|Publication number||US4152931 A|
|Application number||US 05/878,783|
|Publication date||May 8, 1979|
|Filing date||Feb 17, 1978|
|Priority date||Mar 21, 1977|
|Also published as||DE2750153A1, DE2750153B2, DE2750153C3|
|Publication number||05878783, 878783, US 4152931 A, US 4152931A, US-A-4152931, US4152931 A, US4152931A|
|Original Assignee||Zellweger, Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (6), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates to a method of and an apparatus for evaluating yarn signals having an at least approximately periodic component superimposed on an irregularity.
Modern methods of producing yarns make it necessary to monitor the yarn at the spinning positions continuously and directly. Irregularities at individual spinning positions may thus be detected immediately and necessary measures taken so that the production of faulty yarns is recognized at the moment of formation and is prevented as quickly as possible after detection.
The plurality of spinning positions used in operation, however, also requires a plurality of monitoring devices. Accordingly, it is desirable to provide a method of monitoring which requires as low an outlay on devices for carrying out the method as possible.
In order to do this, the number of requirements to be met by such monitoring methods has to be restricted to individual criteria. In order to detect the production of faulty yarns at an early stage, it is absolutely essential to determine periodic components superimposed upon the general irregularity caused by the production process. If such periodic components do not stand out particularly in the general irregularity, they may have a very disturbing effect during further processing of the yarn, for example, by producing a so-called Moire effect which makes the corresponding fabric unusable.
Various methods and apparatus are already known for determining periodic components in the irregularity of yarn parameters. However, they are either too slow or require an additional expensive circuit.
By restricting the evaluation of the irregularity, or of the yarn signal obtained from the detection of the irregularity, of the yarn by means of measuring instruments known per se merely to the periodic components thereof, it has been found that autocorrelation was initially suitable for this purpose, particularly since it affords a basis for evaluating the yarn signals by means of digital signa-processing methods.
According to the present invention there is provided a method of evaluating yarn signals in which there is at least one approximately periodic portion superimposed on an irregularity, wherein yarn signals are obtained from the cross section or diameter of the yarn by means of detectors, the polarities of discrete values of the yarn signals are determined in comparators, and at least one counting device is used to determine how often a coinciding polarity of the yarn signals is found in constant intervals τ, for all time intervals τ in a predetermined range τ2 -τ1.
The invention also provides an apparatus for evaluating yarn signals having at least one approximately periodic portion superimposed on an irregularity, comprising comparators for determining the polarity of discrete values of the yarn signals, at least one counting device for determining the number of values in constant intervals with coinciding polarity for all intervals in a predetermined range τ2 -τ1, and threshold value devices for determining if prescribed numerical values are exceeded in the counting devices.
In the accompany drawings:
FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram of a first embodiment of an apparatus according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic block diagram of a second embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a diagram showing an autocorrelation function of the sign function of a first yarn signal; and
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing another autocorrelation function.
When processing a yarn signal in an 8-bit microcomputer, the yarn signal is quantized into 256 quantization stages. However, the number of quantization stages may be reduced, if desired, to two quantization stages being obtained in the limiting case. Thus, for example, logic "1" is provided if the signal is positive or logic "" is provided if the signal is negative. In other words, the sign function of the yarn signal is formed which is defined as ##EQU1## In this case, the autocorrelation function may be calculated very simply as: ##EQU2## Since the EXOR function enters at the position of multiplication and may be effected in terms of circuitry by a gate or by a 2 μsec command in the case of the microcomputer. This autocorrelation function at the sign function is also known as polarity coincidence detection.
The analog-digital converter is reduced to a comparator. When processing with an n-bit microcomputer, n such quantized signals may be introduced in parallel. Such an arrangement is shown in FIG. 1. Yarn signals U11, U12, U13 received by the detectors 11, 12, 13 are quantized in comparators 21, 22, 23, i.e., are broken down into positive or negative signals q21, q22, q23 each of which is fed to an input of a microcomputer 30 for further evaluation.
Since the signal amplitudes have no effect on the value of the sign function, control of amplification or sensitivity is unnecessary. In addition, the comparators 21, 22, 23 may be integrated into the detectors 11, 12, 13. The detectors then emit only two possible initial states, thus increasing the protection from interference.
However, this method of evaluation only allows periodic cross-sectional variations to be determined, but not those of increased irregularity. Another simplification is produced if the equation ##EQU3## is calculated, instead of the autocorrelations function R (τ) according to equation 2 of the sign function. This function may be produced by means of a simple circuit without the need of a microcomputer. If the limits τ1 and τ2 are selected to be such that they include the range of the possible periods and evaluation continues over a sufficiently long period, this function is also capable of distinguishing yarn signals with a periodic portion from normal yarn. This can be confirmed experimentally.
A circuit arrangement for producing the function P according to equation 3 for a passage is shown in FIG. 2.
The procedure begins with the clearing of an up/down counter 36. An amplitude value U' of the yarn signal U11 is then scanned by a "Sample-and-hold" stage 20. A comparator 21 produces the sign function. Depending on the polarity of the scanned value, "0" or "1" appears at the out output thereof. This value is read into a serial k-bit shift register 31 and the entire content is shifted to the right by a bit. The value which is in the right-hand position usually overflows in this process. This shift register contains the k most recently scanned of the scanned values U' of the signal U11 reduced to the polarity symbol thereof. The switch 34 which is connected in parallel with a part 33 of the shift register 31 is now closed so that the contents of the part 33 of the shift register may be circulated once in shift register 33. In this process, each bit is compared with the new bit at the output of the comparator 21 by means of an EXOR gate 35.
If the two bits are equal, the EXOR gate 35 allows the counter 36 to count one unit upwards, and if not, to count one unit downwards. With a purely stochastic signal, the number of coinciding bits will be equal to the number of non-coinciding bits. The counter 36 thus counts upwards as frequently as downwards. Its final value after a monitoring interval of sufficient duration is thus approximately 0. However, if the yarn signal has a periodic portion, coincidences take place more frequently. The counter 36 then counts upwards more frequently than downwards and contains a value at the end of a cycle which exceeds a prescribed reference value so that a digital comparator 37 acting as a threshold device transmits a pulse to a switching means 38. The switching means 38 controls signaling or adjusting devices which indicate the appearance of yarn signals with periodic portions.
The length of the first part 32 of the shift register 31 determines the avalue of τ, and the length of the entire shift register 31 determines τ2. This is illustrated in the following example. If the yarn is scanned at 1 cm intervals and if the entire shift register is 24 bits long with the reading after 10 bits, then τ1 corresponds to a period length of 10 cm and τ2 to a period length of 24 cm. However, the detectable range is not thus restricted to a period length of from 10 to 24 cm but includes the range from 5 cm to 24 cm. A period of 5 cm does, in fact, have a first harmonic at 10 cm when the autocorrelation function (ACF) is formed and this first harmonic falls in the directly detectable range of from 10 cm to 24 cm.
The line 40 in FIG. 3 shows the ACF R (τ) of the sign function of a yarn signal with a periodic portion wherein the period length has been determined with τx at a peak 41, for example, with 15 cm wavelength. The peak 41 means that a predominantly coinciding polarity is determined at intervals of 15 cm, for example, more frequently than in intervals of 20 cm. This peak is repeated at 42 (2 τx, at 3 τx and so forth), which is a fundamental pproperty of the ACF.
The value P according to equation 3 corresponds to the area above the abscissa minus the area below the abscissa. This value is larger if a peak 41 is present as a result of a periodic portion in the yarn signal than when this is not the case.
Since the length of a period which is present in all cases is not known in advance, it is not sufficient to calculate the ACF merely for a particular value of τ. Rather, it is determined for a range τ2 -τ1, in which periods are possible or expected.
FIG. 4 shows an ACF 44 with a period of 5 cm. The first peak 45 which represents the fundamental wave lies beneath the range τ1 =10 cm to τ2 =24 cm which may be measured in the example according to FIG. 3. The harmonics with peaks 46, 47, 48, however, lie within this range. Periods with shorter wavelengths may thus also be detected with a measurement range τ2 to τ1 from 10 to 24 cm.
While I have shown and described several embodiments in accordance with the present invention, it is understood that the same is not limited thereto but is susceptible of numerous changes and modifications as known to those of skill in the art; and, I therefore do not wish to be limited to the details shown and described herein but intend to cover all such changes and modifications as are obvious to those of ordinary skill in the art.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4007457 *||Jan 24, 1975||Feb 8, 1977||Zellweger, Ltd.||Method of and apparatus for detecting faults in the operation of open-end spinning machines|
|US4051722 *||Feb 22, 1977||Oct 4, 1977||Zellweger, Ltd.||Method and apparatus for measuring irregularities in the cross-section of yarns, roving, bands and the like|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4758968 *||May 16, 1985||Jul 19, 1988||North Carolina State University||Method and apparatus for continuously measuring the variability of textile strands|
|US5592849 *||Nov 13, 1995||Jan 14, 1997||Murata Kikai Kabushiki Kaisha||Yarn uneveness information analyzing apparatus|
|US6062074 *||Dec 7, 1998||May 16, 2000||Zellweger Luwa Ag||Method for detecting periodic defects in a test material moved longitudinally|
|US6112508 *||Dec 7, 1998||Sep 5, 2000||Zellweger Luwa Ag||Device for monitoring yarns on ring spinning machines|
|US6134871 *||Oct 23, 1998||Oct 24, 2000||Murata Kikai Kabushiki Kaisha||Individual-spindle-drive type textile machine|
|US6422072 *||Mar 23, 1999||Jul 23, 2002||Zellweger Luwa Ag||Device for measuring properties of a longitudinally moved specimen such as yarn|
|U.S. Classification||73/160, 57/265|
|International Classification||G01B7/12, B65H63/06, D01H13/32|
|Cooperative Classification||B65H2701/31, B65H63/062|