|Publication number||US4232080 A|
|Application number||US 05/776,214|
|Publication date||Nov 4, 1980|
|Filing date||Mar 10, 1977|
|Priority date||Jun 9, 1972|
|Also published as||CA986838A, CA986838A1, DE2228299A1, DE2228299B2, DE2228299C3|
|Publication number||05776214, 776214, US 4232080 A, US 4232080A, US-A-4232080, US4232080 A, US4232080A|
|Inventors||Roger Orain, Hans Heuser, Hans Ohlenforst, Rudolf Pelzer|
|Original Assignee||Saint-Gobain Industries|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (41), Classifications (25)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 369,087, filed June 11, 1973, now abandoned.
The present invention relates to safety glass and especially to a windshield for use in an automotive vehicle and having a high resistance to impact. The safety glass of the present invention is of the type in which a glass sheet has thereon a transparent plastic material which, in case of collision and breakage of the windshield, protects passengers of the vehicle from being cut by sharp edges of broken glass.
At the present time, the most widely used automotive windshield is a laminated structure comprising an energy absorbing plastic sheet sandwiched between two glass sheets. Such windshields are capable of receiving a blow from the head of an occupant of the vehicle without being perforated and, in so functioning, they absorb a relatively high amount of energy and accommodate considerable travel of the head as the windshield undergoes an essentially plastic deformation.
Although the energy absorbing plastic sheet in such windshields functions to keep an occupant's head from perforating the outside sheet of glass of the windshield, thereby preventing serious injury or death, a disadvantage of the windshield is that an occupant is nevertheless subjected to facial lacerations from sharp edges of broken glass of the inner glass sheet comprising the windshield. To cope with this problem, it has been proposed to coat or cover the inside glass surface of the windshield with a protective coating of plastic material which prevents the occupant's skin from coming into contact with the glass.
In one prior art embodiment, the layer of plastic comprises a sheet of amorphous polyamide some 0.3 mm thick. In another prior art embodiment, a sheet of tempered glass has bonded thereto a sheet of plastic material such as polycarbonate, polyacrylate, cellulose acetate, polyester, poly(vinylchloride) or the like.
Although the aforementioned prior art developments give effective protection against lacerations, the aforementioned plastics have the shortcoming that they are not sufficiently scratch resistant. Accordingly, it is known to protect them by the use of a scratch resistant coating applied to their exposed surface.
Another shortcoming of such prior art developments is that the plastic materials are such that, for the thickness usually employed, they have a tendency to resist deformation, and in particular elongation. This limits the energy absorption capacity of the windshield. It is for this reason that the aforementioned prior art structure which includes a plastic material bonded to tempered glass is designed so that the edge of the plastic sheet is wholly or partly outside the windshield frame.
It is an object of the invention to provide a laminated window which can be fastened tightly along the edges thereof, for example into a frame, and which has good energy absorbent properties, and which includes a plastic layer which is effective in protecting vehicle passengers against lacerations, and which is also scratch resistant so that it is unnecessary to use an additional material or coating to protect the plastic layer from being scratched.
According to the invention, there is provided a safety window which includes a plastic layer made of a material having a high capacity for elastic deformation, a low modulus of elasticity, below 2,000 daN/cm2, and also a high capacity of elongation before rupture by tearing, above 60% with less than 2% plastic deformation. Particularly good results have been obtained with plastic materials having a modulus of elasticity below 1,200 daN/cm2 and an elongation to rupture by tearing of in excess 70% with less than 1% plastic deformation.
Applicants have found unexpectedly that a sheet of plastic material possessing the properties set forth above fulfills perfectly and simultaneously two important functions. For one, the high deformation capacity of the plastic sheet is such that even when there is severe local flexing or folding thereof after rupture of the glass, the plastic sheet does not tear, but continues to form a protective screen which protects the skin of an occupant impacting against the windshield from broken jagged edges of glass. Secondly, the aforementioned plastic material has self-healing properties from which, after a short time, surface defects produced by scratches or local indentations heal over completely. Hence the planar nature of the surface is restored rapidly. Contrary to what might be supposed, the high elastic deformability of such materials does not make them vulnerable to surface damage. Instead, it confers on them a particularly high effective durability due to the fact that injuries thereto quickly heal over and disappear.
Among known plastic materials having the properties indicated above and suitable for use in the window of the invention as the uncoated plastic sheet on the inside of the window, there may be cited in particular a weekly reticulated aliphatic polyurethane. It is an advantage of this material that it possesses in itself a high enough adhesiveness to make it possible to apply and to bond a sheet of this material directly to the surface of the glass toward the inside of the window without applying a separate coating of adhesive.
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary sectional view of a window in accordance with the invention.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view of another window in accordance with the invention.
The embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 1 comprises a single glass sheet 1, which may be of tempered glass, and a single plastic layer 2. This layer has the aforementioned characteristics, that is, high capacity of elastic deformation, a modulus of elasticity below 2,000 daN/cm2, and an elongation to rupture in excess of 60% with less than 2% plastic deformation. A weakly reticulated aliphatic polyurethane is one suitable material for the plastic sheet 2. In an embodiment such as that shown in FIG. 1, which includes a single glass sheet, the plastic sheet 2 desirably possesses a thickness greater than 1 mm.
FIG. 2 illustrates an embodiment of the invention which is a laminated safety glass window or windshield which is resistant to perforation. The window comprises outer and inner sheets 3 and 5 of silicate glass of normal thickness. Thus, the outer sheet 3 may have for example have a thickness of 3 to 4 mm, whereas the inner sheet 5 may, a thickness of 2 to 3 mm. The two glass sheets 3 and 5 are adhesively bonded together with a thermoplastic layer 4 of poly(vinyl butyral) whose thickness should be at least 0.76 mm.
In the event of collision, deformation of the intermediate layer 4 of poly(vinyl butyral) makes it possible to absorb the energy of impact, for example, of the passenger's head against the window, without perforation of the window.
On that side of the windshield facing the interior of the vehicle, that is, on the side of the thinner glass sheet 5, which is remote from the thicker glass sheet 3, the windshield further comprises a deformable plastic sheet 6 having a thickness between 0.1 and 1 mm, and preferably between 0.2 and 0.5 mm. The function of the plastic sheet 6 is to provide protection against lacerations. A particular advantage of the embodiment of FIG. 2 resides in the ease of fabrication thereof since it requires nothing further than the application of the plastic coating 6 to a laminated window or windshield of standard type.
The plastic sheet 6 possesses high capacity of elastic deformation, a modulus of elasticity below 2,000 daN/cm2, and an elongation to rupture in excess of 60% with less than 2% plastic deformation. A material particularly suitable for the plastic sheet 6 of the embodiment shown in FIG. 2 is a weakly reticulated aliphatic polyurethane possessing the following properties at room temperature:
______________________________________Modulus of elasticity(for low deformations) 1,000 daN/cm2intermediate modulus of deformation(for high deformation 2,000 daN/cm2Elongation to rupture 100%resistance to rupture on traction 100 daN/cm2fraction of elongation to the point ofrupture represented by plastic deformation 2%______________________________________
The plastic layer 6 may be laid down on the glass sheet 5 in the form of a liquid which can thereafter be polymerized by heating. It can also be laid down in the form of a sheet which is fastened to the glass sheet 5 by known adhesive procedures, either with the help of a coating of adhesive, or by action of heat, or by making the sheet 6 itself adhesive with the help of an appropriate activator or solvent.
Whereas the invention has been described with reference to the windows or windshields of automotive vehicles, it is applicable in numerous other environments where safety is desired and where it is desired in particular to prevent penetration in the event of impact and contact between the skin of persons and the sharp edges of the glass.
Moreover, the invention is not limited to the particular embodiments hereinabove described, but rather comprehends all modifications of and departures from those embodiments properly falling within the scope of the appended claims.
In this specification, "daN/cm2 " is the abbreviation for decanewton per square centimeter.
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|U.S. Classification||428/215, 427/165, 428/437, 156/105, 428/334, 427/163.1, 428/335, 427/389.7, 428/339, 296/84.1, 428/336, 156/99|
|International Classification||B32B17/10, B32B17/06, C03C27/12|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10T428/3163, Y10T428/265, Y10T428/24967, Y10T428/264, Y10T428/269, B32B17/10064, B32B17/1077, Y10T428/263|
|European Classification||B32B17/10C6, B32B17/10G30|