Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS4149277 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 05/808,868
Publication dateApr 17, 1979
Filing dateJun 22, 1977
Priority dateJun 22, 1977
Also published asCA1111604A1, DE2827006A1
Publication number05808868, 808868, US 4149277 A, US 4149277A, US-A-4149277, US4149277 A, US4149277A
InventorsJack C. Bokros
Original AssigneeGeneral Atomic Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Artificial tendon prostheses
US 4149277 A
Abstract
Biocompatible artificial tendon or ligament prostheses having an exterior adherent coating of vapor deposited carbon, comprising a strand of a plurality of fibers each of which is designed to sustain a tensile strain of about 5 percent or less and means for attaching the strand at the implantation site.
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(3)
What is claimed is:
1. An artificial tendon or ligament prostheses for prolonged or permanent implantation in a living body and adapted for service at a predetermined maximum tensile load, comprising
an elongated, flexible strand comprising a plurality of substrate fibers having a tensile modulus of about 2106 psi or more and capable of sustaining a tensile strain of about 5% or less at the maximum tensile load and having an adherent dense, isotropic carbon coating on said substrate fibers, and
means for suitably attaching the tendon prostheses to living tissue.
2. A prostheses in accordance with claim 1 wherein said fibers are polyethylene terephthalate fibers having a diameter of about 25 microns or less, and wherein said carbon coating has a BAF of about 1.2 or less and a thickness in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 5000 Angstroms.
3. A prostheses in accordance with claim 1 wherein said attachment means comprises a carbon coated bone affixation element attached at one end of said strand, and a carbon coating soft tissue affixation element at the other end of said strand.
Description

The present invention relates to prosthetic devices, and more particularly is directed to artificial tendon or ligament prostheses utilizing a vapor deposited carbon coating.

The employment of pyrolytic carbon coatings to produce biocompatible and thromboresistant surfaces for prosthetic devices is known and is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,526,005 issued Sept. 1, 1970 and U.S. Pat. No. 3,685,059, issued Aug. 22, 1972. These patents generally describe deposition of pyrolytic carbon coatings, usually from a diluted hydrocarbon atmosphere at atmospheric pressure. Various other techniques have been developed for depositing carbon coatings, for example as by vacuum vapor deposition (VVD) which is also sometimes referred to as vacuum metalizing, physical vapor deposition or evaporative coating, sputtering, or as by ion-plating techniques [e.g., see Marinkovic, et al., Carbon, 14, 329 (1976); cited references are incorporated herein by reference]. Coatings deposited by such VVD or ion-plating techniques have been utilized in prosthetic devices, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,952,334. However, despite these advances, there are still deficiencies in the provision of certain prosthetic elements such as artificial tendon or ligament replacements. In this connection, the variety of tendon replacement methods may be considered to indicate the generally unsatisfactory present state of the art. [D. Jenkins, Filamentous Carbon Fibre as a Tendon Prosthesis, Paper 114, Final Program of the Second Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials in conjunction with the Eighth Annual International Biomaterials Symposium, Apr. 9-13, 1976]. With the exception of tendon autografts most conventional tendon replacement systems rely on the use of an artificial fiber to take the place of the tendon.

Artificial prostheses for ligaments and tendons have evolved from various animal and clinical studies and exhibit some common features: (a) stress bearing core structures which exhibit elastic behavior analogous to natural ligament and tendon structures; (b) initial fixation means to allow the early mobilization of involved natural structures; and (c) anastomatic engagement with living tissue through tissue ingrowth mechanisms. [Results of Animal and Clinical Studies with Novel Prostheses for Ligaments and Tendons, Charles A. Homsy, et al., Paper No. 113, Final Program of the Second Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials in conjunction with the Eighth Annual International Biomaterials Symposium, Apr. 9-13, 1976].

In order for such a replacement to be entirely satisfactory the new "tendon" must be biologically inert and yet be strong and pliable. Artificial tendon and ligament prostheses have been made from filamentous carbon fibers in view of their inertness, strength and pliability, in order to provide temporary replacement of the absent tendon. It has been further reported that filamentous carbon fibers encourage tissue ingrowth, not only from the ends but also throughout the length of the implant in such a manner that it acts as a scaffold into which new fibrous tissues can grow. Normal tissue is said to rapidly take over from the implant, with a rapid increase in strength of the implant as it becomes invaded with new tissue. Thus, the stress-strain characteristic of the initial scaffolding material is of lesser importance; the mechanical behavior of the newly formed tendon or liagment will be determined primarily by the tissue.

However, in conventional applications of filamentous carbon in the replacement of large tendon defects, the carbon filaments have been found to break up and migrate to the vital organs. [Filamentous Carbon Fibre as an Orthopaedic Implant Material, D. Jenkins, et al., Problems of Biocompatibility, 1976; D. Wolter, et al., 3rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials 9th Annual International Biomaterials Symposium, Paper 119, New Orleans] Further in this connection, while the use of such fibers as replacements for lateral knee ligaments, tendon achilles and cruciate ligaments in animal studies has shown that such fibers are accepted by tissues and promote the formation (in a tendon substitute) of a new tendon-like tissue of correct bulk, cell type and alignment, there are problems with prolonged or permanent implantation. In this connection, the carbon only maintains its strength for several months, than gradually fragments, and is subsequently collected in the regional nodes. Thus, despite development effort in respect to artificial tendon replacements, wholly satisfactory tendon replacements for prolonged or permanent implantation in a living body are not conventionally available.

It is the object of the present invention to provide for artificial tendon prostheses which are suitable for prolonged or permanent implantation in a living body. This and other objects of the invention will be readily apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings of which

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one embodiment of an artificial tendon replacement in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross sectional view of the tendon replacement of FIG. 1 taken through line 1--1; and

FIG. 3 is an illustration of another embodiment of an artificial tendon prostheses in accordance with the present invention.

Generally, the present invention is directed to artificial tendon or ligament prostheses for prolonged or permanent implantation in a living body. The prostheses comprise an elongated, flexible, carbon-coated strand itself comprising a plurality of fibers of particular characteristics.

The flexible strand element comprises a plurality of organo polymeric fibers of relatively small diameter which are able to sustain the functional stresses intended for the prostheses without individually straining more than about 5 percent. Depending on the weave employed, strains in excess of 5 percent may be sustained by the whole ligament or tendon. The fibers should generally best have a major diameter dimension of less than about 25 microns, and a minor diameter dimension of at least about 5 microns, although fibers as small as 1 micron might be used in certain applications. By "major diameter dimension" is meant the widest dimension of the fiber in a direction orthogonal to the longitudinal axis of the fiber, and by "minor diameter dimension" is meant the narrowest dimension of the fiber in a direction orthogonal to the longitudinal axis of the fiber. Of course, for a fiber of circular cross-section, the major and minor dimensions will be the same, but it should be appreciated that the invention does contemplate fibers of non-circular cross-section.

The carbon-coated prosthetic strands of the present invention have a relatively high degree of flexibility, which is due primarily to bending of the fibers. The radius or curvature of the individual fibers that will be allowed is determined only by the radius of the fiber. The radius of curvature is:

R=(Radius/allowable strain=5%)

For a radius of 10 microns (=10-3 cm), the allowable radius R is:

R=(10-3 /0.05)=(10-1 /5)=0.02 cm.

The relatively small fiber diameters provide the prosthetic fiber fabrics with substantial flexibility without cracking the coating, which can withstand at least about 5% strain. Smaller fibers are preferred for increased flexibility, and the lower limit of diameter is determined by the handling and coating parameters.

The organo polymeric fibers should also be of a material having a tensile strength of at least about 20,000 psi and should be fabricated of biocompatible medical grade materials. Furthermore, the organo polymeric fibers should have a tensile modulus of elasticity of about 2105 psi or more. Polyethylene terephthalate fibers, such as those sold under the trade name Dacron, are particularly preferred because of the biocompatibility of such polyester fibers ["Implants in Surgery", D. Williams, et al., W. B. Saunders Company, Ltd., London (1973)], their strength (e.g., 50,000 to 99,000 psi breaking strength) and stiffness (e.g., modulus of elasticity of about 2106 psi) which is near that of an isotropic carbon coating. Such a high modulus, high strength material can support a large load without straining more than 5% (at which point the carbon coating will break). Polyethylene terephthalate fibers may be, for example, about three times tougher and five times stiffer than poly(tetrafluoroethylene).

The fibers are provided in a suitable array for the particular prostheses application, and may desirably be provided as a weave, mesh or braid. The array should be capable of providing for tissue ingrowth, so that the prostheses can serve as a scaffold for tissue reformation. In this connection, the structure should be loosely woven or arranged to provide spaces larger than about 100 microns for tissue ingrowth. Other suitable high strength high modulus organo polymeric substrate materials, provided their bio-compatibility is demonstrated, include various so-called "high temperature polymers" which have generally been developed in the last decade, aromatic polyimides, and aromatic polyamides.

As indicated, the flexible strand of fibers is provided with an adherent carbon coating, and in this connection, carbon, the organic building block of all body matter, has shown outstanding tissue and blood compatibility for a variety of prosthetic device applications. Such carbon coatings may be provided by ion-plating, sputtering or VVD coating techniques, to produce strongly adherent carbon coatings which provide a particularly desirable biomedical interface between the prosthesis and the implantation site. The fibers may be aligned, braided, or woven in the flexible strand tensile element. The fibers will typically be about 10 microns in diameter. The smaller the fiber, the smaller the radius of curvature it can sustain without cracking the carbon coating which can sustain at least about 5% elastic strain before fracture, as previously discussed. In view of the small diameter of the fibers used, it is a desirable advantage that the carbon coating may be provided either by coating the individual fibers or yarn, or by coating the assembled strand array. High temperature polymers, which may be used in fiber or metal coating application herein exhibit thermal stability at temperatures of 300 C. and higher and are generally characterized as high temperature, high molecular weight, aromatic, nitrogen-linked polymers. Such polymers are well known in the polymer art, and examples of such high-temperature polymers include ordered aromatic copolyamides, such as the reaction product of phenylenebis (amino-benzamide) and isophthaloyl chloride, all-aromatic polybenzimidazoles, such as poly [2,2'(m-phenylene)-5,5' (6,6' benzimidazole)], polyozadiazoles, poly (n-phenyl triazoles), polybenzobenzimidazoles, polyimides and poly (amide-imide) resins. Of course, the biocompatibility of such fibers should be tested. The preferred organo polymeric fibers contemplated for use herein are medical grade polyethylene--terephthalates, but various conventional high temperature polymer fibers commercially available such as fibers sold under the name Kevlar by DuPont and having a modulus of about 10106 psi may prove useful.

The tendon prostheses in accordance with the present invention can be used with a variety of suitable means for attachment at the implantation site. In this connection, at least one end of the tendon prostheses will usually be intended to be affixed to the skeletal structure. It will usually be desirable to provide means for affixation of the other end to soft body tissue such as muscle and/or remaining tendon tissue, although ligament prostheses may be joined to bone tissue at both ends of the prosthesis.

In connection with attachment, a variety of means and techniques may be used. For example, a plug/pin attachment system [e.g., Jenkins, et al., supra] or screw attachment system [e.g., Wolter, et al., supra] may be used. For attachment to soft tissue, a variety of suturing methods may be used [e.g., Amstutz, et al., J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 10, 48 (1976)]. Further in this connection, the prosthesis strand, or tissue-connecting portion of the strand, may be provided with a configuration such as a hollow braid structure which tightens under tensile load. A bone-anchoring means of the plug type should best have a modulus of elasticity approximating that of natural bones, although this is not a particularly desirable factor in respect of soft tissue affixation means. However, while it is desirable to have tissue affixation and/or firm anchoring of the ends of the tendon or ligament prostheses, it is usually undesirable to permit tissue adhesion or affixation to the central portion of the flexible strand element of the protheses, which should be relatively free to move in order to perform its function. A sheath such as a silicone sheath may be used to prevent attachment of the ligament or tendon to the surrounding tissue [Amstutz, et al., supra]. Such a sheath may also be provided with a carbon coating, and preferably will be coated on the inside of the sheath but not the outside.

As previously indicated, the entire prosthesis assembly, or individual parts thereof, are coated with a carbon layer. The carbon may be applied using coating technology, such as described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,952,334.

The carbon coating should be at least about 1000A (0.1 micron) thick, should be adherent, and in order to provide for large fracture strains, should have BAF (Bacon Anisotropy Factor) of about 1.2 or less. Generally, a coating thickness of about 3,000 to about 5,000A of dense carbon (at least about 1.6 gm/cm3) is employed; greater thicknesses tend to crack and flake. Preferably, the vapordeposited carbon has a density of at least about 1.8 gm/cm3. Such vapor-deposited carbon exhibits biocompatible properties and also may be provided with excellent adherence to the small polymer fibers of the flexible strand. As a result, the coated fibers exhibit excellent properties for use as a prosthetic device and are considered to be fully acceptable for implantation within the human body in flexible and tensile service in a permanent tendon or ligament replacement. Further, through the design provision for a limited tensile strain of not more than 5% for the individual fibers, the integrity of the carbon coating is preserved for prolonged or permanent implantation service. In this regard, as previously indicated, oriented polyethylene terephthalate fibers (e.g., medical grade Dacron) having a high stiffness and high strength are preferred. Other polymers such as aromatic polymers like Kevlar (tensile modulus of 10106 psi) may also be useful in small fiber form. Thus, an artificial tendon or ligament replacement is provided which does not break up and migrate in the manner of conventional filamentous carbon fiber prostheses, and which is capable of providing a permanent scaffolding for the regeneration of new functional tissue.

Having generally described artificial tendon and ligament prosthesis in accordance with the present invention, the invention will now be more particularly described with respect to the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1, which is a side view, partially broken away, of an artificial achilles tendon prosthesis 10 in position at the implantation site. The prosthesis 10 comprises a flexible strand element 12, a bone affixation element 14 at one end of the tendon strand element 12, and soft-tissue affixation means 16 at the other end of the central strand element 12. The bone affixation element 14 of the tendon prosthesis 10 is positioned in anchored relationship in the calcaneus at the implantation site, and the soft-tissue affixation means is in intergrowth affixation relationship to a remaining portion of the natural achilles tendon at the implantation site.

Turning now to FIG. 2 in which the implant 10 is shown in more detail, it may be seen that the flexible strand element 12 comprises a plurality of individual fibers 18 which are in braided relationship. The fibers are of circular cross-section and are made of axially oriented polyethylene terephthalate. The fibers have a diameter of about 10 microns, a tensile strength of about 40,000 psi and a tensile modulus of about 2106 psi. The fibers of the strand 12 are braided, and form a loop 20 at the bone-joining means 14 of the tendon prosthesis. The bone-joining means 14 itself is composed of a pyrolytic carbon coated artificial graphite substrate plug 22 and a carbon coated metallic or graphite pin 24 which passes through the loop 20 to provide for tensile load transport to the plug element 22. The coated artificial graphite plug, which is made of a material such as POCO-AXF-5Q graphite, has modulus of elasticity approximating that of natural bone, in order to facilitate load transfer to the implantation attachment site. At the other end of the strand element 12 the fiber ends are affixed to a porous mesh material of Dacron by weaving to provide a structure into and through which new soft tissue may grow to provide for soft-tissue attachment. A removable silicone sheath 26, shown primarily in cross-section upwardly of numeral 28 and having a carbon coating on its inner surface adjacent the strand, is provided surrounding the central portion of the strand element.

The prosthesis has a dense carbon coating on the fibers and affixation means. The braided or woven strand may be coated, or the yarn from which the device is woven may be coated prior to weaving or braiding. In any event, the finished assembly is coated with a smooth layer of vapor deposited pyrolytic carbon having a BAF thickness of about 3000 Angstroms over the entire assembly 10. Upon implantation, the tendon prosthesis 10 is flexible and fatigue resistant, and resists tissue adhesion to permit relative mobility in the surrounding sheath of tissues and does not break up and migrate to regional nodes or vital organs. The smooth carbon surface is very inert and tissue does not bond to it chemically. The bone and soft-tissue affixation means at the respective ends of the prosthesis 10 provides for tissue ingrowth and firm attachment at the attachment sites upon tissue growth.

Illustrated in FIG. 3 is a partial side view of another embodiment of tendon prosthesis 30 which illustrates a self-tightening braid attachment to a severed tendon. In this connection, the prosthesis 30 comprises a strand 32 of Dacron fiber which is coated in an evaporative coater containing a crucible filled with a commercial grade of artificial graphite heated by electron bombardment. Coating is carried out until a thickness of about 4500 Angstroms of carbon is deposited. The carbon coating is smooth and uniform, and has a density of about 2.0 gm/cm3. The strand 32 is in the form of a hollow braided tube, the diameter of which decreases as the tube is stretched, thus providing a tightening mechanism. The end 34 of the tube strand 32 is slipped over the free end of a severed tendon, and fixed in place by means of a number of sutures, where it will be retained by tissue growth.

It will be appreciated that in accordance with the present invention, artificial tendon or ligament prostheses have been provided which are particularly adapted for prolonged or permanent implantation in a living body, which are biologically inert, and which are capable of reestablishing muscular-skeletal tendon function.

Although the invention has been described with regard to certain preferred embodiments, it should be understood that modifications such as would be obvious to those having the ordinary skill in this art may be made without deviating from the scope of the invention which is defined in the appended claims.

Various of the features of the invention are set forth in the following claims.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3176316 *Jan 7, 1963Apr 6, 1965Bruce R BodellPlastic prosthetic tendon
US3745590 *Jun 25, 1971Jul 17, 1973Cutter LabArticulating prosthesis with ligamentous attachment
US3952334 *Nov 29, 1974Apr 27, 1976General Atomic CompanyBiocompatible carbon prosthetic devices
US3973277 *Jan 23, 1975Aug 10, 1976James Campbell SempleAttaching fibrous connective tissue to bone
US3992725 *Oct 17, 1974Nov 23, 1976Homsy Charles AImplantable material and appliances and method of stabilizing body implants
US4064566 *Apr 6, 1976Dec 27, 1977NasaMethod of adhering bone to a rigid substrate using a graphite fiber reinforced bone cement
US4084266 *Nov 1, 1976Apr 18, 1978The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of Health, Education And WelfareArtificial implant with fiber-flocked blood-contacting surface
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *"Filamentous Carbon Fibre as a Tendon Prosthesis" D. Jenkins, paper 114, Eighth Annual International Biomaterials Symposium, Apr. 9-13, 1976.
2 *"Results of Animal & Clinical Studies with novel Prostheses for Ligaments & Tendons," C. Homsy, et al., paper No. 113, Eighth Annual International Biomaterials Symposium, Apr. 9-13, 1976.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4246660 *Dec 26, 1978Jan 27, 1981Queen's University At KingstonArtificial ligament
US4301551 *Jul 9, 1979Nov 24, 1981Ecole PolythechniqueDeformable high energy storage tension spring
US4450591 *Dec 10, 1981May 29, 1984Rappaport Mark JInternal anti-proratory plug assembly and process of installing the same
US4584722 *May 10, 1983Apr 29, 1986Yeda Research And Development Co., Ltd.Pet core embedded in silicone rubber with biodegbadable polyglycolic acid sleeve
US4590928 *Sep 22, 1981May 27, 1986South African Invention Development CorporationSurgical implant
US4610688 *Apr 4, 1983Sep 9, 1986Pfizer Hospital Products Group, Inc.Triaxially-braided fabric prosthesis
US4662886 *Jun 4, 1985May 5, 1987A. W. Showell (Surgicraft) LimitedSurgical element
US4665951 *Mar 11, 1985May 19, 1987Ellis Julian GProsthetic ligament
US4666442 *Mar 15, 1985May 19, 1987Sorin Biomedica S.P.A.Cardiac valve prosthesis with valve flaps of biological tissue
US4668233 *Jul 9, 1984May 26, 1987Seedhom Bahaa BProsthetic ligaments and instruments for use in the surgical replacement of ligaments
US4731084 *Mar 14, 1986Mar 15, 1988Richards Medical CompanyProsthetic ligament
US4744793 *Sep 6, 1985May 17, 1988Zimmer, Inc.Prosthetic ligament connection assembly
US4776851 *Jul 23, 1986Oct 11, 1988Bruchman William CFor connecting two adjacent bones
US4790850 *Jun 22, 1987Dec 13, 1988Richards Medical CompanyHigh strength polyethylene yarns
US4846834 *Mar 16, 1988Jul 11, 1989Clemson UniversityTitanium coated implant
US4871366 *May 23, 1988Oct 3, 1989Clemson UniversitySoft tissue implants for promoting tissue adhesion to same
US4883486 *May 31, 1988Nov 28, 1989Indu KapadiaProsthetic ligament
US4917699 *May 16, 1988Apr 17, 1990Zimmer, Inc.Prosthetic ligament
US4932972 *Apr 26, 1988Jun 12, 1990Richards Medical CompanyProsthetic ligament
US4946377 *Nov 6, 1989Aug 7, 1990W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.Tissue repair device
US5004474 *Nov 28, 1989Apr 2, 1991Baxter International Inc.Prosthetic anterior cruciate ligament design
US5049155 *Aug 16, 1990Sep 17, 1991W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.Elongated concentric loops
US5078744 *Sep 22, 1989Jan 7, 1992Bio-Products, Inc.Method of using tendon/ligament substitutes composed of long, parallel, non-antigenic tendon/ligament fibers
US5084151 *Feb 14, 1990Jan 28, 1992Sorin Biomedica S.P.A.Forming a plasma beam, sputtering a carbon cathode and forming a carbon coating
US5092713 *Nov 13, 1990Mar 3, 1992Conoco Inc.High axial load termination for TLP tendons
US5163958 *Aug 13, 1991Nov 17, 1992Cordis CorporationCarbon coated tubular endoprosthesis
US5171274 *Aug 28, 1991Dec 15, 1992Sulzer Brothers LimitedImplant for replacing a ligament or tendon
US5197983 *Aug 20, 1991Mar 30, 1993W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.Ligament and tendon prosthesis
US5217494 *Apr 5, 1991Jun 8, 1993Coggins Peter RTissue supporting prosthesis
US5258040 *Feb 28, 1991Nov 2, 1993W. L. Gore & AssociatesProsthesis for tensile load-carrying tissue and method of manufacture
US5356434 *May 22, 1991Oct 18, 1994British Technology Group LimitedArtificial ligaments
US5370684 *Aug 18, 1992Dec 6, 1994Sorin Biomedica S.P.A.Heart valves, vascular tubing and sutures
US5370696 *Apr 28, 1993Dec 6, 1994Smith & Nephew Richards, Inc.Prosthetic implants with a highly crystalline coating
US5387247 *Jan 3, 1990Feb 7, 1995Sorin Biomedia S.P.A.Prosthetic device having a biocompatible carbon film thereon and a method of and apparatus for forming such device
US5456722 *Jul 30, 1993Oct 10, 1995Smith & Nephew Richards Inc.Load bearing polymeric cable
US5540703 *Nov 30, 1994Jul 30, 1996Smith & Nephew Richards Inc.Knotted cable attachment apparatus formed of braided polymeric fibers
US5556428 *Sep 29, 1993Sep 17, 1996Shah; Mrugesh K.Apparatus and method for promoting growth and repair of soft tissue
US5702468 *Mar 9, 1995Dec 30, 1997Uresil CorporationCarpal bone biaxially restrained prosthesis
US5888203 *Jun 9, 1997Mar 30, 1999Goldberg; RobertBiocompatible, contoured body implants restrained along at least two crisscrossing axes; channel passes through; joint or bone replacements
US5981827 *Nov 12, 1997Nov 9, 1999Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaCarbon fiber prosthetics used as artificial joints with improved modulus of elasticity, wear resistance, coefficient of friction, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility with biological tissue and bone
US6203564Feb 26, 1998Mar 20, 2001United States SurgicalBraided polyester suture and implantable medical device
US6214047 *Mar 10, 1998Apr 10, 2001University Of CincinnatiArticle and method for coupling muscle to a prosthetic device
US6302886 *Jan 19, 1999Oct 16, 2001Innovasive Devices, Inc.Method and apparatus for preventing migration of sutures through transosseous tunnels
US6371985 *Dec 17, 1999Apr 16, 2002Robert S. GoldbergProstheses restrained by immediate attachment while ingrowth proceeds naturally over time
US6517578 *Dec 11, 2000Feb 11, 2003Atlantech Medical Devices LimitedGraft suspension device
US6592622Oct 24, 2000Jul 15, 2003Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.Apparatus and method for securing soft tissue to an artificial prosthesis
US6733510Jan 12, 2000May 11, 2004University Of CincinnatiArticle and method for coupling muscle to a prosthetic device
US6830572Oct 16, 2001Dec 14, 2004Depuy Mitex, Inc.Methods and apparatus for preventing migration of sutures through transosseous tunnels
US7001429Jun 17, 2003Feb 21, 2006Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.suturing connective tissues to resorbable and biologically inert materials of the retaining member of the prosthesis; enhanced mechanical anchoring; stimulating tissue ingrowth; joint (knee) replacement surgery
US7500983Jun 9, 2004Mar 10, 2009Biomet Sports Medicine, LlcApparatus for soft tissue attachment
US7591850Apr 1, 2005Sep 22, 2009Arthrocare CorporationSurgical methods for anchoring and implanting tissues
US7651495Sep 22, 2004Jan 26, 2010Ethicon, Inc.Methods and apparatus for preventing migration of sutures through transosseous tunnels
US7658705Dec 8, 2005Feb 9, 2010Cardioenergetics, Inc.Actuation mechanisms for a heart actuation device
US7686838Nov 9, 2006Mar 30, 2010Arthrocare CorporationExternal bullet anchor apparatus and method for use in surgical repair of ligament or tendon
US7695503Jun 9, 2004Apr 13, 2010Biomet Sports Medicine, LlcMethod and apparatus for soft tissue attachment
US7713293Apr 8, 2004May 11, 2010Arthrocare CorporationTransverse suspension device
US7715918Oct 18, 2006May 11, 2010University Of CincinnatiMuscle energy converter with smooth continuous tissue interface
US7753837Dec 8, 2005Jul 13, 2010The University Of CincinnatiPower system for a heart actuation device
US7776077Mar 12, 2008Aug 17, 2010Biomet Sports Medicince, LLCMethod for soft tissue attachment
US7819898Aug 12, 2005Oct 26, 2010Biomet Sports Medicine, LlcMethod and apparatus for soft tissue fixation
US7828820Mar 21, 2006Nov 9, 2010Biomet Sports Medicine, LlcMethod and apparatuses for securing suture
US7842042May 16, 2005Nov 30, 2010Arthrocare CorporationConvergent tunnel guide apparatus and method
US7850729Dec 8, 2005Dec 14, 2010The University Of CincinnatiDeforming jacket for a heart actuation device
US7901404Jan 18, 2005Mar 8, 2011Arthrocare CorporationBone harvesting device and method
US7905918Aug 23, 2007Mar 15, 2011William Wayne CiminoElastic metallic replacement ligament
US7967843Mar 10, 2009Jun 28, 2011Biomet Sports Medicine, LlcMethod for soft tissue attachment
US8052753Jan 9, 2006Nov 8, 2011University Of CincinnatiProsthetic anchor and method of making same
US8062295Dec 22, 2009Nov 22, 2011Depuy Mitek, Inc.Methods and apparatus for preventing migration of sutures through transosseous tunnels
US8109965Sep 29, 2006Feb 7, 2012Biomet Sports Medicine, LLPMethod and apparatus for soft tissue fixation
US8172901Mar 20, 2008May 8, 2012Allergan, Inc.Prosthetic device and method of manufacturing the same
US8308780Aug 17, 2010Nov 13, 2012Biomet Sports Medicine, LlcMethod for soft tissue attachment
US8333803 *Nov 19, 2009Dec 18, 2012Lifecell CorporationReinforced biologic material
US8449612Nov 16, 2009May 28, 2013Arthrocare CorporationGraft pulley and methods of use
US8491632Aug 15, 2011Jul 23, 2013Biomet Sports Medicine, LlcMethod and apparatus for soft tissue fixation
US8496712 *Sep 15, 2011Jul 30, 2013Inbone Technologies, Inc.Systems and methods for installing ankle replacement prostheses
US8506596Nov 8, 2010Aug 13, 2013Biomet Sports Medicine, LlcMethods and apparatuses for securing suture
US20100161054 *Nov 19, 2009Jun 24, 2010Jason ParkReinforced Biologic Material
US20110319994 *Apr 21, 2008Dec 29, 2011Slobodan TepicAcl prosthesis and anchor therefor
US20120010719 *Sep 15, 2011Jan 12, 2012Inbone Technologies, Inc.Systems and Methods for Installing Ankle Replacement Prostheses
USRE43143Dec 2, 2005Jan 24, 2012Hayhurst John OTissue manipulation
EP0106501A1 *Sep 8, 1983Apr 25, 1984W.L. GORE & ASSOCIATES, INC.A synthetic prosthesis for replacement or repair of ligaments or tendons
EP0192949A1 *Sep 8, 1983Sep 3, 1986W.L. GORE & ASSOCIATES, INC.A method of making a synthetic prosthesis for replacing or repair of ligaments or tendons
EP2111819A1 *Nov 5, 2003Oct 28, 2009Small Bone Innovations InternationalMaterial for repairing biological tissue, mainly a tendon or a ligament, and in particular the calcaneal tendon
WO2000041631A1 *Jan 12, 2000Jul 20, 2000David B MelvinArticle and method for coupling muscle to a prosthetic device
WO2004043302A1 *Nov 5, 2003May 27, 2004FixanoEquipment for repairing biological tissue, such as a tendon or a ligament and, in particular, the calcanean tendon
Classifications
U.S. Classification623/13.2
International ClassificationA61F2/08, A61F2/00, A61L27/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61F2/08, A61F2/0811, A61F2002/0882, A61F2002/0852, A61F2002/087
European ClassificationA61F2/08F, A61F2/08
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Mar 21, 1988ASAssignment
Owner name: INTERMEDICS, INC.
Free format text: RELEASED BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:MAY PARTNERSHIP, THE, BY: ROLLINS HOLDING COMPANY, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004874/0945
Effective date: 19870112
Aug 25, 1986ASAssignment
Owner name: AMERICAN PACEMAKER CORPORATION A CORP OF MA
Owner name: AMERICAN PACEMAKER CORPORATION, A MASSACHUSETTS CO
Free format text: RELEASED BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:B. A. LEASING CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:004603/0607
Owner name: CALCITEK, INC., A TEXAS CORP.
Free format text: RELEASED BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:B. A. LEASING CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:004603/0607
Owner name: CALCITEK, INC., ALL TEXAS CORPS
Owner name: CARBO-MEDICS, INC.
Owner name: CARBOMEDICS, INC., A TEXAS CORP.
Owner name: INTERMEDICS CARDIASSIST, INC.
Owner name: INTERMEDICS CARDIASSIST, INC., A TEXAS CORP.
Free format text: RELEASED BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:B. A. LEASING CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:004603/0607
Owner name: INTERMEDICS INTRAOCULAR, INC.
Owner name: INTERMEDICS INTRAOCULAR, INC., A TEXAS CORP.
Free format text: RELEASED BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:B. A. LEASING CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:004603/0607
Effective date: 19860813
Owner name: INTERMEDICS, INC.
Free format text: RELEASED BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:CHASE COMMERCIAL CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:004605/0581
Effective date: 19860804
Owner name: INTERMEDICS, INC., A TEXAS CORP.
Owner name: NEUROMEDICS, INC.
Owner name: NEUROMEDICS, INC., A TEXAS CORP.
Owner name: SURGITRONICS CORPORATION
Owner name: SURGITRONICS CORPORATION, A TEXAS CORP.
Owner name: CARBOMEDICS, INC., A TEXAS CORP., STATELESS
Owner name: INTERMEDICS, INC., A TEXAS CORP., STATELESS
Owner name: CALCITEK, INC., A TEXAS CORP., STATELESS
Owner name: INTERMEDICS INTRAOCULAR, INC., A TEXAS CORP., STAT
Owner name: INTERMEDICS CARDIASSIST, INC., A TEXAS CORP., STAT
Owner name: NEUROMEDICS, INC., A TEXAS CORP., STATELESS
Owner name: SURGITRONICS CORPORATION, A TEXAS CORP., STATELESS
Jul 8, 1986ASAssignment
Owner name: MAY PARTNERSHIP THE, 2170 PIEDMONT ROAD, N.E., ATL
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:INTERMEDICS, INC.,;INTERMEDICS CARDIASSIST, INC.;SURGITRONICS CORPORATION;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:004581/0501
Effective date: 19860703
Owner name: MAY PARTNERSHIP, THE,GEORGIA
Jun 9, 1986ASAssignment
Owner name: INTERMEDICS, INC.
Free format text: RELEASED BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:CITICORP MULTILEASE (SEF), INC.;REEL/FRAME:004576/0516
Effective date: 19860515
Owner name: INTERMEDICS, INC., INTERMEDICS CARDIASSIST, INC.,
Free format text: SAID PARTIES RECITES OBLIGATIONS RECITED IN SECURITY AGREEMENT RECORDED SEPTEMBER 17, 1984 REEL 4303 FRAMES 077-127 HAVE BEEN PAID IN FULL ALL;ASSIGNOR:CITIBANK, N.A., INDIVIDUALLY AND AS AGENT FOR BANK OF AMERICA NATIONAL TRUST AND SAVINGS ASSOCIATION, THE CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, N.A., THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF CHICAGO, TRUST COMPANY BANK, FIRST FREEPORT NATIONAL BANK OF BRAZOSPORT BANK OF TEXAS;REEL/FRAME:004592/0424
Effective date: 19860502
Free format text: SECURED PARTY HEREBY RELEASE THE SECURITY INTEREST IN AGREEMENT RECORDED AUGUST 5, 1985. REEL 4434 FRAMES 728-782;ASSIGNOR:CITIBANK, N.A.;REEL/FRAME:004592/0394
Aug 5, 1985ASAssignment
Owner name: B.A. LEASING CORPORATION
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:INTERMEDICS, INC., A CORP. OF TEXAS;INTERMEDICS CARDIASSIST, INC.;INTERMEDICS INTRAOCULAR, INC., A CORP. OF TEXAS;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:004449/0424
Owner name: CHASE COMMERCIAL CORPORATION
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:INTERMEDICS, INC., A CORP. OF TEXAS;INTERMEDICS CARDIASSIST, INC., A CORP OF TX.;INTERMEDICS INTRAOCULAR, INC., A CORP. OF TEXAS;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:004449/0501
Effective date: 19850703
Owner name: CITIBANK, N.A.
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:INTERMEDICS, INC., A TX CORP;INTERMEDICS CARDIASSIST, INC., A TX CORP.;INTERMEDICS INTRAOCULAR, INC., A TX CORP.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:004434/0728
Owner name: CITICORP MILTILEASE (SEF), INC.
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:INTERMEDICS, INC.;INTERMEDICS CARDIASSIST, INC.;INTERMEDICS INTRAOCULAR, INC., A CORP. OF TEXAS;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:004452/0900
Sep 17, 1984ASAssignment
Owner name: BANK OF AMERICA NATIONAL TRUST AND SAVINGS ASSOCIA
Owner name: BRAZOSPORT BANK OF TEXAS
Owner name: CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, N.A., THE
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:INTERMEDICS, INC.;INTERMEDICS CARDIASSIST, INC.;INTERMEDICS INTRAOCULAR, INC.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:004303/0077
Effective date: 19840726
Owner name: CITIBANK, N.A., AS AGENT
Owner name: FIRST FREEPORT NATIONAL BANK
Owner name: FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF CHICAGO, THE
Owner name: TRUST COMPANY BANK