|Publication number||US414659 A|
|Publication date||Nov 5, 1889|
|Filing date||Sep 10, 1888|
|Publication number||US 414659 A, US 414659A, US-A-414659, US414659 A, US414659A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (18), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 1.
W. SEAFERT. DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINE.
No; 414,659. 2 Patented Nov. 5, 1889.
fi aiweaaea. 1300002772.
(No Model.) I 4 Sheets-Sheet 2. W. S'EAPERT. DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINE. F No. 414,659. Patented Nov. 5, 1889.
n. vnzns. Piwto-uuw raphur, Wabhinglnn. n r;
(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 3.
DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINE.
No. 414,659. Patented Nov. 5, 1889.'
N4 PETERS, Phnlo-Lithographw, Wuh'mgtan. IJv C.
A a e h S q h t 8 e h s 4 T R E F A E S W m d o M 0 W DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINE-i Patented Nov. 5, 1889.
IIIIII/Ill N. PETERS. Phob-Lilhugnphlr. Washingion. n. c.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
\VILLIAM SEAFERT, OF- CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOR OF ONE-FOURTH TO FRANK M. STAPLES, TRUSTEE, OF SAME PLACE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 414,659, dated November 5, 1889. Application filed September 10, 1888. Serial No. 285,083. (No model.)
To aZZ whom. it many 0071 0077; In the drawings, A represents a suitable Be it known that I, IVILLIAM SEAFERT, a base, upon which are mounted the magnets 15. citizen of the United States, residing at Chi- C and represent the pole-pieces, the
cage, in the county of Cook and State of Illiformer being in the present instance formed nois, have invented a certain new and useful in one piece with the-base, and the latter be- Improvement in Dynamo-Electric Machines, ing mounted on top of the magnets]; and 0011- which is fully set forth in the following spccinected thereto by suitable pins 7). In this fieation, reference being had to the accompaconstruction the position of the pole-pieces is nying drawings, in which such that one is above and the Other below [0 Figure 1 is a plan view of an apparatus the armature,whichisinclosed between them. embodyingmyinvention, the upper pole-piece 1) represents the armature-shaft, provided being removed; Fig. 2,a sectional view of the with a suitable d riving-pullcy d, and mounted same taken on theline 1 1 of Fig. 1; Fig. :3, a in suitable bearings l). sectional view taken on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1; E represents thearmature,which is mounted 15 Fig. a detail sectional view showing the on the shaft, l),so as to rotate along with said mechanism by means of which the armatnreis shaft, but at the same time be free to move moved; Fig. 5, a similar view taken from the longitudinally thereon in case the said shaft opposite side; Fig. 6, a plan view of a modified has no endwise motion, as in the construct-ion form of apparatus, the upper pole-piecc reshown. This resultmaybe effected by means 20 moved; Fig. 7, a sectional view taken on the of a spline d on the shaft,which enters a corline 3 3 of Fig. 6; Fig. 8, a view similar to Fig. responding groove 6 in the hub of the arma- 7, showing another modification; Fig. 9, a secture. The armature-shaft I) may be, of tional view similar to Fig. 2, and iliustratinga course, capable of longitudinal motion, it domodification of the construction therein sired, in which case the armature will be 25 shown; and Fig. 10, a detail sectional view fixed thereon. taken on the line at at of Fig. 9,the field-mag- The armature E may be of any suitable nets and pole-pieces being omitted. construction so far as its structural elements Like letters refer to like parts in all the figare concerned, my present invention relating ures of the drawings. solely to the external configuration thereof.
0 My invention relates to dynamo-electric As to this latter feature, the armature may be machines, and has for its object to produce described as being of a varying diameter from an apparatus of this description capable of end to end, the diameter decreasing gradually use eitheras a generator or as a motor,wherein from one end to the other thereof. The form the elcctro-motive force may be regulated which I prefer is that which is shown in the 3 5 with great nicety and Without the disadvandrawings, in which the armature has the form tages attendant upon the ordinary methods of the frustum of a cone, or in the case of an employed for this purpose. armature of a radial structure the form will To this end my invention consists in cerbe such that the armature will describe in its tain novel features, which I will now proceed revolution the frustum of a cone. The diminu- 0 to describe, and will then particularly point tion of the diameter of the armature may be out in the claims. a step-by-step diminution, but this is obvi- I will first describe a construction embodyously an equivalent of the frusto conical ing my invention as applied to a dynamo-elecshape shown, since the latter may be considtric machine of any well-known type,wherein ered as composed of an infinite number of in- 45 an armature is caused to revolve between the finitely small steps. The pole-pieces O and 5 pole-pieces of suitable electro-magnets, pre- C are shaped to conform to the shape of the mising that my invention is in no way llilh armature or to the body generated by the ited to that particular type of machine, but revolution thereofin other words, their suris equally applicable to other well known faces may be said to be parallel to the sur- 50 forms. I face of the armature-and they inclose and define a space or field of force which liminishes in diameter from end to end,and which in the construction shown has a frusto-conical form proportionate in its dimensions to that of the armature.
F represents the commutator, which in the present instance is shown as mounted rigidly on the shaft D and connected to the armature by flexible wires f, so that the armature may be moved relatively to the commutator without afiecting the connection between the two. The brushes F are of any suitable construction, and are shown in the present instance as supported by a fixed yoke f, mounted on one of the bearings D. These connections may be effected in various other mannersas, for instance, by elongating the commutator ani causing it to move with the armature-such a construction being shownin Figs. 9 and 10 of the drawings, in which the elongated commutator is shown as connected to the hub of the armature.
It will be seen from the preceding description that the armature is free to move in the direction of its axis of rotation. Various means may be employed, either automatic or under the control of the operator, for effecting this movement. In the present instance I have shown an automatic mechanism controlled by the current for effecting this result.
G represents a lever pivoted on a suitable support g and provided about midway of its length with a yoke G, which embraces a groove 6 in the hub of the armature E. A screw g is attached to the free end of the lever G and passes through suitable guide-bearings g on a support G mounted on the base A.
H represents a friction-wheel threaded internally to correspond with the screw g, and mounted on said screw between the bearings 9 so that the rotation of said friction-wheel in one direction or the other will move the screw g one way or the other.
I represents a yoke-lever mounted loosely on the shaft D as a fulcrum, and provided at one end with an armature 2', below which is located an electro-magnet I, arranged in the main or in a shunt circuit.
I represents a spring arranged to thrust the lever I normally upward and move the armature 1' thereof away from the electromagnet I. This spring is preferably a coiled spring mounted on a supporting-rod i, which rod is threaded at its lower end to receive a nut i by means of which the pressure of the spring 1 may be adjusted.
J represents a gear-wheel secured on the armature-shaft D, between the arms of the lever I.
J and J 2 represent gear-wheels mounted in the yoke j of the lever Land meshing with each other, while one of themin the present instance, the gear-wheel J meshes with the gear-wheel J, so that the said gear-wheels J and J 2 revolve in opposite directions. The gear-wheel J is provided with a friction-wheel j, and the gear-wheel J 2 is provided with a similar friction-wheel 7' said friction-wheels being so arranged that as thelever I is moved upon its fulcrum either one of said frictionwheels maybe brought into contact with the friction-wheel II to rotate the same. The connectious may be as shown in Fig. l, a wire 7.: leading from one of the brushes to the fieldmagnets, and a wire it" leading from these latter to the outer circuit. A return-wire 7.? leads to the eleetro-magnets I, and a wire 7.x leads from said magnet to the other brush, thus completing the circuit.
The apparatus 'thus organized operates in the following manner: Let it be supposed that the armature is rotating and furnishing the normal output, which is sufficient for the purposes required. lVhen this condition of atfairs obtains, the current. passing through the electro-magnet I causes said electro-magnet to just balance, by its attraction of the armature i, the force of the spring I The lever I is therefore held in such a position that neither of the friction-wheels 7" or j is in contact with the friction-wheel II. \Vhen from any reasonsueh, for instance, as the increase in the number of elements in the circuit-a larger output of electrical energy is called for, there will be a corresponding decrease in the strength of the current passing through the eleetro-n'lagnet I. This decrease will permit the spring I to vibrate the lever I upon its fulcrum, and thereby bring the friction-wheel j into contact with the friction-wheel II. A rotary movement will thus be imparted to the said wheel II, which will effect a movementof the screw g to the right in Fig. 1, which movement will be transferred through the medium of the lever G to the ar mature E, and the armature will also be moved to the right. Owing to the conformation of the armature and of the pole-pieces of the field -magnets, hereinbefore described, this movement of the armature will bring its peripheral surface nearer to the surface of the pole-pieces, and the armature will thus be caused to cut a greater number of lines of force, thereby increasing the output. \Vhcn the armature has been moved sufiiciently close to the pole-pieces of the field-magnets to bring the current up to its normal strength, the eleetro-magnetl will again overcome the pressure of the spring 1 and the lever I will resume its normal position,thus arresting the longitudinal movement of the armature. Jonversely, when the strength of the current is too great, the eleetro-magnet I will draw the armature i farther down against the action of the spring I and will bring thelower fr'ction-wheel j into contact with the frietion-wheel H. This latter will then be retated in the opposite direction to that previ ously described, and, through the medium of the connecting mechanism, will move the armature along its shaft in the opposite direction, or to the left. It will be seen at once that this motion of the armature will increase the distance between its peripheral surface and the surface of the pole-pieces of the fieldmagnets, whereby the armature will cut a less number of lines of force, and the strength of the current will be correspondingly reduced until 'it reaches the normal strength, when the electro-magnet and spring will again balance each other. and the armature will remain stationary, so far as longitudinal motion is concerned. It will thus be seen that with the construction which I have devised the armature may be made to cut a greater or a less number of lines of force in themag netic field in a given time without necessarily changing the number of its revolutions, or, in other words, its speed, and this result may be accomplished either at the will of the.
operator or automatically. In the case of a motor the armature may be caused to be acted upon by a greater or less number of lines of force, and the power of the field-magnets may be increased or decreased, asisnecessary. In either case the apparatus will be caused to yield just the amount of mechanical or electrical energy it may be called upon to furnish, thus establishing a mutual and dependent relation between the generator and motor, or between the generator and any other element or elements in the external circuit employed in converting elec trical energy into light, heat, or mechanical motion. Thus two or more motors or other elements may be operated in series, and the motor or element most distant from the source of energy may be operated to consume the most energy,irrespective of the energy consumed by any one or more of the intervening elements, and irrespective of the position of such element in the series. Thus each motor or other element will make a distinct call upon thegenerator for the exact amount of energy it needs, and the sum total of the output of the generator will be the sum total of the combined calls plus the necessary resistance of the conductor, forming the path of the current.
In the method usually employed in regu lating the current artificial resistance of some kind is inserted in the circuit, and the useless work done in forcin g the current through this resistance is of course lost. By reason of the construction which I have devised this disadvantage is entirely obviated and the entire output may be used for useful Work.
It is obvious that my invention is not limited in its application to a dynamo-electric machine employed for the production of electric energy, but is equally applicable to electric motors. It is also obvious that it is equally applicable both to direct and alternating current machines. Moreover, although I have described the armature as being movable relatively to the field-magnets-a construction which I prefer, owing to the obvious mechanical advantages which it presents-it will be seen at once that by a mere reversal the field-magnets may be moved relatively to the armature. Such a construction I have shown in Figs. 6 and '7, in which the armature E is fixed upon the shaft D, while the field-- magnets B, with their pole-pieces O and C, are mounted upon suitable ways L, upon which they may move in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the armature. This movement may be effected in any suitable manner, and in the present instance I have shown mechanism by which this motion may be accomplished by hand at the will of the operator, although, of course, some such antomatic means as that previously described may be applied thereto. In this construction M represents a threaded shaft mounted in suitable bearings upon the base A and passing through a fixed nut m, attached to the pole-piece C. At its outer end the screw-shaft M is provided with a bevel-gearm, with which meshes a correspond ingbevelgearn, mounted on avertical shaftNgvhich is provided at its upper end with a handwheelN, by means of which it may be rotated. It will be at once seen thatthc movement thus imparted to the electro-n'iagnets and their pole-pieces is just as effective in increasing or decreasing the lateral distance between the armature and pole-pieces as is the movement of the armature itself. It may be advisable to move both the armature and the i'nagnets, and my invention also contemplates such an apparatus. Such a construction'I have shown in Fig. S of the drawings, the construction bein substantially the same as that shown in Figs. (3 and '7 and just described, with the exception that the armature-shaft I) is capable of longitudinal motion in 'its bearings, and there is connected thereto an arm 0, provided with a base 0, mounted on the ways L. The shaft M passes through the base 0, which is suitably threaded to receive it, and the thread on this portion of the shaft is the reverse of the thread which passes through the nut m. The arm is so connected to the shaft D as to permit this latter to rotate freely therein, but. to cause it to move longitudinally along with said arm, the connection shown in the present instance being by means of a screw 0 passing downward through the arm and entering a circular groove 0 formed in the shaft. In this construction the yoke f, which sup ports the brushes F, is attached to the arm 0, so as to more therewith, while the commutator is connected to the shaft and arma- Various modifications in the details of the IIO construction shown and described will readily suggest themselves, and I therefcre do not wish to be understood as limiting myself strictly to the precise details hereinbefore described, and shown in the drawings.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. In a dynamo-electric machine, the combination, with an armature of diminishing diameter from end to end, of a field-magnet or field-magnets having pole-pieces of corresponding shape, one of said elements being movable with respect to the other in the direction of the axis of rotation of the armature, whereby the lateral distance between the surfaces of the armature and pole-pieces may be varied, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
2. In a dynamo-electric machine, the combination, with the armature of diminishing diameter from end to end, of a field-magnet or field-magnets provided with correspondingly-shaped pole-pieces, one of said elements bein free to move relatively to the other in the direction of the axis of rotation of the armature, and means controlled by the current for automatically effecting said movement, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
3. In a dynamo-electric machine, the combination, with the stationary field-magnet 0r field-magnets provided with pole-pieces inclosing a magnetic field of diminishing diameter from end to end, of a revolving armature diminishing in diameter from end to end, said armature being free to move longitudinally or in the direction of its axis of rotation, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
at. In a dynamo-electric machine, the combination, with the frusto-conical armature,
of the field-magnets provided with correspondingly-shaped pole-pieces inclosing the same, one of these elements being movable relatively to the other in the direction of the axis of rotation of the armature, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
5. In a dynamo-electric machine, the combination, with the field-magnets and their pole-pieces, of the armature-shaft, the commutator fixed on said shaft, and the armature splined on its shaft free to move longitudinally thereon and flexibly connected to the commutator, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
6. In a dynamo-electric machine, the combination, with the rotating armature diminishing in diameter from end to end, of the field-magnets having correspondingly-shaped polepieces inclosing said armature, said armature being free to move in the direction of its axis of rotation, and means controlled by the current to move said armature into or out of the field of force upon a decrease or increase of, the current strength, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
'7. In a dynamo-electric machine, the combination, with the frusto-conical revolving armature and the field-magnets having correspondingly-shaped pole-pieces, of a lever connected to the hub of the armature, a screw connected to said lever, a friction-wheel mounted on said screw to impart longitudinal motion to it in either direction, a second lever provided at one end with two friction-wheels rotating continuously in opposite directions, and a spring and electro-magnet arranged in the circuit to control said lever and cause either of said friction-wheels to engage with the friction-wheel on the screw upon a corresponding variation in the current strength, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
8. In a dynamo-electric machine, the combination, with the field-magnets and the armature movable in the direction of its axis of rotation, of the lever G, screw g, and friction-wheel II for operating said screw, the lever I, provided with the continuously-rotatin gear-Wheels J and J having friction-wheels j and 7' the gear-wheel J, mounted on the armature-shaft to actuate said gear-wheels J and J the armature t', the electro-magnet 1, arranged in the main or a shunt circuit, and the spring 1 provided with means for adjusting its pressure, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
CARRIE FEIGEL, IRVINE MILLER.
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