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Publication numberUS4122044 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 05/791,877
Publication dateOct 24, 1978
Filing dateApr 28, 1977
Priority dateMay 18, 1976
Also published asDE2722698A1, DE2722698C2
Publication number05791877, 791877, US 4122044 A, US 4122044A, US-A-4122044, US4122044 A, US4122044A
InventorsMasayoshi Nakamura, Toshiaki Ogoshi, Mitsuyoshi Yazaki
Original AssigneeThe Lion Fat And Oil Co., Ltd.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Granular detergent composition
US 4122044 A
Abstract
A granular detergent composition contains substantially no phosphate builder component but has excellent powdery characteristics. The granular detergent composition comprises
(a) 20 to 35 wt.% of a surfactant comprising an α-olefinsulfonate and an alkyl ether sulfate at a ratio of the α-olefinsulfonate to the alkyl ether sulfate of 1 : 1 to 5 : 1 by weight; and
(b) 40 to 70 wt.% of a builder comprising a carbonate and a silicate at a ratio of the carbonate to the silicate of 2 : 1 to 5 : 1 by weight.
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Claims(8)
What is claimed is:
1. A phosphate-free granular detergent composition which comprises
(a) 20 to 35 wt.% of a surfactant comprising a C12 -C22 -α-olefinsulfonate and a C9 -C18 -alkyl ether sulfate at a ratio of the α-olefinsulfonate to the alkyl ether sulfate of 1:1 to 5:1 by weight; and
(b) 40 to 70 wt.% of a builder comprising a water soluble carbonate and a water soluble silicate at a ratio of the carbonate to the silicate of 2:1 to 5:1 by weight.
2. A granular detergent composition according to claim 1 wherein said α-olefinsulfonate is an alkali metal salt of α-olefinsulfonic acid having 12 to 22 carbon atoms and said alkyl ether sulfate is an alkali metal salt of an alkyl ether sulfate having a C9 -C18 alkyl group and an adduct of ethyleneoxide of 1 to 5 moles.
3. A granular detergent composition according to claim 1 wherein the carbonate is an alkali metal carbonate, sesquicarbonate or bicarbonate, and the silicate is an alkali metal silicate having the formula M2 O.xSiO2 wherein M represents an alkali metal; x represents 1.0 to 3.5.
4. A granular detergent composition according to claim 1 wherein the α-olefinsulfonate is a mixture of alkenylsulfonate and hydroxyalkanesulfonate produced by sulfonating, neutralizing, and hydrolyzing α-olefin and the alkyl ether sulfate is a mixture produced by forming an adduct of ethyleneoxide of an average of 1 to 5 moles to a natural or synthetic alcohol having 9 to 18 carbon atoms and sulfating the resulting adduct and neutralizing it.
5. A granular detergent composition according to claim 1 wherein the particle size of the granular detergent composition is an average of 250 to 500 μ.
6. A granular detergent composition according to claim 1 wherein the α-olefinsulfonate and the alkyl ether sulfate are mutually combined with the builder components of the carbonate and the silicate in each particle, produced by spray-drying a mixture thereof.
7. A granular detergent composition according to claim 6 wherein the particles have an average apparent density of 0.25 to 0.4 and an average particle size of 250 to 500 μ.
8. A granular detergent composition according to claim 1 wherein a part of the builder components is blended to the particles containing the α-olefinsulfonate, the alkyl ether sulfate, the carbonate and the silicate.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a granular detergent composition. More particularly, it relates to a granular detergent composition having excellent powdery characteristics which does not substantially contain a phosphate.

2. Description of the Prior Art

Phosphates such as tripolyphosphate have excellent function as a builder component of a detergent composition.

It has been known to obtain a granular detergent composition having excellent powdery characteristics by incorporating the phosphate into the detergent composition.

However, the amount of the phosphate has been regulated from the viewpoint of preventing environmental pollution. Accordingly, various proposals have been found for non-phosphate detergent compositions which are combinations of anionic surfactants and alkali builder components of the carbonate and the silicate.

For example, in Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 12426/1972, the non-phosphate detergent composition comprising the anionic surfactant and the alkali builder components of a mixture of the carbonate and the silicate.

However, the granular non-phosphate detergent compositions comprising the alkali builder components such as the carbonate or the silicate have relatively inferior powdery characteristics such as non-caking property, fluidity and particle strength, in comparison with those of the granular phosphate detergent compositions.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improvement of a conventional granular non-phosphate detergent composition.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a granular non-phosphate detergent composition which has excellent powdery characteristics such as non-caking property, fluidity and particle strength.

The foregoing and other objects have been attained by providing a granular non-phosphate detergent composition which comprises

(A) 20 TO 35 WT.% OF A SURFACTANT COMPRISING AN α-OLEFINSULFONATE AND AN ALKYL ETHER SULFATE AT A RATIO OF THE α-OLEFINSULFONATE TO THE ALKYL ETHER SULFATE OF 1:1 TO 5:1 BY WEIGHT; AND

(B) 40 TO 70 WT.% OF A BUILDER COMPRISING A CARBONATE AND A SILICATE AT A RATIO OF THE CARBONATE TO THE SILICATE OF 2:1 TO 5:1 BY WEIGHT.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The granular detergent composition of the present invention comprises the specific weight ratio of the α-olefinsulfonate to the alkyl ether sulfate and the specific weight ratio of the carbonate to the silicate.

In accordance with the present invention, the α-olefinsulfonate (referring to as AOS) and the alkyl ether sulfate (referring to as AES) are used at a ratio of AOS to AES of 1:1 to 5:1 by weight.

When the ratio of AOS to AES is higher than the range, the dusting property is increased and the caking property is also increased even though the particle strength of the granular detergent composition is not substantially changed.

On the other hand, when the ratio of AOS to AES is lower than the range, the fluidity of the granular detergent composition is inferior and the caking property is increased.

In the granular detergent composition of the invention, total amount of the surfactants is in a range of 20 to 35 wt.%.

The caking property of the granular detergent composition is increased and the fluidity of the granular detergent composition is deteriorated depending upon increasing the total amount of the surfactants.

On the contrary, the total amount of the granular detergent composition needed for one washing operation is increased depending upon decreasing the total amount of the surfactants.

AOS used in the invention can be alkali metal salts of α-olefinsulfonic acid having 12 to 22 carbon atoms which are produced by the known process for sulfonating, neutralizing and hydrolyzing α-olefin. The AOS is usually a mixture of alkenesulfonate, hydroxyalkanesulfonate and a small amount of disulfonate and the mixture can be used without a separation of the components.

AES used in the invention can be produced by forming an adduct of ethyleneoxide of an average of 1 to 5 moles to a natural or synthetic alcohol having 9 to 18 carbon atoms and sulfating the resulting adduct and neutralizing it.

The neutralized product usually contain a small amount of alkylsulfate, however, it can be used as AES without a separation of the components. Thus, the amount of the alkylsulfate is preferably small from the viewpoint of the detergency.

The builder components used in the invention are the carbonate and the silicate at a ratio of the carbonate to the silicate of 2:1 to 5:1 by weight.

When the ratio of the carbonate to the silicate is higher than the range, the particle strength of the granular detergent composition is lowered to increase dusting caused by pulverizing the granules.

When the ratio of the carbonate to the silicate is lower than the range, the caking property of the granular detergent composition is increased to deteriorate the solubility of the particles.

Accordingly, it is necessary to determine the ratio of the carbonate to the silicate in said range. The total amount of the carbonate and the silicate that is the amount of the builder is in a range of 40 to 70 wt.%.

When the amount of the builder components is more or less than the range, it is difficult to impart excellent washing effect such as detergency and foaming and excellent physical properties of particles.

The carbonates used in the invention can be alkali metal carbonates, sesquicarbonate and bicarbonates, especially sodium salts thereof.

The silicates used in the invention can be the compounds having the formula

M2 O . xSiO2 

wherein M represents an alkali metal; x represents 1.0 to 3.5 preferably 1.8 to 3.2. Sodium salts are especially preferably as that of the carbonates.

The granular detergent composition of the invention comprises the specific weight ratio of AOS to AES as the surfactants and the specific weight ratio of the carbonate to the silicate as the builder components and 20 to 35 wt.% of the total amount of AOS and AES and 40 to 70 wt.% of the total amount of the carbonate and the silicate. The other components may be incorporated in the granular detergent composition of the invention. For example, a foaming control agent such as soap; a redeposition preventing agent such as carboxymethyl cellulose, polyethyleneglycol, polyvinyl alcohol; fluorescent whitening dye, a coloring agent, perfume, etc. can be incorporated into the granular detergent composition.

It is possible to incorporate less than 25 wt.% of the other surfactants besides AOS and AES to the total amount of surfactants.

The other surfactants can be alkylsulfates, alkylbenzenesulfonates, polyoxyethylenealkyl ethers (alkyl group having 9 to 18 carbon atoms and adduct of ethyleneoxide having 1 to 20 average moles of ethyleneoxide) and ampholytic surfactants, etc.

It is also possible to incorporate the other type builders except the phosphate builders such as polycarbonates e.g. citrates, tartrates; cation-exchange water insoluble inorganic fine powder e.g. alminosilicates.

The granular detergent composition of the invention has an average particle diameter of 250 to 500 μ. It is preferable to contain less than 2 wt.% of fine particles having a diameter of less than 50 μ without coarse particles having a diameter of more than 2000 μ.

The granular detergent composition of the invention can be produced by spray-drying a slurry of the composition containing about 35 to 45 wt.% of water in the conventional method.

The granular detergent composition can be produced by preparing a detergent slurry containing all of the components of the composition and spray-drying the slurry.

The granular detergent composition of the invention prepared by a spray-drying method has an average particle diameter of 250 to 500 μ and an average bulk density of about 0.25 to 0.4.

When the bicarbonate or sesquicarbonate is added to the detergent slurry, a foaming or a formation of a water insoluble silicate is caused and accordingly, the bicarbonate or sesquicarbonate is preferably added to the spray-dried particles.

A perfume or a coloring agent is usually sprayed onto the dried particles as a liquid or it is incorporated in particles and is blended to the dried particles.

As stated above, the granular detergent compositions comprising AOS and AES at the specific weight ratio as the surfactant components and the carbonate and the silicate at the specific weight ratio as the builder components, has excellent physical property and imparts enough detergency foaming property even though a phosphate builder is not incorporated. Accordingly, the granular detergent composition does not cause significant dusting by pulverizing the granules in the production or during the storage in a carton and also does not cause the caking to lost fluidity thereof.

EXAMPLE

In order to describe the effect of the invention, each detergent slurry which comprises the components shown in Table 1 and about 40 wt.% of water was produced at 60 to 80 C. and then it was spray-dried by the conventional method to obtain each granular detergent composition containing about 8 wt.% of water.

The symbols in Table 1 designate the followings:

Aos: sodium C16 -C18 α-olefinsulfonate

Aes: sodium C11 -C15 alkyl ether sulfate (adduct of ethyleneoxide of about 3 moles)

As: sodium C11 -C15 alkylsulfate

Las: sodium straight chain alkylbenzenesulfonate

nonionic SAA: polyoxyethylenealkyl ether (C11 -C15 ; adduct of ethyleneoxide of about 10 moles)

Sil: sodium silicate

Ash: sodium carbonate

Other additive: fluorescent whitening dye and redeposition preventing agent

              Table 1______________________________________Surfactant components (%)    compo-                     nonionic                            Builder                                  nent  OthersAOS     AES    AS    LAS  SAA    Sil   Ash   (%)______________________________________1    25     --     --  --   --     15    50    22    22      3     --  --   --     15    50    23    20      5     --  --   --     15    50    24    15     10     --  --   --     15    50    25    12.5   12.5   --  --   --     15    50    26    10     15     --  --   --     15    50    27    --     25     --  --   --     35    30    28    20     10     --  --   --     30    30    29    20     10     --  --   --     18    42    210   20     10     --  --   --     11    49    211   20     10     --  --   --      7    53    212   16      4     --  --   --     20    50    213   20     15     --  --   --     16    39    214   15      7     7   --   --     15    46    215   12     10     --  4           15    49    216   13     10     --  --   2      15    50    2______________________________________

The caking properties, compressed properties, angles of repose, dusting properties, particle strengths and solubilities of the granule detergent compositions were measured by the following methods.

Caking property

Each granular detergent composition was filled in a carton (22 cm 15.5 cm 5.5 cm) and it was stored in a room at 35 C. in a relative humidity of 85% for 7 days and then, the carton was opened and the granular composition was carefully moved on a sieve and the seive was slowly vibrated. The ratio of the weight of the remained particles on the seive to the weight of the total particles was shown as percentage.

Compressed properties

Each granular detergent composition was filled in cylindrical column having an inner diameter of 10 cm and a height of 15 cm and it was compressed by a weight of 5 Kg to mold a test piece and the weight (Kg) needed for broken the test piece was measured.

Dusting property

Each granular detergent composition was flowed down from a carton at the place of a height of 20 cm. It was rated to be "remarkable" in the case of severe sneezing and to be "slight" in the case of substantially no sneezing.

Particle strength

Each granular detergent composition was filled in a carton (22 cm 15.5 cm 5.5 cm) and the carton was vertically shaken in an amplitude of 3 cm for 30 minutes and the decrease of depth (mm) of the granular detergent composition in the carton was measured.

              Table 2______________________________________Caking   Compress- Angle          Particle                                    Solu-property ed proper-              of      Dusting                             strength                                    bility(%)      ty (Kg)   repose  property                             (mm)   (sec.)______________________________________1   90       2.5       45    re-    20                        markable2   90       2.5       45    "      203   50       2         45    slight 20     30 - 904   60       2         45    "      205   60       2         45    "      20     30 - 906   80       4         60    "      207   100      5         70    "      15     3008   100      1.5       45    "      15     30 - 909   50       2         45    "      2010  40       2         45    "      2511  40       3         45    re-    40                        markable12  40       2         40    slight 2013  50       2.5       45    "      2014  60       2.5       50    "      2015  60       2.5       50    "      2016  60       2.5       55    "      25______________________________________

As it is clear from Table 2, in accordance with the invention, the granular detergent compositions having excellent physical properties can be attained.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3755202 *Jul 1, 1971Aug 28, 1973Inst Neftechimicheskogo SintezMethod for reactivation of oxide catalysts
US3892680 *Mar 14, 1973Jul 1, 1975Procter & GambleBuilt detergent composition containing calcium-insensitive detergent and a carbonate-silicate builder
US3915903 *Jun 11, 1973Oct 28, 1975Procter & GambleSulfated alkyl ethoxylate-containing detergent composition
US3979314 *Aug 14, 1974Sep 7, 1976Lever Brothers CompanyDetergent compositions
US4013577 *Apr 14, 1972Mar 22, 1977Colgate-Palmolive CompanyHeavy duty dry biodegradable detergent composition
US4028282 *May 5, 1976Jun 7, 1977Lion Fat & Oil Co., Ltd.Slurry of olefin sulfonate, sodium silicate, sodium carbonate, water
US4061603 *Jun 25, 1976Dec 6, 1977Colgate-Palmolive CompanyDetergents
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4395364 *Apr 14, 1982Jul 26, 1983Kao Soap Co., Ltd.Laundering; rinsing; foaming
US5447651 *Dec 17, 1993Sep 5, 1995Lever Brothers Company, Division Of Conopco, Inc.Process for producing concentrated laundry detergent by manufacture of low moisture content detergent slurries utilizing liquid active surfactant blend technology
US5453215 *Dec 17, 1993Sep 26, 1995Lever Brothers Company, Division Of Conopco, Inc.Process for producing concentrated laundry detergent by manufacture of low moisture content detergent slurries
US5798328 *Feb 13, 1995Aug 25, 1998Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft Auf AktienDetergent composition comprising carbonate-amorphous silicate compound as builder and processes of using same
US6191096Jan 9, 1996Feb 20, 2001Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft Auf AktienSpray-dried amorphous alkali metal silicate compound and its use in detergent compositions
US6458755 *Dec 11, 2000Oct 1, 2002Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft Auf AktienAmorphous alkali metal silicate compound
WO1995012453A1 *Oct 21, 1994May 11, 1995Sean Declan DevineSurfactant agglomerate particle
WO2000040682A1 *Dec 17, 1999Jul 13, 2000Emery William DerekDetergent compositions
Classifications
U.S. Classification510/452, 510/352
International ClassificationC11D3/10, C11D1/29, C11D3/00, C11D1/14, C11D3/08, C11D1/37
Cooperative ClassificationC11D1/29, C11D1/14, C11D3/10, C11D1/37, C11D3/08
European ClassificationC11D3/08, C11D1/37, C11D3/10, C11D1/29
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jun 25, 1981ASAssignment
Owner name: LION FAT AND OIL CO., LTD., THE
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:LION DENTIFRICE CO., LTD., THE;REEL/FRAME:003865/0888
Effective date: 19810204