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Publication numberUS423133 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 11, 1890
Filing dateMay 13, 1889
Publication numberUS 423133 A, US 423133A, US-A-423133, US423133 A, US423133A
InventorsJ. W. S. Cooke
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 423133 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

(No Model.) 5 SheetsSheet 1.


No. 423,133. Patented Mar. 11, 1890.

6'0 vdeneer N, PETERS, Pholoillhw'graplwn Waahinglon. o. c.

(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 2.


No. 423,133. Patented Mar. 11, 1890.

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5 Sheets-Sheet 3,

(No Model.)


Patented Mar. 11, 189(0.

5 Sheets-Sheet 4.

(No Model.)

H. J. W. S. 000KB. 000mm AND REFRIGERATING APPARATUS. 'No. 423,133.

. Patented Mar. 11, 1890.


(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 H. J. W. S; 000KB. COOLING AND REFRIGBRATING APPARATUS.


N. PETERS. PhujvLilhognphur, Washington. D. u




SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 423,133, dated March 11, 1890.

Application filed May 13, 1889.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, HENRY J. WV. S. COOKE, of East Orange, in the county of Essex and State of New-Jersey, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Cooling and Refrigerating Apparatus, of which the following is a specification.

My invention is an improvement upon apparatus for cooling and refrigerating, for which United States Letters Patent No. 240,049 were issued to Harry F. Stanley, April 12, 1881, and relates to that class of such apparatus in which the cooling results from the expansion of the gas of liquefied ammonia, and in which asup ply of liquefying ammonia is consequently maintained by the recondensation of the ammoniacal vapor or gas.

In carrying out my improvement I employ a generator in which ammoniacal liquors are received and in which they are subjected to the action of heat. The vapors arising from the generator pass through an analyzer c011- taining strong ammoniacal liquor, and the gas from the analyzer is conveyed away to a rectifier. From the rectifier the anhydrous gas passes to a condenser, where it is condensed. The liquid ammonia'then passes to a receiver, where it is stored, and from the receiver to a cooler, through which the brine or other liquid to be cooled passes. From the cooler the gas passes to an absorber, where it is united with weal: ammoniacal liquor from a heater receiving its supply from the gen erator. The strong ammoniacal liquor thus formed is returned by means of a pump to the heater, where it is reheated and passes to the analyzer to be again converted into gas.

The improvement comprises certain details of construction and arrangement, hereinafter to be more specifically set forth.

In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is an elevation of apparatus embodying my improvement, certain parts being broken away and certain parts being in section. Fig. 2 isa vertical section of the cooler. Fig. 3 is a vertical section of the absorber. Fig. 4: is a vertical section of the rectifier. Fig. 5 is a plan of a certain tray employed. in the ana- Serial No. 310,561- (No model.)

lyzer. Fig. 9 is averticalsection of the same. Fig. 10 is a plan view of a certain other plate employed in the analyzer. cal section of the same. Fig. 12 is a detail view of certain nipples employed in conjunction with the trays shown in Figs. 8 and 10. Figs. 2, 3, 6, and 7 show certain portions broken away to save space. Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 are drawn in alarger scale than Fig. 1, and the nipple shown in Fig. 12 is drawn in a larger scale than those shown in Figs. 8, 9, 10, and 11.

Similar letters of reference designate corresponding parts in all the figures.

A designates a generator or still, in which the aqueous solution of ammonia is first submitted to the action of heat. The heat is furnished by steam passing through coils of pipe arranged within the generator A and at the lower portion thereof. I have shown but one of'such coils; but I employ two. A coil A receives the eXhaust-steam,which exhaust-steam is delivered to it from any convenient source. Ihave shown a pipe aleading from a brine-pump. Another pipe at leads from an ammonia-pump, and another pipe a may lead from a cold-water pump. The brine-pump and cold-water pump are not shown. These pipes or any others of similar nature may unite at a coupling a, and the combined exhauststeam will be from thence delivered from a pipe a into the coil A. Into the other of said coils, which is not shown, live steam may be delivered through a pipe a directly from a boiler. Each of the coils is provided with an outlet, which unite at aland discharge through a common pipe a from whence it may be returnedto the boiler by means of an ordinary trap. By this method of heating the generatorl utilize all the heat in the steam wherever the latter is employed throughout the operation of the apparatus, thereby affecting a material saving in the consumption of fuel. I prefer that the generator shall be made of wrought steel or iron, so that it may be as light as possible. It is supported upon saddles a.

B designates an analyzer, in which the liquors to the action of vapors ascending operation of subjecting strong ammoniacal from the generator is performed, and where- Fig. 11 is a verti it will extend upwardly above the generator A. At its lower end it is in open communication with the generator A through a pipe or passage 6'. Through this pipe orpassage the vapors from the generator ascend into the analyzer. WVithin the analyzer are arranged a series of trays one above the other, -which trays have upon them ammoniacal liquors, from which it is desired to separate the ammonia-gas. The lower of these trays, or B, is shown more clearly in Figs. 8 and 9. Said tray is provided about centrally with an opening, with which is connected a tube or pipe b which extends downwardly into the .generator A, and is provided at its lower end with a cup 6 forming a water seal. The other trays in the series are illustrated more clearly in Figs. 10 and 11. Each of these trays comprises an outlet-pipe b and a depressed or recessed portion b the pipes b, when the trays are all in place, extend downwardly into the depressed or recessed portions Z2 of the trays next belowthem, thus forming water seals. All of the trays are provided with upwardly-extending nipples I). These nipples, one of which is shown on an enlarged scale in Fig. 12, are screwed at their lower ends into suitable openings in the bottoms of the trays. Their upper ends are closed; but they are circumferent-ially perforated with a number of small perforations. Extending diametrically across the trays are partitions 6 which stop short of one side of the trays.

Strong ammoniacal liquor is admitted to the analyzer from a heater H, to be prescntlydescribed, and passes through a pipe 19* into the upper portion of the analyzer and onto the upper of the series of trays B. passes thence downwardly from one of the trays to another through the several pipes 11 being compelled in its downward course 'to circulate over the entire surface of each of the trays, for the reason that it enters upon one side of the partitions b and must pass around them in order to reach the outlet-pipe 1). passes upwardly through the nipples b on the trays successively until it reaches the upper portion of the analyzer. The perforationsin the nipples are considerably above the level of the liquor contained in the trays, so that the liquid will not absorb the ammoniacal gases gathered by the vapor in its upward course. By perforating the nipples, also,a complete separation of the gas in small jets as it ascends from tray to tray is effected, and there is a rapid and complete separation of the gas from the water-vapor and condensation of the water-Vapor on the trays. During its upward passage the moisture contained in the ascending vapor is to a very large extent condensed and returns with. the weaker ammoniacal liquors to the generator. When The ends of The vapor rising from the generator A the ammoniacal gas reaches the upper portion of the analyzer, it is Very nearly anhydrous.

In order to render the gas thoroughly anhydrous, I next pass it through a rectifier D, the interior of which is shown more clearly in Figs. 4 and 5. It enters the rectifier from the analyzer through a pipe d, provided with a cock (1, and passes into a coil of pipe I), arranged in a tank D which tank is kept filled with water, and is arranged directly above the analyzer. The coil D is composed' of straight lengths of pipe extending upwardly at inclines and united together at their ends by return bends. The gas from the analyzer enters at the lower end of the coil and passes out at the upper end thereof. Certain of the return bends, or d upon one side of the coil are so constructed as to have pockets d formed in them, into which waters of condensation 'fiowing down the coil wi'll pass. From these pipes discharge-pipes d provided with stop-cocks 02, extend. The pipes d connect at their outer ends with a receiver (1 from which a pipe d", in which is formed a trap 61 extends to the upper portion of the analyzer. The Waters of condensation from the coil D will thus be conveyed back to the analyzer. By providing each of the ters of condensation through any one of said pipes to the receiver cl may be controlled.

The anhydrous gas now passes from the rectifier to acondenser C, where it is liquefied. This condenser is shown more clearly in Figs. 6 and 7. The condenser comprises in the present example a number of coils of pipe 0', which coils extend downwardly at an incline and are wholly exposed. The anhydrous gas from the rectifier is first received into-a manifold G The upper ends-of the coils 0 communicate with the manifold 0 They are provided near their point of connection with the manifold with cocks c. The gas 'circu lates down through the coils of .pipe until condensed and the liquefied ammonia is ultimately received in a manifold 0 located at the lower end of the coils. Adjacent to the manifold 0 cocks c are arranged in the pipes. The condensation of the gas is effected by means of water distributed over the condenser-coils from a distributor comprising troughs G which are perforated upon their under sides, so that the condensing-water will pass over and around the pipes in athin'fihn. This is advantageous, because thereby the full benefit of all the water used is obtained and the liquefaction of the gas under a lower pressure than is usual is possible. The water from the trough C, after having done its work upon the condenser, is received in a tank 0 into which the lower end of the condenser extends.

Connected to the manifold C is a pipe 0 The liquefied ammonia passes downwardly through the pipe O and into a receiver E, which receiver may be merely a metal shell ternal construction of the cooler is more clearly shown in Fig. 2. It comprises a series of coils of pipe f arranged one inward of the other and through which the liquid to be cooled flows.

The upper ends of the coils communicate pipe g.

with a chamber f ,with which the pipe fcommunicates, and their lower ends communicate with a chamber f with which the pipe f communicates. The liquefied ammonia is delivered to the cooler through a pipe f provided with a stop-cockf, and communicating with the cooler near the lower end of the latter. It then passes upwardly about the coils of pipe f effecting its work of cooling, and the ammonia-gas is ultimatelydischarged through a pipe f into an absorber G.

I have shown a plug F arranged in the cavity formed by the inner of the coils of pipe f This plug,which may be of iron, wood, or other suitable material, reduces the area of the interior of the cooler, so that a less quantity of ammonia is required to be in the cooler at a given time than would be the case if such plug were not used. The shellof the cooler is cylindrical and made of metal.

In the absorber G the process of causing the ammonia-gas to be reabsorbed by water preparatory to its being conveyed to the heater H is carried on. The gas from the pipe f en ters and circulates through a coil g, which extends downwardly and centrally through the absorber to the lower end thereof. The end of the coil is then extended upwardly in the form of a stand-pipe g through the coil 9. The upper portion of the stand-pipe g is perforated, so that the will be delivered therefrom in fine jets. Weak-heated ammoniacal liquors are delivered from the heater 11 through a pipe g into the absorber G. The end of the pipe 9 within the absorber is furnished with a rose or button spray-head located directly above the coil g and stand The liquor is thus delivered in a fine spray downwardly through the central space inclosed by the coil g, and, meeting the fine jets of gas coming from the perforated upper portion of the stand-pipe g, readily absorb all the gas, so that the liquor when it reaches the bottom of the absorber is strong with ammonia.

I cause the water from the condensentank C to flow through the absorber. The water passes from the condensentank through a pipe g into a chamber at the upper end of the absorber,and thence downwardly through a series of coils of pipes arranged one inward of the other and all outside the coil g. I have shown four such coils of pipe, and they open at their lower ends into a chamber g from which a pipe 9 conveys the water, which has now become heated, to the rectifier D. The water having done its work in the rectifier D is conveyed away through a waste-pipeg In the pipes f g are stop-cocks g 9 By allowing the condensing-water for the rectifier to fiow'to the same from the absorber, and after it has done the cooling work in the latter, instead of causing it to flow from the rectifier to the absorber, as heretofore, I prevent the possibility of any ammonia-gas being liquefied at the rectifier, as the water, after leaving the absorber, is of a sufficiently high temperature to prevent this. Of course if the water were too cold and liquefaction of the gas should occur at the rectifier, the liquefied ammonia would be returned to the analyzer with? out having done any work, thus resulting in waste of heat.

Both the cooler E and the absorber G are provided with gage-glasses g g, the passages to which may be opened and closed by cocks to ascertain the height of the liquefied ainmonia or the ammoniacal liquors. Similar gage-glasses may be placed on the receiver and generator.

The strong ammoniacal liquors are con veyed through a pipe I, provided with a stopcock I, to an ammonia-pump I of any suit able construction. From the pump I the liquors are conveyed by a pipe e'to the heaterI-I. In the heater II are arranged one or more coils of pipe II, through which the ammonia cal liquors circulate upwardly and from which they are discharged through the pipe 19 onto the upper of the trays B, as previously described. The ammoniacal liquors in the coils H are heated by means of hot or weak ammoniacal liquor taken from near the bottom of the generator A, and which pass upwardly through a pipe H to the upper portion of the heater II, and is there distributed over and around the coils H. After having done its work in the heater the weak, but still warm, liquor passes out through the pipe g to the absorber, as previously described. The shell of the heater is cylindrical and made of metal, and I have shown it as supported directly over the generator A upon supports h.

"What Iclaim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-- 1. In an apparatus for cooling, the combination, with. a generator in which ammoniacal liquor is heated, of steam-coils in said generator for heating said liquor, an analyzer arranged above said generator and in communication therewith, a rectifier arranged above said analyzer and in direct communication therewith, a communication between said rectifier and theanalyzer by which waters of condensation from the rectifier are returned to the analyzer, a condenser separate from the rectifier and to which ammonia-gas from the rectifier passes and in which the gas is liquefied, a receiver into which the liquefied ammonia from the condenser is received, a cooler to which the liquefied ammonia from the re-= ceiver passes to cool the brine or other liquid passing through the cooler, an absorber into 1 which the gas from the cooler is received, a heater into which ammoniacal liquor from the generator is delivered, a communication between the heater and the absorber by which the ammoniacal liquor from the heater is delivered to the absorber, a pump receiving ammoniacal liquor from the absorber and deliv-l ering, the same to the heater,a communica-j tion between the heater and the analyzer, a

pipe for conveying Water from the condenser to the absorber, and a pipe for conveying the same water from the absorber to the rectifier, substantially as specified.

2. In an apparatus for coclingg-the combination of an analyzer, a series of trays arranged in'said analyzer, eachof said trays be- I ing provided with a number of upwardly-ere tending nipples secured in suitable openings therein and provided circu-mferentially with perforations arranged at a distance above their lower ends, substantially as specified.

3. In an apparatus for cooling, the combination of an absorber comprising averticallyextending cylindrical shell, a coil of pipe arranged centrally in said shell and through which liquefied ammonia will circulate, a stand-pipe communicating with said coil and extending upwardly through the same, said pipe being provided with perforations near its upper end and with a closed upper end, a perforated distributer for ammoniacal liquors located above said stand-pipe and said coil, and circulati-ng-pipes for water arranged in said shell and surrounding the said coil, substantially as specified.




Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3638452 *Oct 20, 1969Feb 1, 1972Whirlpool CoSeries water-cooling circuit for gas heat pump
US4127009 *May 12, 1977Nov 28, 1978Allied Chemical CorporationAbsorption heat pump absorber unit and absorption method
Cooperative ClassificationF25B15/10