Automatic musical instrument
US 412657 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. W. PAIN.
AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
8 Sheets-Sheet l.
No. 412,657. Patented Oct. 8, 1889.
fiw enfor WWW 8 Sheets-Sheet 2.
-R. W. PAIN.
AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
Patented Oct. 8, 1889.
3 Sheets-Sheet 3.
R. W. PAIN.
AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
No! 412,657. Patented Oct. 8, 1889.
Invpnbr fir. Wow...
N, PETERS, Phaloiiihoguphen Wzlhingtw. n. c.
UNITE STATES PATENT OFFICE.
ROBERT lV. PAIN, OF NENV YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNOR TO THE ZEOLIAN ORGAN AND MUSIC COMPANY, OF SAME PLACE.
'AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 412,657, dated October 8, 1889.
Application filed January 23, 1889. Serial No. 297,232. (No model.)
To aZZ whom, it may concern: The instrument can also be operated auto- Beit known thatl, ROBERT IV. PAIN, of New matically. In the present instance the auto- York, in the county and State of New York, matic operation is eifected through the keys have invented a certain new and useful Im- D, rods E being arranged under the rear ends provement in Mechanical or Automatic Musiof the keys, and being adapted, when moved cal Instruments, of which the following is a upwardly, to raise the rear ends of the keys, specification. and in that manner force upwardly the rods My improvement relates to those musical 0 just as these rods 0 would be forced up I instruments which are commonly known as under the action of the keys D it the latter IO mechanical orautomaticmusical instruwere operated manually. 6c
ments, and in which the sound-producing The rods E are impelled upwardly by ledevices are controlled by a music sheet, card, vers F, arranged beneath the key-block and or tablet, which'is usually perforated to repextending in the same or substantially the resent the notes of a musical composition. same direction as the keys. Those levers F I 5 My improvement is especially intended for are fulcrumed between their ends. At the use-in a pianoforte, although as to some fearear end they extend under the rods E. At tures it is applicable to other musical instruthe forward end they have attached to them ments. armatures G of electro-magnets G. There I will describe a. musical instrument emwill be one of these elcctro-magnets G, a cor- 2o bodying my improvement in detail, and then responding armature G, a lever F, and a rod point out the novel features in claims. E for each of the keys D. It will be readily In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is seen that when any electro-magnet G attracts a front view of a musical instrument embodyits armature G the forward end of the coring my improvement, the front of the case responding lever F will be depressed and the 2 5 being removed and certain of the parts berearend of such lever raised,and that through ing omitted. Fig. 2 is a vertical section of a this action of this lever the corresponding rod portion of this musical. instrument upon a E will be moved upwardly and will cause the larger scale, the plane of the sect-ion being elevation of the corresponding rod 0, and transversely to the length of the instrument. consequently the operation of a hammer B. 30 Fig. 3 is an enlarged back View of a wind- I will hereinafter describe the manner in motor comprised in said instrument, the back which an electric current is supplied to the of said wind-motor being removed. Fig. 4 is magnets G. a vertical section of the wind-motor, taken on I will first make clear how any one of the the plane of the dotted line 5c 00, Fig. 3. hammers may be operated. mechanically or 1: 3 5 A designates the strings of a piano-forte. automatically. 8 5
B designates one of the hammers. The ham- In Fig. 2 I have represented a battery in mers may form part of any suitable pianocircuit with the electro-magnet and electricforte action. For this reason I have not circuit wires IV ll extendingto metallic condeemed it necessary to illustrate the action. tact-pieces P P. Of course there need not 40 It will be sufficientto add that the hammers be a separate battery for each circuit which 0 are actuated through rods O, which are here includes a magnet. The contact-pieces P 1? shown as capable of being moved upwardly are shown as arranged in a chamber H. by keys D. The keys D may be of the kind From the chamber I'I pins P extend upusually employed in piano-fortes. They are wardly into a wind-chest I. In this wind 45 fulcrumed between their ends upon arail D chest I are a number of pneumatic motors J and held in position thereon bypins D The Ducts a in the top of the wind-chest comforwardends ofthese keys are normally raised, municate with the interior of these motors, as usual. and pipes a extend from the ducts a to ducts hat I have thus far said applies only to a in a tracker-board K. It must be under- 50 the operation of the instrument manually. stood that there will be a pneumatic motor IOO wound upon the take-up roller after'it is unfor each magnet G, and hence for each hammer B, and that each pneumatic motor operates in conj unction with one duct a, pipe to, and duct a of the tracker-board K. Over the tracker-board K a music-sheet L passes. .This is provided with perforations representing a musical Composition. When 'a'perforation passes over one of the ducts a in the tracker-board, air is admitted through such,
these contact-pieces, will thus be put into 7 electrical communication. The electric cur.- rent will then flow through the coils of the magnet with which such circuitwires are in fib l m nication. The magnet, being energized, attracts its armature, oscillating the corresponding lever F, moving its rod E, and
the corresponding key D, sdas to actuate one of the hammers B. The mu imsheet, before pl n s ound 11 wha i a' a fn'lllSlCflDllQI' and is attached to what is termed a take-up roller. During the playing it is unwound from the music-roller and wound from the music-roller. Motion is impart to the music-sheet by wind-motor M, consisting of a number of bellows-like chambers connected to a crankg'shaft N. From this crankshaft mOtiOI is transmitted by a belt N to a shaft N which is so connected with the rollers of the musicrsheet as that motion may be imparted by it to them in reverse directions. The mechanism for transmitting motion from the shaftN to the music-sheet rollers is of ordinary kind, and
hence I will not furtherdescribe it.
I will defer a detailed description of the windrmotor for the present, as it is my aim now to give a general understanding of the instrument as a whole. I will merely add at the present time that the chambers of the motor are collapsed by establishing communication through "a pipe 0 with an equalizer O". This equalizer has combined with it a number of suctionrbellows 0?, These suctionbellows are operated by a shaft which is provided with cranks that are connected by pitman rods O wit-h the movable boards of the said bellows 0 The equalizer O. communicates through a pipe ,0 with a chamber 1, which is in communication with the windchest I.
I designates a valve, which may be operated to control communication between the chamber 1' and the wind-chest I. This valve is intended to cut off communication between the equalizer O and the wind-chest I while the music-sheet is being rewound upon the music-roller, so that the sound-producing devices will be prevented from speaking during this time. The rod 1 which is connected with this valve, is also connected with the mechanism which changes the driving of the rollers, so as to reverse the traveling of the music-sheet.
The shaft 0 which operates the bellows,is driven by an electro-magnetic motor Q, a belt B being employed toconnect the shaft of this motor with said shaft 0 It will be seen by reference to Fig. 1 that the electro-magnets G are connected in multiple arc, and that the wires W W are branches from main wires W W, which connect them with a battery W or other source of electricity.
It may be found most convenient to em ploy a primary charging or secondary stor age battery, t w ll also be seen that the electric motor .Q is in communication with the source of electricity W by means of two wires W WV, and that these wires are so arranged with relation to the wires which are in communication with the magnets as to be connected in multiple arc therewith.
' S designates resistances. four of'thcm. The first is connected at one end w h a contact-ri e; d at th he end with a contactpiece 5 The second is connected at one end with the eontactepiece s? and at the other end with a contact-piece 8 The third is connected atone endwith the contact-piece s and at the other end with a contact-piece s. The fourth is connected at one end with the contactepiece s and at the other end with a con agtrpie'ce 5 The wire W is interrupted, one end being connected to the contactepiece a and the other end to a metallic switchdever W Therefore by shifting the switch onto the diiferent contactrpieees s S 8 s the resistance in the circuit extending to the electric motor may be varied. For instance, if the switchlever contacts with the piece '3 none of the resistances S will be in circuit. If the switch,
lever be shifted into Contact with the piece.
8, all the resistances will be in circuit, and if the switch-lever be shifted onto any of the intermediate contacnpieces more or less of the whole number of resistances may be introduced into the circuit of the electric motor. In this way the operation of the electric mot r-may. e r ul The wind-motor, may be regulated by any suitable valveeas, for instance, bya valv Q, combined with the pipe 0, and serving o enilarge or diminish the communication of the windfmotor with the equalizer,
The switch-lever W 'and the valve 0? may be operated by the application of the hand directly to them, or they may be connected with suitable pullvpieces arranged in the position of the stops. of i an organ, if this 'be deemed more convenient.
The combination of the electric motor and the-wind-motor'is very advantageous in an instrument of this kind, as the electric I have shown motor will supply abundant power for the proper operation of the hammers, and will also effect the operation of the hammers with that alacrity which is desirable, and the windmotor will operate the music-sheet with such facility for regulation as will afford abundant opportunity for giving expression to the playing.
Iwill now add to the description of the wind -motor M. It is composed, as here shown, of four collapsible and expansible bellowslike chambers m m m m These chambers have no valves, but in other respects are like an ordinary bellows. The chamber m is below and in line with the chamber m, and the movable appurtenances of these two chambers are integral; hence when one is rocked by the collapsing of the bellows the other will be rocked in the reverse direction. The chambers m m bear the same relation to each other as do the chambers m m The chambers m m m m communicate severally through a port m with a chamber 171 which is connected with a port m, that is in communication with the pipe 0. Valves n n n a control the communication of the chambers m m m m with the chamber m The valves n n are connected together by a piece a and the valves 02 91 are connected together by a piece it. The movable boards of the chambers m m are connected by pitman-rods 0' 0 with the cranks of the shaft N. These cranks are reversely set. The pitman-rod 0' is connected by a'link p with the valve '11. The pitman-rod o is connected by a link 19 with the valve 91 A glance at the ducts m, the chamber m the chambers on m m m the valves n 01% 91 the cranks of the shaft N, and the connections between the cranks and said valves will show that communication will be established. successively between the different chambers m m m m Thus successive impulses will be imparted to the crank-shaft N.
It will be observed that the metallic con tact-pieces P support pins P which extend between them and the bellows. These contact-pieces Pare made of springs.
It will be understood that the resistancecoils and switch which I have described constitute a regulator for the electro-magnetic motor Q.
What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. In an automatic or mechanical musical instrument, the combination of electric circuits, electro magnets serving to produce notes, opposite contacts for said electric circuits, pneumatic motors coacting with certain of the contacts, a tracker communicating with said motors, and a music sheet, card, or tablet, substantially as specified.
2. In an automatic or mechanical musical instrument, the combination of electric circuits, electro-magnets serving to produce the notes, opposite contacts comprised in such electric circuits, pneumatic motors, pins extending between the pneumatic motors and certain of the contacts, the last-named contacts serving to support the motors, a tracker communicating with said motors, and a music sheet, card, or tablet, substantially as specified.
3. In an automatic or mechanical musical instrument, the combination of electric circuits, electro-magnets serving to produce the notes, pairs of contact-pieces comprised in such electric circuits, pneumatic motors, a wind-chest in which such pneumatic motors are arranged, pins extending between and supported by the contact-pieces of the pairs, pneumatic motors contacting with said pins, a tracker communicating with said motors, and a music sheet, card, or tablet, substantially as specified 4. In an automatic or mechanical musical instrument, the combination of electric circuits, electro-magnets serving to produce the notes, pairs of contact-pieces comprised in such electric circuits, pneumatic motors, pins extending between the pneumatic motors and certain contact-pieces of the pairs, such contact-pieces serving to support the pins and collapse the motors when these are not otherwise actuated, a tracker communicating with said motors, and a music sheet, card, or tablet, substantially as specified.
5. In an automatic or mechanical musical instrument, the combination of a trackerboard, a music sheet, card, or tablet, pneumatic m otors communicating with the trackerboard,a wind-chest in which such. motors are arranged, exhaust -bellows communicating with such wind-chest, electric circuits, pairs of con tact-pieces for the several electric circuits, pins extending from the motors to certain contactpieces of the several pairs, and electro magnets in the circuits and serving to pro duce the notes, the said pins being moved in one direction by the extension of the motors through the admission of atmospheric air to them and moved in the other direction by the contact-pieces upon which they rest, substantially as specified.
6. In an automatic or mechanical musical instrument, the combination of sound-producing devices, manual keys for operating the same, electro-magnets, levers carrying the armatures of said magnets and arranged beneath. the keys, pins extending between the levers and the keys, electric circuits connected to the magnets, pairs of contact-pieces for the several circuits, pneumatic motors arranged above the keys, a tracker-board, and a music sheet, card, or tablet, also arranged above the keys, the said motors operating the said contact-pieces, substantially as specified.
7. In an automatic or mechanical musical instrument, the combination of sound-producing devices, electro-magnets for operating the same, electric circuits connected. with the magnets, contact-pieces connected with the cir cuits, pneumatic motors for operating the contact-pieces, bellows for effecting the operation ICC of the pneumatic motors, an eiectro-magnetic motor for operating the bellows, a tracker communicating with the pneumatic motors, a music sheet, card, or tablet for controlling the pneumatic motors, and a wind-motor operated by the bellows and effecting the travel of the music-sheet, substantially as specified.
8. In an automatic or mechanical musical instrument, the combination of sound-producing devices, elect-ro-magnets for operating the same, electric circuits connected with the magnets, contact-pieces connected with the circuits, pneumatic motors for operating the contact-pieces, bellows for effecting the operation of the pneumatic motors, an electro-magnetic motor for operating the bellows, a regulator for the electro-magnetic motor, a tracker communicating with the pneumatic motors, a music sheet, card, or tablet for controlling'the pneumatic motors, and a Wind-motor operated by the bellows and effecting the travel of the music-sheet, substantially as specified.
ROBERT WI PAIN.
C. R. FERGUSON, WM. H. ROBINSON.