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Publication numberUS4151311 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 05/833,905
Publication dateApr 24, 1979
Filing dateSep 16, 1977
Priority dateJan 22, 1976
Publication number05833905, 833905, US 4151311 A, US 4151311A, US-A-4151311, US4151311 A, US4151311A
InventorsNathan Feldstein
Original AssigneeNathan Feldstein
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Post colloid addition of catalytic promoters to non noble metal principal catalytic compounds in electroless plating catalysts
US 4151311 A
Abstract
A process and composition for catalyzing a substrate prior to electroless metal deposition. The catalyst formulation comprises the colloidal product resulting from the admixture of a principal catalytic agent and a catalytic promoting agent. The principle catalytic agent is selected from the metals of Period 4 of Groups 1B and VIII of the Periodic Table of the Elements while the catalytic promoting agent is selected from the metals of Period 4, 5, 6 and Groups IVB, VB, VIB and VIIB of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and further the catalytic promoter agent is admixed subsequent to the colloid nucleation process.
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Claims(28)
What I claim is:
1. A process for the catalytically rendering of a non-conductor surface receptive to electroless metal deposition comprising contacting said surface with a colloidal catalytic composition comprising the admixture of a principal catalytic agent wherein said principal catalytic agent is a compound of a metal selected from the groups of metals consisting of copper, nickel, cobalt, and iron and mixtures thereof and a catalytic promoter agent wherein said catalytic promoter agent is a compound of a metal selected from the group of metals consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, Sc, Y, La, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Tc and Re and mixtures thereof and further said catalytic promoter is added subsequent to the colloidal nucleation process in which the principal catalytic agent is allowed to react as to yield a colloid, and further wherein the concentrations for the principal catalytic agent and the catalytic promoter agent are so adjusted as to yield a catalytic composition having a greater catalytic activity for electroless metal deposition in comparison to the same catalytic composition in the absence of said catalytic promoter agent.
2. The process according to claim 1 wherein said catalytic promoter agent is selected from at least one member of the group consisting of chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten and zirconium.
3. The process according to claim 1 wherein said electroless metal deposition is electroless copper.
4. The process according to claim 1 wherein said electroless metal deposition yields an image intensification.
5. The process according to claim 1, wherein said principal catalytic agent is a compound containing copper.
6. The process according to claim 1 further containing the step of activation and wherein said activation step is devoid of precious metal(s).
7. The process according to claim 6 further containing the step of electroles deposition.
8. The process according to claim 1 wherein said non-conductor is ABS.
9. The process according to claim 1 wherein said electroless metal deposition is copper.
10. The process according to claim 1 wherein said catalytic promoter agent is a compound of a metal selected from the group of metals consisting of Zr, Hf, V, Cr, Mo W, Mn.
11. The process according to claim 1 wherein said catalytic promoter agent is a compound of the metal containing Mo+6, Mn+2, Cr+3, W+6, V+5, and Mn+7, and mixtures thereof.
12. The process according to claim 1 wherein said electroless metal deposition is nickel.
13. The process according to claim 1 wherein said colloidal catalytic composition is derived by the interreaction of a soluble copper compound with a soluble borohydride.
14. The process according to claim 1 wherein said colloidal catalytic composition is of a positive colloid.
15. The process according to claim 1 wherein said colloidal catalytic composition is of a negative colloid.
16. The process according to claim 1 wherein said principal catalytic agent is a compound of copper and further contains a nickel compound.
17. The process according to claim 1 wherein said principal catalytic agent is a copper compound and further contains a compound of cobalt.
18. The process according to claim 1 wherein the concentration of the principal catalytic agent is greater than the concentration of the catalytic promoter agent.
19. The process according to claim 1 further containing the step of activation whereby the induction time for the actual metal deposition is reduced.
20. The process according to claim 19 wherein said activation comprises a reduction step and wherein said reduction may be effected via chemical reducing agent or light or heat and combinations thereof.
21. The process according to claim 1 wherein the concentration of said catalytic promoter agent is from about 0.12 g/l. to about 1.2 g/l.
22. The process according to claim 1 wherein said colloidal catalytic composition is in an alkaline pH.
23. The process according to claim 1 further containing the step of water rinsing.
24. The process according to claim 1 wherein said non-conductor surface is selectively catalyzed.
25. The process according to claim 1 wherein said colloidal catalytic composition further contains at least one colloid stabilizer.
26. The process according to claim 1 further containing the step of activation and wherein said activation selectively removes colloid stabilizer present on the non-conductor surface after contacting said non-conductor surface with said colloidal catalytic composition.
27. The process according to claim 1 further containing the step of drying.
28. The process according to claim 1 wherein said non-conductor is preconditioned prior to contacting with said colloidal catalytic composition.
Description

Reference to Prior Applications: This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 651,507 filed Jan. 22, 1976.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

In the plating of dielectric (non-conductor) substrates by chemical (electroless) plating, it is well known that suitable catalytic pretreatment is a prerequisite for effective electroless metal deposition. Such practices are well known and accepted in the art.

In examining the prior art for catalytic pretreatment it appears that while different procedures have been used, the incorporation of precious metals (e.g. palladium containing solutions) was common to all procedures. One catalytic system of particular interest is the two step process as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,011,920. The effective catalyst is proposed to be a colloid of an elemental precious metal (e.g. palladium) stabilized by the excess stannous chloride present in the media. While the system disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,011,920 has been quite popular in commercial practices, rising costs of precious metals, the high acidic content, and miscellaneous product reliability problems has led to the quest for new systems in which the use of precious metals, tin, as well as of the hydrochloric acid could be completely eliminated.

In meeting this objective it was found, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,993,799, that colloidal systems based upon non-precious metals could constitute the basis for catalysts in new commercial plating processes. More specifically it was found that colloid metals, alloys and hydrous-oxides of non-precious metals (preferably of the group consisting of metals of Period 4, groups IB and VIII of the Period Table of the Elements) may be used in the direct replacement of palladium catalysts used in the art followed by a treatment in a suitable activating media (which is optional); and thereby providing more energetic catalytic sites capable of initiation of the electroless process. In addition, colloidal matter of compounds bearing the catalytic metals are also of potential in the present process.

In another system (U.S. Pat. No. 3,993,491) it was found that copper ions in excess stannous ions may also constitute the basis for the catalysis of non-conductors. Still another system utilizing non-precious metal ions is described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,772,056 and 3,772,078 issued to Polichette et al. In the systems described therein, the dielectric substrate to be plated is immersed in a solution of non-precious metal ions, and then dried to promote adherence of the ions to the dielectric surface. The retained ions may then be reduced to the metallic state by heat, light or chemical means. A system of this nature is a significant departure from the standard commercial process as a result of the required intermediate drying step to achieve the required adhesion. In standard commercial processes, the article to be plated is passed from one aqueous treating tank to another with intermediate rinsing steps to remove excessive material and hence minimize cross-contamination. A procedure of this nature is essential due to the automation of most plating operations and thus the Polichette et al procedure would require a major modification in standard equipment and procedures, thus rendering the process unattractive and costly. A process for electroless plating, to be commercially feasible, should be adaptable to existing commercial processing techniques.

The present invention and procedures intends to improve the performance of such non-noble (preferably consisting of the metals of Period 4, Groups IB and VIII of the Periodic Table of the Elements) based catalytic systems. However, it is not to be limited to any specific manner or mechanism by which these metals are applied (true solutions vs. colloidal dispersions or emulsions) to or found on the surface (i.e., oxidation state) of the substrate to be plated.

This invention is further an improvement of the copending application Ser. No. 651,507 which is included herein by reference.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A process of preparing a catalytic composition for electroless plating or image intensification processes, comprises the steps of (a) forming a principal catalyst consisting of a colloidal dispersion and then (b) admixing said primary catalyst with a promoter. When necessary, the above is then treated with an activating composition.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The catalytic compositions of the present invention are applicable to the metallic plating of a wide variety of dielectric substrates including thermoplastic, thermosetting resins and especially in the fabrication of printed circuitry arrays. Printed circuits may be fabricated by any of several techniques; copper clad with thru-holes, semi and total additive methods. Accordingly using the present invention is such fabrication methods should be obvious falling within the spirit of this invention. Normally, these substrates are etched, e.g., by treatment with a solution of chromium oxide and sulfuric acid or by `dry` processes (corrona discharge) as known in the art, prior to plating in order to improve wettability and the subsequent adhesion of the metallic coating. Following the pre-treatment the substrate is contacted with a catalytic composition in accordance with the present invention.

The term "Catalytic compositions" as used herein is intended to encompass compositions comprising inorganic compounds and mixtures thereof which are either soluble, sparingly or completely insoluble in the solvent or dispersing media and which include both the principal catalytic agent and compounds comprising the catalytic promoting agent. Such compositions when contacted with the substrate to be plated, catalyze directly or indirectly the substrate for electroless plating. The solvent or dispersing media (hereinafter used interchangeably) is preferably water.

"Principal Catalytic Agent" as used herein is intended to include the derivative of the cationic portion of non-noble metals (e.g., nickel, cobalt, copper and iron) of the inorganic compounds comprising the catalytic compositions. This agent may be in any of several oxidation states or phases. This catalytic agent further provides directly or indirectly portions of the catalytic sites for the initiation of the electroless plating process. It is recognized that the mechanism of initiation of electroless plating may vary with the nature of the catalytic agent and with the electroless plating bath(s) used. For example, the initiation mechanism is different for electroless copper (formaldehyde based) plating in the presence of iron, as compared with cupprous or copper on the substrate surface prior to the electroless initiation. This invention is thus not limited with respect to the initiation mechanism between the catalytic surface and the electroless plating formulations and as such various non-precious (non-noble) metal derivatives may be used, of which copper, cobalt, nickel and iron are preferred. In addition, this invention is not limited to the number of phases existing in said catalytic compositions. The use of other catalytic metals should be evident in view of the references cited herein.

The term "Catalytic Promoter Agent" as used in the present invention refers to chemical substances (e.g., compounds) which while alone are generally inert (relative to the principle catalytic agent) in said electroless plating proces, but when combined with the principal catalytic agent as described by the novel catalytic composition herein, promotes unexpected increased catalytic activity when the catalyzed substrate is contacted with the electroless plating bath. This increased catalytic activity generally may be observed as a reduction of the induction time for the electroless process and/or as improved metallic coverage or other parameters well recognized by one skilled in the art. Preferred promoters are selected from compounds of metals in Periods 4, 5 and 6 and Groups IVB, VB, VIB and VIIB of the Periodic Table of the Elements.

In addition to the promoters which fall into the aforementioned groups, certain other elements have also been found to have a promoter effect. However, to date, the observed effect of these other promoters is considerably less than the primary promoters of Groups IVB, VB, VIB and VIIB. Examples of these other promoters are: magnesium, calcium and yittrium. Such other promoters could be useful in processes of electroless metal deposition on pre-catalyzed substrates. Furthermore, in the group of zinc, cadmium and mercury an increased trend towards catalytic inhibition was noted in going from zinc to mercury.

The term "activation" refers to the step in the process through which the induction time for electroless plating on the catalytic sites previously formed on the suface of the substrate is reduced this step may be optical. The term "activator" therefore, encompasses any composition, substance or form of energy (e.g., UV Light) or heat or combination thereof which results in activation of the catalytic sites. This step can be implemented as taught by the reference cited herein. Applying the activation and/or catalyzation steps selectively provides a means for selective metal deposition. For example such selected techniques can be found with reference to a published survey Feldstein, Plating August 1970, however, not limited to those.

One form of activator, is a composition which reduces the valence of the cationic portion leading to the principal catalytic agent. Typical reducing agents useful in the practice of the invention are derivitives of soluble borohydrides (NaBH4). Under certain conditions, portions of the surface product after chemical reduction with above reducing agents exhibits the characteristics of metallic borides (e.g., Cu2 B, and Ni2 B). As such, these are also part of the catalytic sites available for electroless initiation.

It should be noted that a separate activation step is not always necessary if suitable chemical components which cause activation are included in the chemical plating bath.

Another form of activation may be immersion into a chemical composition which selectively removes specific components (e.g. colloid stabilizer) present on the substrate after contacting with the catalytic compositions and thereby exposing active sites for the plating initiation.

The term "colloid stabilizer" is used herein to generally describe substrates believed to be absorbed onto the colloids thereby altering the suface charge characteristics of said colloids preventing their coagulation. Stabilizers contemplated by the present invention include secondary colloids (e.g. gelatine, agar-agar, proteins, starch, albumin etc.) Polyalcohols (e.g. glycerol), surfactants selected from the general classes of anionic, cationic amphoterics and nonioninics such as; stearyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, t-C12 -C14 NH(CH2 CH2 O)15 H, sodium alkylaryl polyether sulfonate dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, sodium laurylsulfate and ammonium lignin sulfonate either in the presence or absence of sugars, sodium tetradecyl sulfate, sodium heptadecyl sulfate, alkylaryl polyether, amine polyglycol condensate etc.) dispersants and sugars (maltose, raffinose, etc.) which while themselves do not serve to catalyze the dielectric substrate in this process, are believed to stabilize the catalytic colloid(s).

In general, the electroless coating process of the present invention comprises contacting, e.g. by immersion, the dielectric substrate, (preferably previously etched) with the catalytic composition, rinsing the substrate with deionized water and then contacting the substrate with activator to form a discontinuous coating of the catalytic sites on the surface of the substrate for the initiation of the electroless process upon subsequent immersion of the substrate in an appropriate electroless plating bath.

More specifically, the improved composition and process of the present invention is comprised of the following sequence of steps followed by electroless plating.

(1) Immersing a dielectric substrate (preferably previously etched) in a catalytic composition comprising the admixture of the principal catalytic agent of a non-precious metal, preferably selected from at least one member of the group consisting of copper, nickel, cobalt, iron and mixtures thereof; and the catalytic promoting agent preferably selected from the group consisting of manganese, chromium, tungsten, molybendum, zirconium and vanadium and mixtures thereof.

(2) Rinsing the substrate with water to remove excess catalytic composition

(3) (Optional) immersing (or exposing) the substrate after rinsing to an activator.

(4) Optionally rinsing the substrate with water prior to electroless plating, and

(5) Electroless metal deposition.

For the sake of convenience, certain of the examples set forth hereinafter will not refer to the intermediate rinsing steps. A rinsing step (step 2) is, in all instances, involved however. In specific instances, it is possible to delete steps 3 and 4 as set forth above by directly immersing the substrate, after rinsing, in an electroless plating solution containing a suitable activator (e.g. reducing agent).

The following examples are illustrative of the present invention and is not to be taken in limitation thereof:

In demonstrating and evaluating the findings of the present invention, the following general procedure was adopted unless otherwise stated:

(1) ABS substrate (Monsanto PG Grey 299) were etched for about 10 minutes in a solution comprising of 400 g/l CrO3, 350 ml/l H2 SO4 and 0.5 g/l FC-95 at 70 C. and rinsed.

(2) Sections of etched of ABS substrates were immersed in the catalytic solutions at 50 C. for 5 minutes and rinsed.

(3) Substrates from step 2 were activated; e.g. immersion into a solution comprising of 0 5 g/l NaBH4 at 24 to 27 C. for 3 minutes and rnsed.

(4) Catalyzed substrates were immersed into either electroless copper or electroless nickel (both at 50 C.3 C.) formulation and both the induction time and percent coverage of the surface was recorded. In the case of the electroless copper the percent coverage (estimated visually) was recorded after 1 minute of immersion while in the case of the nickel the percent coverage was noted after 2 minutes of immersion.

The following electroless baths were used in the evaluation:

______________________________________Bath ACuSO4 :5H2 O                15 g/lEDTA (40%)           68 cc/lNaOH                 9 g/lNaCN                 3 ppmH2 CO (37%)     22 cc/lTergitol TMN         0.2 (% wt)(A nonionic sufactant product of Union Carbide)Bath BNiSO4           2.7  10-2 MNa4 P2 O7                7.8  10-2 MNaH2 PO2   1.1  10-1 M______________________________________

It is further noted that in each case simultaneous comparison to the control solution was made as to obtain an accurate comparison and thereby discounting any variations in the process (e.g. temperature). Typical results were as follows with the second set (when appears) of numbers representing the values corresponding to control solution.

EXAMPLE 1

Control catalytic solution used:

______________________________________NiSO4 . 6H2 O  3.6 g/lAmmonium lignin sulfonate                    3.1 g/lNaOH                     1.0 g/l______________________________________

Test 1: same as control with 0.35 g/l NaVO3.H2 O present

Using the above procedure and plating bath A the test solution and control both gave 5 sec. induction time and 100% coverage.

EXAMPLE 2

Control catalytic solution used:

______________________________________CoSO4 . 7H2 0  3.6 g/lAmmonium lignin sulfonate                    3.1 g/lNaOH                     1.0 g/l______________________________________

Test 1: Same as control with 0.3 g/l of Na2 MoO4.2H2 O present.

Test 2: Same as control with 0.20 g/l of MnCl2.4H2 O present. *

Test 3: Same as control with 0.5 g/l of Cr(NO3)3.9H2 O present.

Test 4: Same as control with 1.2 g/l of Na2 WO4.2H2 O present.

Test 5: Same as control with 0.17 g/l of NaVO3.H2 O present.

Test 6: Same as control with 1.2 g/l of ZrOCl2.8H2 O present.

______________________________________Induction time (sec) and metallic coverage (%)Plating Bath A      With promoter      W/o promoter______________________________________Test 1      7 & 100     vs    10 & 100Test 2     10 & 100     vs    10 &  70Test 3     10 & 100     vs    15 & 100Test 4      5 & 100     vs    17 &  95Test 5     12 & 100     vs    17 &  95Test 6      5 & 100     vs    15 & 100Plating Bath BTest 1     30 & 100     vs    30 &  40                         (average of two sides)Test 2     20 & 100     vs    35 &  10Test 3     30 & 100     vs    35 &  30Test 6     (?)&(100 & 10)                   vs    35 &  15      (per side)______________________________________
EXAMPLE 3

Control catalytic solution used:

______________________________________Cu(NO3)2 . 3H2 O                  3.6 g/lAmmonium lignin sulfonate                  3.1 g/lNaOH                   1.0 g/l______________________________________

Test 1: same as control with 0.12 g/l of NaVO3.H2 O present

Test 2: same as control with 0.35 g/l of NaVO3.H2 O present

Evaluation results in bath A were as follows:

______________________________________Induction time (sec.) & metallic coverage (%)W/o promoter              With promoter______________________________________Test 1  18 & 100       vs     15 & 100Test 2  25 &  50       vs     25 & 100______________________________________

It is further noted that while the results obtained in the above electroless copper, using commercially available copper baths the present findings show a more pronounced effect. This is believed to be due to the fact that the commercial copper baths are stabilized to a greater extent than the bath disclosed as bath A.

EXAMPLE 4

Using a catalytic composition comprised of stannous and coprous ions, addition of manganese chloride as the promoter did provide improved catalytic performance.

It was found that the incorporation of the catalytic promoter agent(s) can be admixed prior to the colloid nucleation or post colloid nucleation. For example, using a catalytic composition comprised of the admixture of;

______________________________________CoCl2 . 6H2 O              2.38       g/lCuSO4 . 5H2 O              9.96       g/lSodium Lignosulfonate*              12.0       g/lMnCl2 4H2 O              0.19       g/lNaBH4         0.76       g/lNaOH               8.0        g/l______________________________________ *some reducing sugars are present.

it was found that better plating results are encountered when the catalytic promoter agent was added post colloid nucleation step.

In general, it has been noted that promoters showed a more significant effect(s) with electroless plating formulations having a greater apparent activation energy. Such is the case in the comparison of bath A vs. bath B where bath B has a higher apparent activation energy than bath A. Moreover, incorporation of materials (e.g. Zn, Cd and others) while they did not adversely affect the results noted in bath A, they showed a clear tendency of inhibition when bath B was employed.

It is further noted that in using the present invention it is essential that the chemical components present in the electroless bath be favorably compatible with the catalytic surface and its composition. Specifically, one must be assured that the baths component(s) do not deactivate the catalytic surface when brought in contact. From the examples submitted, however, it is noted that the materials which are useful as a catalytic promoters fall within Periods 4, 5 and 6 and Groups IVB, VB, VIB, and VIIB of the Periodic Table of the Elements; all having (the elements) an incomplete d-orbitals. While in my investigation, most commonly available materials have been tested (e.g. compounds, of V, Cr, Mn, Mo, Zr and W) extension of this work to other materials within the periods and groups described is an obvious extension and hence falling into the spirit of this invention.

While it is not known exactly the manner by which the catalytic promoter agent is retained (adsorption and/or absorption) onto the substrate or the principal catalytic agent, it has been recognized that its addition to the catalytic solution must be controlled since too little of a concentration may not exhibit the catalytic promoting effect while too high may inhibit the entire process. Accordingly, for incorporation of such agents it is therefore best to determine the effective (optimum) concentration by a trial procedure with full consideration of the entire process, compositions, substrate, catalytic media and plating solution(s).

In the electroless plating of catalytically pretreated non-conductors it is highly desirable to achieve conditions whereby the induction time for the electroless process is short (e.g. less than 30 seconds) and with complete coverage in less than 1-minute time. Prolonged induction times generally result in poor metallic coverage (i.e., skip-plating), hence resulting in poor process reliability. It is thus highly desirable to achieve conditions whereby the induction time is shortened; however, without changing for instance the electroless plating activity (temperature). This invention describes a way for achieving such a goal.

While we do not wish to be bound by theory, based upon our findings it is expected that after the catalyzation and activation steps the surface of the substrate to be plated would comprise both the metal(s) constituting the principal catalytic agent(s) as well as the metals(s) or compound constituting the catalytic promoting agent(s). Their exact oxidation states or possible alloying compositions is not known; and would be most difficult to ascertain since the phenomenon on hand one forms "discontinuous film" highly amorphous and not readily comparable with diffraction patterns available for bulk materials.

I have also recognized that my findings disclosed herein could play a significant role in selective metal deposition or in photographic systems based upon non-precious metals. For example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,859,092, 3,860,500 and 3,860,501 demonstrate processes for photographic (Image reproduction) or printed circutry applications whereby photosensitive copper (I) complexes are irradiated and then developed in electroless plating formulations. Therefore, it should be obvious that the incorporation of the present findings to technologies related to imaging using metals selected from the group consisting of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel falls within the spirit of this invention the teachings in those patents is incorporated herein by reference.

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4259376 *Mar 21, 1979Mar 31, 1981Nathan FeldsteinCatalytic promoters in electroless plating catalysts applied as an emulsion
US4264421 *May 30, 1979Apr 28, 1981Board Of Regents, University Of Texas SystemPhotocatalytic methods for preparing metallized powders
US4323594 *May 27, 1980Apr 6, 1982Nathan FeldsteinColloidal dispersions for activating non-conductors prior to electroless plating
US4407869 *Dec 13, 1982Oct 4, 1983Richardson Chemical CompanyControlling boron content of electroless nickel-boron deposits
US4617204 *Jun 28, 1985Oct 14, 1986The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of EnergyChemical synthesis of thin films and supported crystals by oxidation of zintl anions
US4661827 *Mar 3, 1986Apr 28, 1987Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd.Thermal head
US4704616 *Aug 19, 1986Nov 3, 1987Seiko Epson Kabushiki KaishaApparatus for electrothermal printing
US4882202 *Oct 21, 1987Nov 21, 1989Techno Instruments Investments 1983 Ltd.Use of immersion tin and tin alloys as a bonding medium for multilayer circuits
US4911957 *Sep 22, 1988Mar 27, 1990Nippon Paint Co., Ltd.Method of forming ferrite film on particles or fibers
US5405656 *Dec 3, 1993Apr 11, 1995Nippondenso Co., Ltd.Solution for catalytic treatment, method of applying catalyst to substrate and method of forming electrical conductor
US5424252 *Nov 16, 1993Jun 13, 1995Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo KenkyushoPhoto-plating solution and process
EP0073583A1 *Aug 10, 1982Mar 9, 1983Richardson Chemical CompanyElectroless nickel-boron plating
Classifications
U.S. Classification427/553, 427/305, 427/304, 427/554, 427/256, 106/1.11, 427/306, 427/557
International ClassificationC23C18/28
Cooperative ClassificationC23C18/28
European ClassificationC23C18/28