety of salts can be employed, particular preference is given to chlorides, nitrates and sulfates.

Representative ion exchange techniques are disclosed in a wide variety of patents including U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,140,249; 3,140,251; and 3,140,253.

Following contact with the salt solution of the desired replacing cation, the zeolite is then preferably washed with water and dried at a temperature ranging from 50 to about 300 C and thereafter may be calcined in air or other inert gas at from about 200 C to a temperature below the zeolite decomposition temperature, preferably about 900 C, for periods of time ranging from 1 to 48 hours or more to produce a catalytically-active thermal decomposition product thereof.

Regardless of the cations replacing the alkali metal in the synthesized form of the ZSM-23, the spacial arrangement of the aluminum, silicon and oxygen atoms which form the basic crystal lattices of ZSM-23 remains essentially unchanged by the described replacement of alkali metal as determined by taking an X-ray powder diffraction pattern of the ion-exchanged material.

The aluminosilicate prepared by the instant invention is formed in a wide variety of particle sizes. Generally speaking, the particles can be in the form of a powder, a granule, or a molded product, such as extrudate having particle size sufficient to pass through a 2 mesh (Tyler) screen and be retained on a 400 mesh (Tyler) screen. In cases where the catalyst is molded, such as by extrusion, the aluminosilicate can be extruded before drying or dried or partially dried and then extruded.

In the case of many catalysts, it is desired to incorporate the ZSM-23 with another material resistant to the temperatures and other conditions employed in organic conversion processes. Such matrix materials include active and inactive materials and synthetic or naturally occurring zeolites as well as inorganic materials such as clays, silica and/or metal oxides. The latter may be either naturally occurring or in the form of gelatinous precipitates, sols or gels including mixtures of silica and metal oxides. Use of a material in conjunction with the ZSM-23, i.e. combined therewith, which is active, tends to improve the conversion and/or selectivity of the catalyst in certain organic conversion processes. Inactive materials suitably serve as diluents to control the amount of conversion in a given process so that products can be obtained economically and orderly without employing other means for controlling the rate of reaction. Frequently, zeolite materials have been incorporated into naturally occurring clays, e.g., bentonite and kaolin. These materials, i.e., clays, oxides, etc., function, in part, as binders for the catalyst. It is desirable to provide a catalyst having good crush strength, because in a petroleum refinery the catalyst is often subjected to rough handling, which tends to break the catalyst down into powder-like materials which cause problems in processing.

Naturally occurring clays which can be composited with the synthetic ZSM-23 catalyst include the montmorillonite and kaolin families which include the sub-bentonites, and the kaolins commonly known as Dixie, McNamee, Georgia and Florida clays, or others in which the main mineral constituents are halloysite, kaolinite, dickite, nacrite, or anauxite. Such clays can be used in the raw state as originally mined or initially subjected to calcination, acid treatment or chemical modification.

In addition to the foregoing materials, the ZSM-23 catalyst can be composited with a porous matrix material such as silica-alumina, silica-magnesia, silica-zirconia, silica-thoria, silica-beryllia, silica-titania as well as ternary compositions such as silica-alumina-thoria, silica-alumina-zirconia, silica-alumina-magnesia and silica-magnesia-zirconia. The matrix can be in the form of a cogel. A mixture of these components could also be used. The relative proportions of finely divided crystalline aluminosilicate ZSM-23 and inorganic oxide gel matrix vary widely with the crystalline aluminosilicate content ranging from about 1 to about 90 precent by weight and more usually in the range of about 2 to about 70 percent by weight of the composite.

In general, organic compounds, e.g., hydrocarbon compounds, may be catalytically converted in the presence of the ZSM-23 catalyst material, including the product of thermal treatment thereof, over a range of catalytic conversion conditions, including a reaction temperature of from about 35 to about 650 C, preferably from about 200 to about 540 C, a reaction pressure of from atmospheric to about 10,000 psig, preferably from about atmospheric to about 3,500 psig, and a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from 0 to about 20, preferably from 0 to about 10. When the conversion is conducted in a flow apparatus, e.g., a down-flow reactor, or under conditions comparable to those existing in a flow apparatus, the weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) should be maintained at between about 0.1 to about 50 hr-1, preferably between about 0.5 and about 10 hr-1. When the conversion is conducted in a batch apparatus, e.g., a stirred batch reactor, or under conditions comparable to those existing in a batch apparatus, the contact time should be maintained at between about 0.01 hour and about 48 hours, preferably between about 0.1 hour and about 24 hours.

In particular, when the conversion of organic compounds by the present method is olefin polymerization, catalytic conversion conditions should be maintained within certain critical ranges, including a temperature of from about 35 to about 500 C, preferably from about 200 to about 430 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 4,000 psig, preferably from about atmospheric to about 2,000 psig, a WSHV (when a flow operation) of from about 0.1 to about 50 hr-1, preferably from about 0.5 to about 10 hr-1, a contact time (when a batch operation) of from about 0.1 hour to about 48 hours, preferably from about 0.5 hour to about 24 hours and a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound (i.e., olefin) of from 0 to about 20, preferably from 0 to about 10.

When the conversion is olefin or paraffin aromatization, catalytic conversion conditions should be maintained within critical ranges, including a temperature of from about 315 to about 650 C, preferably from about 425 to about 540 C, a pressure of from 15 psig to about 10,000 psig, preferably from about 15 psig to about 2,000 psig, a WSHV (when a flow operation) of from about 0.1 to about 10 hr-1, preferably from about 0.5 to about 5 hr-1, a contact time (when a batch operation) of from about 0.1 to about 48 hours, preferably from about 1 hour to about 24 hours and a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound (i.e., olefin or paraffin) of from 0 to about 20, preferably from 0 to about 10.

Further, when the conversion is cracking, catalytic conversion conditions should be maintained within certain critical ranges, including a temperature of from about 370 to about 650 C, preferably from about 425 to about 540 C, a pressure of from about atmospheric to about 200 psig, a WHSV (when a flow operation) of from about 0.5 to about 50 hr-1, preferably from about 1 to about 10 hr-1, and a contact time (when a batch operation) of from about 0.01 to about 24 hours, preferably from about 0.1 to about 10 hours. When the conversion is hydrocracking, catalytic conversion conditions should be maintained within somewhat different ranges, including a temperature of from about 200 to about 540 C, preferably from about 260 to about 455 C, a pressure of from about 100 to about 3500 psig, a WHSV (when a flow operation) of from about 0.1 to about 10 hr-1, preferably from about 0.2 to about 5 hr-1, a contact time (when a batch operation) of from about 0.1 to about 10 hours, preferably from about 0.2 to about 5 hours and a mole ratio of added hydrogen/organic compound of from about 1 to about 20, preferably from about 3 to about 10.

In order to more fully illustrate the nature of the invention and the manner of practicing same, the following examples are presented.

In the examples which follow, whenever adsorption data are set forth for comparison of sorptive capacities for water, cyclohexane and n-hexane, they were determined as follows:

A weighed sample of calcined zeolite was contacted with the desired pure adsorbate vapor in an adsorption chamber, evacuated to 12 mm when checking capacity for water and 20 mm when checking capacity for cyclohexane and n-hexane, pressures less than the vapor-liquid equilibrium pressure of the respective adsorbate at room temperature. The pressure was kept constant (within about 0.5 mm) by addition of adsorbate vapor controlled by a manostat during the adsorption period which did not exceed about eight hours. As adsorbate was adsorbed by the zeolite, the decrease in pressure caused the manostat to open a valve which admitted more adsorbate vapor to the chamber to restore the above control pressures. Sorption was complete when the pressure change was not sufficient to activate the manostat. The increase in weight was calculated as the adsorption capacity of the sample.

EXAMPLE 1

Illustrating preparation of synthetic zeolite ZSM-23, a first solution comprising 3.3. grams sodium aluminate (43.1% Al2 O3, 33.1% Na2 O and 24.7% H2 O), 30 grams H2 O and 0.34 gram NaOH (50% solution with water) was prepared. Pyrrolidine in an amount of 18.2 grams was added to the first solution to form a second solution. Thereupon 164.8 grams of colloidal silica (30% SiO2 and 70% H2 O) was added to the second solution and mixed until a homogeneous gel was formed. The gel was composed of the following components in mole ratios: ##EQU1##

The mixture was maintained at 179 C for 7 days, during which time crystallization was complete. The product crystals were filtered out of solution and water washed continuously for approximately 16 hours and thereafter dried at 110 C.

X-ray analysis of the crystalline product showed the crystals to have the following diffraction pattern:

              TABLE II______________________________________2θ     d(A)          I/Io______________________________________7.90         11.19         478.78         10.07         249.30         9.51          311.25        7.86          1511.80        7.50          413.83        6.40          414.40        6.15          414.70        6.03          615.53        5.71          515.88        5.58          616.29        5.44          617.20        5.16          217.73        5.00          518.08        4.91          1019.55        4.54          5419.93        4.45          1520.30        4.37          1520.78        4.27          7321.30        4.17          2121.59        4.12          2321.86        4.07          5022.78        3.90          10023.23        3.83          3123.84        3.73          7924.50        3.63          5825.12        3.54          3325.82        3.45          4026.43        3.37          626.86        3.32          628.14        3.17          929.23        3.06          729.82        2.996         730.23        2.956         231.38        2.851         1232.12        2.787         232.78        2.732         133.95        2.640         434.37        2.609         335.38        2.537         2936.00        2.495         1336.34        2.472         1236.75        2.445         637.45        2.401         638.41        2.344         838.89        2.316         240.23        2.242         241.00        2.201         141.55        2.173         142.27        2.138         142.67        2.119         143.19        2.095         243.55        2.078         443.95        2.060         344.26        2.046         444.65        2.029         745.00        2.014         445.26        2.003         345.53        1.992         446.00        1.973         146.32        1.960         446.73        1.944         247.07        1.931         447.55        1.912         448.00        1.895         348.40        1.881         648.85        1.864         749.26        1.850         349.80        1.831         2______________________________________

Chemical analysis of the crystalline product led to the following compositional figures:

______________________________________                      Mole Ratio onComposition Wt. %          Al2 O3 Basis______________________________________N           0.48           --Na          0.09           --Al2 O3       2.61            1.0SiO2   92.8           60.6N2 O                  2.13Na2 O                 0.08______________________________________

Physical analysis of the crystalline product of Example 1 calcined 16 hours at 538 C showed it to have a surface area of 218 m2 /gram and adsorption tests (conducted as described hereinabove) produced the following results:

______________________________________  Adsorption           Wt. %______________________________________  Cyclohexane           1.4  n-Hexane 5.3  Water    5.5______________________________________
EXAMPLE 2

A batch of ZSM-23 was prepared by first forming a solution of 2.64 grams sodium aluminate (43.1% Al2 O3, 33.1% Na2 O and 24.7% H2 O), 48 grams H2 O and 0.27 gram NaOH (50% solution with water). Then 28.8 grams of pyrrolidine were added to the above solution, followed by the addition of 132 grams of colloidal silica (30% SiO2 and 70% H2 O). The resulting product was mixed until a homogeneous gel was formed. The gel was composed of the following components in mole ratios: ##EQU2##

The mixture was maintained at 177 C for 7 days, during which time crystallization was complete. The product crystals were filtered out of solution and water washed continuously for approximately 16 hours and then dried at 110 C.

X-ray analysis of the crystalline product showed the crystals to have a diffraction pattern corresponding to Table I. Additional lines showing the presence of trace amounts of ZSM-5 were also observed.

Chemical analysis of the crystalline product led to the following compositional figures:

______________________________________                      Mole Ratio onComposition Wt. %          Al2 O3 Basis______________________________________N           1.22           --Na          0.14           --Al2 O3       2.5            1.0SiO2   92.9           63.3N2 O                  1.93Na2 O                 0.12______________________________________

Physical analysis of the crystalline product after calcination at 538 C for 16 hours showed it to have a surface area of 226 m2 /gram and adsorption tests (conducted as described hereinabove) produced the following results:

______________________________________  Adsorption           Wt. %______________________________________  Cyclohexane           1.7  n-Hexane 5.6  Water    6.2______________________________________
EXAMPLE 3

A batch of ZSM-23 was prepared by first forming a solution of 2.64 grams sodium aluminate (43.1% Al2 O3, 33.1% Na2 O and 24.7% H2 O), 48 grams H2 O and 0.27 gram NaOH (50% solution with water). Then 28.8 grams of pyrrolidine were added to the above solution, followed by the addition of 132 grams of colloidal silica (30% SiO2 and 70% H2 O). The resulting product was mixed until a homogeneous gel was formed. The gel was composed of the following components in mole ratios: ##EQU3##

The mixture was maintained at 177 C for 11 days, during which time crystallization was complete. The product crystals were filtered out of solution and water washed continuously for approximately 16 hours and thereafter dried at 110 C.

X-ray analysis of the crystalline product showed the crystals to have the following diffraction pattern:

              TABLE III______________________________________2θ     d(A)          I/Io______________________________________7.90         11.19         388.75         10.11         209.23         9.58          511.22        7.89          1611.85        7.47          314.30        6.19          214.50        6.11          414.70        6.03          315.51        5.71          415.80        5.61          616.10        5.50          316.25        5.45          517.20        5.16          117.80        4.98          518.10        4.90          1119.60        4.53          5120.00        4.44          920.83        4.26          7021.40        4.15          1121.60        4.10          1721.91        4.06          3022.78        3.90          10023.28        3.82          1923.87        3.73          7724.55        3.63          5825.18        3.54          3425.85        3.45          4226.50        3.36          626.90        3.31          728.19        3.17          828.90        3.09          129.29        3.05          629.58        3.02          129.95        2.983         531.38        2.851         931.64        2.828         432.15        2.784         232.95        2.718         133.95        2.640         434.55        2.596         235.39        2.536         2836.00        2.495         836.40        2.468         737.13        2.421         437.53        2.396         638.45        2.341         839.04        2.307         340.10        2.249         140.50        2.227         141.00        2.201         241.30        2.186         141.58        2.172         142.29        2.137         142.60        2.122         143.56        2.078         344.13        2.052         444.66        2.029         745.22        2.005         245.56        1.991         346.33        1.960         446.74        1.943         147.09        1.930         247.44        1.916         447.87        1.900         348.33        1.883         448.92        1.862         749.55        1.840         149.83        1.830         2______________________________________

Chemical analysis of the crystalline product led to the following compositional figures:

______________________________________                      Mole Ratio onComposition Wt. %          Al2 O3 Basis______________________________________N           1.33           --Na          0.12           --Al2 O3       2.43            1.0SiO2   96.2           67.3N2 O                  2.18Na2 O                 0.11______________________________________

Physical analysis of the crystalline product after calcination for 16 hours at 538 C showed it to have a surface area of 195 m2 /gram and adsorption tests (conducted as described hereinabove) produced the following results:

______________________________________  Adsorption           Wt. %______________________________________  Cyclohexane           1.3  n-Hexane 5.6  Water    4.0______________________________________
EXAMPLE 4

A batch of ZSM-23 was prepared by first forming a solution of 2.64 grams sodium aluminate (43.1% Al2 O3, 33.1% Na2 O and 24.7% H2 O), 48 grams H2 O and 0.50 grams NaOH (50% solution with water). Then 20.0 grams of pyrrolidine were added to the above solution, followed by the addition of 132 grams of colloidal silica (30% SiO2 and 70% H2 O). The resulting product was mixed until a homogeneous gel was formed. The gel was composed of the following components in mole ratios: ##EQU4##

The mixture was maintained at 177 C for 10 days, during which time crystallization was complete. The product crystals were filtered out of solution and water washed continuously for approximately 16 hours and then dried at 110 C.

X-ray analysis of the crystalline product showed the crystals to have a diffraction pattern corresponding to Table I. Additional lines showing the presence of trace amounts of ZSM-5 were also observed.

Chemical analysis of the crystalline product led to the following compositional figures:

______________________________________                      Mole Ratio onComposition Wt. %          Al2 O3 Basis______________________________________N           1.21           --Na          0.26           --Al2 O3       2.53            1.0SiO2   94.4           63.4N2 O                  1.92Na2 O                 0.23______________________________________

Physical analysis of the crystalline product after calcination for 16 hours at 538 C showed it to have a surface area of 199 m2 /gram and adsorption tests (conducted as described hereinabove) produced the following results:

______________________________________  Adsorption           Wt. %______________________________________  Cyclohexane           1.0  n-Hexane 5.7  Water    4.2______________________________________
EXAMPLE 5

ZSM-23 was prepared by forming a solution of 2.64 grams sodium aluminate (43.1% Al2 O3, 33.1% Na2 O and 24.7% H2 O) and 50 grams H2 O. Then, 28.8 grams of pyrrolidine were added to this solution, followed by the addition of 132 grams of colloidal silica (30% SiO2 and 70% H2 O). The resulting product was mixed until a homogeneous gel was formed. The gel was composed of the following components in mole ratios: ##EQU5##

The mixture was maintained at 177 C for 13 days, during which time crystallization was complete. The product crystals were filtered out of solution and water washed continuously for approximately 16 hours and then dried at 110 C.

X-ray analysis of the crystalline product showed the crystals to have a diffraction pattern corresponding to Table I. Additional lines showing the presence of ZSM-5 and alpha crystobalite were also observed.

Chemical analysis of the crystalline product led to the following compositional figures:

______________________________________                     Mole Ratio onComposition    Wt. %      Al2 O3 Basis______________________________________N              1.47       --Na             0.13       --Al2 O3          2.4        1.0SiO2      94.2       66.8N2 O                 2.44Na2 O                0.12______________________________________

Physical analysis of the crystalline product after calcination for 16 hours at 538 C showed it to have a surface area of 235 m2 /gram and adsorption tests (conducted as described hereinabove) provided the following results:

______________________________________Adsorption             Wt. %______________________________________Cyclohexane            1.7n-Hexane               5.4Water                  3.2______________________________________
EXAMPLE 6

ZSM-23 was prepared by forming a solution of 1.32 grams sodium aluminate (43.1% Al2 O3, 33.1% Na2 O and 24.7% H2 O), 0.14 gram NaOH (50% solution with water) and 60 grams of H2 O containing 0.1 weight percent of a surfactant, i.e. 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol. Then, 14.4 grams of pyrrolidine were added to the above solution, followed by the addition of 66 grams of colloidal silica (30% silica and 70% H2 O). The resulting product was mixed until a homogeneous gel was formed. The gel was composed of the following components in mole ratios: ##EQU6##

The mixture was maintained at 177 C for 10 days, during which time crystallization was complete. The product crystals were filtered out of solution and water washed continuously for approximately 16 hours and then dried at 110 C.

X-ray analysis of the crystalline product showed the crystals to have the following diffraction pattern:

              TABLE IV______________________________________2θ        d(A)         I/Io______________________________________7.74            11.42        208.03            11.01        458.76            10.09        189.25            9.56         611.26           7.86         1814.57           6.08         415.53           5.71         215.87           5.58         416.3            5.43         817.26           5.14         117.70           5.01         318.10           4.90         1218.89           4.70         219.60           4.53         6020.02           4.44         1820.41           4.35         1120.84           4.26         7521.41           4.15         2621.66           4.10         2721.93           4.05         2122.76           3.91         10023.48           3.79         1923.95           3.72         7924.57           3.62         7125.20           3.53         4025.87           3.44         4526.61           3.35         727.00           3.30         828.25           3.16         1128.88           3.09         229.34           3.04         629.92           2.986        531.55           2.836        1032.19           2.781        233.00           2.714        134.02           2.635        434.52           2.598        235.45           2.532        2935.95           2.498        936.40           2.468        1337.03           2.428        337.56           2.395        538.55           2.335        941.00           2.201        143.64           2.074        444.23           2.048        444.75           2.025        645.57           1.991        246.46           1.954        347.24           1.924        347.73           1.905        448.34           1.883        449.02           1.858        749.76           1.832        1______________________________________

Chemical analysis of the crystalline product led to the following compositional figures:

______________________________________                     Mole Ratio onComposition    Wt. %      Al2 O3 Basis______________________________________N              1.27Na             0.20Al2 O3          2.89       1.0SiO2      93.7       55.1N2 O                 1.73Na2 O                0.15______________________________________

Physical analysis of the crystalline product after calcination for 16 hours at 538 C showed it to have a surface area of 213 m2 /gram and adsorption tests (conducted as described hereinabove) provided the following results:

______________________________________Adsorption             Wt.%______________________________________Cyclohexane            2.2n-Hexane               4.5Water                  5.1______________________________________
EXAMPLE 7

ZSM-23 was prepared by forming a solution of 18.5 grams sodium aluminate (43.1% Al2 O3, 33.1% Na2 O and 24.7% H2 O), 1.9 grams NaOH (50% solution with water) and 560 grams H2 O. Then, 201.6 grams of pyrrolidine were added to the above solution, followed by the addition of 924 grams of colloidal silica (30% silica and 70% H2 O). The resulting product was mixed until a homogeneous gel was formed. The gel was composed of the following components in mole ratios: ##EQU7##

The mixture was maintained at 177 C for 11 days, during which time crystallization was complete. The product crystals were filtered out of solution and water washed continuously for approximately 16 hours and then dried at 110 C.

X-ray analysis of the crystalline product showed the crystals to have the following diffraction pattern:

              TABLE V______________________________________2θ        d(A)         I/Io______________________________________7.88            11.22        308.09            10.93        278.74            10.12        1811.22           7.89         1811.83           7.48         212.43           7.12         113.15           6.73         113.85           6.39         114.55           6.09         414.76           6.00         115.55           5.70         215.85           5.59         316.27           5.45         617.22           5.15         217.71           5.01         418.05           4.91         1219.61           4.53         5520.03           4.43         1220.85           4.26         7621.38           4.16         2021.69           4.10         1221.90           4.06         3322.78           3.90         10023.28           3.82         1223.90           3.72         8024.56           3.62         6325.15           3.54         3525.88           3.44         4526.60           3.35         1026.93           3.31         527.40           3.25         128.20           3.16         928.92           3.09         229.30           3.05         629.90           2.988        530.29           2.951        130.87           2.897        231.48           2.842        1231.90           2.805        232.20           2.780        232.95           2.718        133.99           2.637        434.34           2.611        135.40           2.536        2736.05           2.491        736.41           2.468        1437.15           2.420        137.50           2.398        638.48           2.339        1039.21           2.298        240.22           2.242        140.59           2.223        141.00           2.201        141.55           2.173        142.08           2.147        142.35           2.134        142.59           2.123        143.58           2.077        344.10           2.053        244.60           2.032        745.15           2.008        145.49           1.994        246.38           1.958        347.20           1.926        347.70           1.906        448.38           1.881        448.91           1.862        749.71           1.834        1______________________________________

Chemical analysis of the crystalline product led to the following compositional figures:

______________________________________                     Mole Ratio onComposition    Wt. %      Al2 O3 Basis______________________________________N              1.34       --Na             0.09       --Al2 O3          2.46       1.0SiO2      97.6       67.9N2 O                 2.08Na2 O                0.08______________________________________

Physical analysis of the crystalline product after calcination for 16 hours at 538 C showed it to have a surface area of 160 l m2 /gram and adsorption tests (conducted as described hereinabove) provided the following results:

______________________________________Adsorption             Wt. %______________________________________Cyclohexane            1.4n-Hexane               5.1Water                  5.0______________________________________
EXAMPLE 8

ZSM-23 was prepared by forming a solution of 13.2 grams sodium aluminate (43.1% Al2 O3, 33.1% Na2 O and 24.7% H2 O), 2.72 grams NaOH (50% solution with water) and 240 grams H2 O. Then, 145.6 grams of pyrrolidine were added, followed by the addition of 1318 grams of colloidal silica (30% silica and 70% H2 O). The resulting product was mixed until a homogeneous gel was formed. The gel was composed of the following components in mole ratios: ##EQU8##

The mixture was stirred at 177 C for 2 days, during which time crystallization was complete. The product crystals were filtered out of solution and water washed continuously for approximately 16 hours and then dried at 110 C.

X-ray analysis of the crystalline product showed the crystals to have a diffraction pattern corresponding to Table I. Additional lines showing the presence of trace amounts of unidentified crystalline material were also observed.

Chemical analysis of the crystalline product led to the following compositional figures:

______________________________________                     Mole Ratio onComposition    Wt. %      Al2 O3 Basis______________________________________C              4.96       --N              1.11       --Na             0.27       --Al2 O3          1.65       1.0SiO2      96.9       101N2 O                 2.68Na2 O                0.36______________________________________

Physical analysis of the crystalline product after calcination for 16 hours at 538 C showed it to have a surface area of 215 m2 /gram and adsorption tests (conducted as described hereinabove) provided the following results:

______________________________________Adsorption        Wt. %______________________________________Cyclohexane       2.1n-Hexane          6.1Water             4.6______________________________________
EXAMPLE 9

ZSM-23 was prepared by forming a solution of 6.6 grams sodium aluminate (43.1% Al2 O3, 33.1% Na2 O and 24.7% H2 O), 2.72 grams NaOH (50% solution with water) and 240 grams H2 O. Then, 145.6 grams of pyrrolidine were added, followed by the addition of 1318 grams of colloidal silica (30% silica and 70% H2 O). The resulting product was mixed until a homogeneous gel was formed. The gel was composed of the following components in mole ratios: ##EQU9##

The mixture was stirred at 177 C for 5 days, during which time crystallization was complete. The product crystals were filtered out of solution and water washed continuously for approximately 16 hours and then dried at 110 C.

X-ray analysis of the crystalline product showed the crystals to have a diffraction pattern corresponding to Table I. The presence of alpha crystobalite was also observed.

Chemical analysis of the crystalline product led to the following compositional figures:

______________________________________                     Mole Ratio onComposition    Wt.%       Al2 O3 Basis______________________________________N              0.52       --Na             0.09       --Al2 O3          0.73       1.0SiO2      93.5       217N2 O                 2.75Na2 O                0.26______________________________________

Physical analysis of the crystalline product after calcination for 16 hours at 538 C showed it to have a surface area of 72 m2 /gram and adsorption tests (conducted as described hereinabove) provided the following results:

______________________________________Adsorption        Wt.%______________________________________Cyclohexane       1.2n-Hexane          2.0Water             2.3______________________________________
EXAMPLE 10

Twenty-five grams of ZSM-23, prepared as described in Example 1, were contacted five times at 99 C with a 5 weight percent solution of NH4 Cl, each contact being for a period of 1 hour. The resulting product having a sodium content of 0.05 weight percent was calcined for 10 hours at 538 C.

Propylene at 1 liter/hour was passed over 0.25 gram of the above catalyst at 315 C and atmospheric pressure. Effluent collected between 1 and 2 hours on stream and analyzed showed oligomerization (polymerization) of the propylene charge in an amount corresponding to 84.8 weight percent of the liquid product and aromatization of the propylene charge in an amount corresponding to 18.4 weight percent of the liquid product.

EXAMPLE 11

Twenty grams of ZSM-23, prepared as described in Example 5, were contacted five times at 99 C with a 5 weight percent solution of NH4 Cl, each contact being for a period of 1 hour. The resulting product having a sodium content of 0.05 weight percent was calcined for 10 hours at 538 C.

The resulting catalyst was subjected to the alpha test described by P. B. Weisz and J. N. Miale in Journal of Catalysis 4,527-529 (1965) to determine cracking rate of n-hexane with the liquid hourly space velocity maintained at 3.37 and the temperature maintained at 371 C. The n-hexane cracking rate "alpha" 5 minutes and 25 minutes after commencement of flow was 310 and 302 respectively, indicating the cracking activity of the prepared catalyst.

EXAMPLE 12

A 69.7 gram quantity of ZSM-23, prepared as described in Example 8, was heat treated for 3 hours at 538 C in nitrogen and then contacted four times at 82-93 C with a 10 weight percent solution of NH4 Cl, each contact being for a period of 2 hours. The resulting product having a sodium content of 0.03 weight percent was calcined for 10 hours at 538 C and thereafter steamed for 20 hours at 593 C.

The resulting catalyst was contacted with a charge of dimethyl ether at a temperature of 315 C utilizing a WHSV of 1.15 to obtain a conversion of 26.8 percent to hydrocarbons and water. Analysis of the hydrocarbon product obtained showed the following weight percent:

______________________________________C5 +     36.1C1           11.7C2 =     22.0C2           1.6C3 =     14.6C3           3.4i-C.sub. 4        6.3C4 =     4.3n-C.sub. 4        0______________________________________
EXAMPLE 13

Propylene at 1 liter/hour was passed over 0.25 gram of a catalyst, prepared as in Example 12, at 315 C and atmospheric pressure. Effluent collected between 1 and 2 hours on stream and analyzed showed oligomerization of the propylene charge with the following product analysis in weight percent:

______________________________________C5 +     80.9C1           4.4C2 =     0.9C2           0.6C3 =     3.9C3           2.4C4 =     5.9C4           0.9______________________________________

These data show a high yield of a C5 + gasoline fraction.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification208/111.15, 585/640, 208/111.35, 208/135, 502/62, 585/533, 585/653, 423/428, 208/46
International ClassificationB01J29/70
Cooperative ClassificationB01J2229/36, B01J29/70, B01J2229/40
European ClassificationB01J29/70