|Publication number||US425431 A|
|Publication date||Apr 15, 1890|
|Filing date||May 22, 1889|
|Publication number||US 425431 A, US 425431A, US-A-425431, US425431 A, US425431A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet- 1.
' J. W. HYATT.
FILTER 0F POROUS FABRIC.
Patented Apr. 15, 1890. Fi i (No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 2. J. W. HYATT.
FILTER 0F POROUS FABRIC. No. 425,431. 7 Patented Apr. 15, 1890.
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, A [4/3/14 P A A i l I/ j MI fi java afar.
' of Porous Fabric,
NHED STATE Parent @rrrcsi Jonnw. HYATT, or NEWARK, new JERSEY.
FILTER OF Poaous FABREC.
SPECIFIGATIONforming part of Letters Patent No. 425,631, dated April 15, 1890.
Application filed May 22,1839.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JOHN W. HYATT, a citizen of the United States, residing'at Newark, Essex county, New Jersey, have invented certaln new and useful Improvements in Filters fully described and repre-. sented in the following specification and the accompanying the same.
The object of this invention is to secure a very compact and elficient filter by folding or piling layers of fibrous fabric together with fine interspaces in such a manner asfto pro vide a'very large filtering surface or area withina small space. V The invention consists, substantially, in
folding or piling the layers of suitable fibrous fabric, ascloth or paper, upon one another, Wllihfine intervening spaces, and such interspacesbeing obstructed alternalelyat the j'opposite edgesof the fabric to prevent the direct. passage ters'paces,
of the fluid through such inand' to furnish an outlet for the fluid after penetrating the thickness of a single layer.- The fluid to be filtered is then applied to one edge of the layers of fabric and escapes by enteringthe alternate interspaces at such edge, passing through the intervening layers of spaces and escaping therefrom at the opposit'e edges of the fabric. 'By presenting the edges of the fabric to the unfiltered fluid a large number of layers may be inserted in a very small water-Way, while the obstructionof the alternate interspaces, as described herein, permits the rapid percolation of the water through the filteringmaterial, as it is compelled'to pass through only a single layer to reach an outlet.
Paper has long been. used to form the most perfect chemical filter, and I therefore prefer to use wood-pulp paper in thick sheets as the filtering medium for my construction. Such material is not adapted to sustain the pressure of the unfiltered fluid over a large area, and I therefore sustain it by providing numerous small ribs between the several layers transverse to the edges of the'interspaces to support the material at frequent intervals. The invention is shown in several forms herein, an'will be fully understood by reference to the annexed drawings, in which-- drawings, forming a part of fabric to the adjacent. inter- I ,Serial No. 311,693. (No m'odel.)
laid upon one another with the open ends of I their respective grooves or channels at opposite edges of the pile. Fig. 4 represents in end view a coil formed or two such layers wound spirally upon a wooden core. Fig. 5 represents in section a glass tube with ne end plugged by such a filtering-coil. Fig. 6 represents in longitudinal section a p1le of plain paper sheets separated at then-alternate opposite edges by narrow obstructingstrips, and the interspaces filled with wire cloth or netting. Fig. 7 shows a pair of paperstrips -S, with tongues S upon oppos te edges; Fig. 8, a plain sheet .T, adapted to 1nterposebetween the same. Fig. 9 represents the'end of a spiral coil, formed by winding the sheets Sand T together upon a wooden core. Fig. 10 is a longitudinal section of the coil shown in Fig. 9. Fig ll is an external view of a filter-casing adapted to contain such filtering material. Fig. 12 represents the same in longitudinal section, adapted to retain a coil or pile of any of the constructions shown, clamped at its opposite edges be tween the tapering seats and sustained upon perforated screens. in section; but-the filtering materialNis not sectioned, as its construction is fully shown The'screen's o are shown in Figs. 6 and 10. Fig. 13 is a detached view 7 of one of the screens adapted to fita circular easing. I
'In Figs. 1,- 2,8, and i, a represents. a strip of paper of suitable length and width; b,
.grooves formed transversely in the sauce,
either by molding" the strip or sheet from paper-pulp or by operating upon a fiat sheet with a circular saw. Such grooves are formed nearly all the way across the paper, leaving a longitudinal seat b alougone edge of the strip,
and transverse ribs 11 extending from the seat to the opposite edge of the strip. By laying two such transversely-grooved sheets upon one another, with the ends of the grooves at the opposite edges, as shown in Fig. 3,,and
winding the two strips together spirally upon a wooden core 72, as shown in Fig. 4, it is obvious that the ends of the-grooves in the alternate strips are' exposed at one edge or endof the coil,.while the ends of the grooves in v are obstructed at their lower ends,and as the I outlet h,
the interveningstrips are exposed at the opposite end or edge of the coil, as vshown in.
Fig. 5, where the coil, is'represented operating as a filter-plug in the bottom of a test-'- tube T. The liquid within the tube has access to the grooves in the alternatmstrips,
[(see arrows 0,) and then escapes from the same only by percolating laterally through the remaining substance of the strip into the grooves of the intermediate strips, from the lower end of which it has free outlet. (See arrows d, Fig. 5.) 1,
As all the grooves which ope'n upwardly ribs between the several grooves hold the a structure rigidly in shape, it is obvious that the sheets may be made of any desirable di- 'mensions and the coil be extended to any. magn tude desired. 'The real area of the fil-- tering-surface is obviously in such construction the internal areas of the grooves, from which the material escapes through the substance of each layer to its final outlet, and the entire filtering-area, with a mass of given diameter, may thus be made many times greater than the mere cross-section or area of such diameter, which is the area when a single layer of filter-paper is employed for filtering within a funnel. The spirally-constructed plug shown in the bottom of the glass tube in Fig. 5 thus possesses a much greater filtering capacity than a larger structure in which the filter-paper is exposed m ersely to-the nt of the fluid.
Instead of grooving the paper narrow strips of paper may be interposed alternately between the opposite edges of wider. strips piled or wound together, as indicated by the section in Fig. 6, in which case the fluid, when applied to the edges of the strips, would have access to the alternate interspaces between the'wide strips, and could ,only escape from.
- quent intervals in lines transverse. .to, seat b transverse the same by percolating through the sub'- stance of the wide strips to the intermediate spaces, which have their outlets at the opposite edge. In Fig. 6 such wide strips are shown at e. The narrow strips which form the seats .at the edges of the strips at e and V Y the interspaces are shown kept open by filling them with wire-cloth w, adapted to furnish in its transverse wires the ribs required to support the paper and to perform the same function as the ridges or ribs 1 in Fig. l-name1y, to hold the paper separated at freso that the liquid entering the edges otthe interspaces may penetrate across the strip to the seat at the opposite side to per-- laterally through the filtering materiah colate The longitudinal wires of the wire-clothbeing bent repeatedly back and forth over the wires, permit the fluid to pass by transverse movement across the them in its strip.
consist in separate water-channels extending 'outletchannels Where the interspaces belnstead of grooving the strips, as in Fig. 1,
or using wire-clotlr-to 'hol'd the'interspaces ope'n,.the ribs maybe provided by forming the seats from paper similar to the filtering material with lateral interspaces Z, as shown at S S'in Fig. 7, such seatsand tongues being-piled orwouud together with plain intervening sheets T, Fig. 8, struction being clearly shown in Figs. 9 and 10. In thelatter figure through the interspaces I, Fig. 7, which may be left open or filled with sand Z, if required, to prevent the obstruction of the c'hannelsby the swelling of the-porous fabric, and to SB-B'o cure the free percolation of thewater through v such channels to their .outlet.'- Fig. 12 shows a casing I, with inlet g and and divided transversely at the middle, where it is provided with flanges J, which 8 5 may be secured together bybolts k, orother suitable means. The casing is provided adthe spiral' conthe section is taken jacent to the inlet and outlet with tapering seats on, adapted tofit the ends of the filter material ,N, and perforated screens 0-, "formed of flat sheet metal, are shown applied within the casing at each end of the filter material to sustain the same under anyfluid-pressure. to which it may be exposed. The screen would be-so constructed by forming the per- 5 forations of sufficient number and fineness,
or by grooving its surface, so as to distribute the fluid freely to the exposed ends of the water ch'ann'els'between the alternate layers of filtering fabric,and the fluid entering 10o through the inlet g would thus pass rapidly.
from the material N and escape attheoutlet h, the fluid entering any particular wat'er-' channel beingcompelled to pass only through a single layer of filtering material to reach an outlet, as clearly shown by the arrows in Figs-.3 and 5.
It will be understood that where the con struction is formed'in a spiral coil the successive coils may be cemented together, or
IIO the. outerends'only of the layers forming the coil may be secured in any convenient manner to the periphery of the coil, as by a separate piece of wrapping or envelope fabric l -1 1 5 i q, secured with waterproof cement, as at Fig; 9, or otherwise.
It will be noticed that with the construction shown in Figs. 1 and 7, where the interspaces.
transversely part of the way across the layers,
,there is no opportunity for the fluid which enters one edge of the boiler or coilto escape laterally, but that the fluid can only escape by such wfitewhanuel by percolation through the adjacent substance into the -adjoining;
tween the layers are continuous, and, the in-. te -spaces filled vwith open or loose material, as is presumed where-wide'and narrow strips are laid alternately upon one another, as 1'30 shown in liig. -6, the extreme ends of such continuous interspaces would be closedin. any convenient manner to confine the fluidl to .pe'rcolate through the intervening wide piece q. (Shown in Fig. 9.) Such piece would,
if the filter were intended for water, be ccmented over the ends of the interspaces to close them at such point with waterproof cement, or with glue, if the filter be intended for alcohol, gasoline, or similar fluids.
Sand or other granular material of loose or open textureas charcoal, which produces a very beneficial cheat in purifying and sweetening water-may be readily applied to the wide strips e in the process of winding them into a spiral with the narrow strips e by applying the sand with any suitable feeding mechanism to the surface of the wide strips as they are rolled into the spiral form, or by cementing the sand upon a suitable portion of the wide strips before rolling it. together.
The tapering seats 011 (shown in the heads of the casing in Fig. 12) may be replaced by fiat seats upon the heads if the cylinder of filtering material 71 is made to fit the casing snugly and the seats are fitted directly to the opposite ends of the filtering material'so as to prevent the passage of the fluid outside of its periphery.
The softness of the fibrous material used in forming the filter operates readily to form a close joint upon the metallic surface without the use of any considerable pressure or the application of any intermediate packing.
It will be understood that the filtering material described is not intended for greatlyprotracted use if employed under conditions where the impurities deposited upon its surface would be liable to decomposition, but
that the cheapness of the material and the:
ease with which it may be replaced in any filter construction render it available for use during a limited time, when it may be entirely discarded and an entirely new set of filtering-layers be substituted therefor.
Having thus set forth my invention, what I claim herein is-- 1. In a filter, the combination, with a series of layers of fibrous material, of seats arranged to form interspaces closed alternately at the opposite edges of the layers, and intervening ribs extending from the seats to the edges of the interspaccs, as and for the purpose set forth.
2. In a filter, the combination of a series of layers of fibrous material arranged substantially as described, with intersp'aces. closed alternately at the-opposite edges of the fabric, and the interspaces filled with. open or loose material to hold the interspaces open and the layers in the required position, substantially asset forth.
3. In a filter, the combination, with a series of layers of fibrous material coiled together,
of intervening seats at theiralternative edges to form interspaces closed alternately at the opposite edges of the layers, and intervening ribs extending from the seatstransversely to the edges of the inter-spaces, as and for the purpose setforth.
4. In a filter, the combination, with a series of layers of fibrous material coiled together,
of intervening seats at their alternate edges to form interspaces closed alternately at the opposite edges of the layers, ribs extending from the seats transversely to the edges of the interspaces, and a casing adapted to confine the unfiltered fluid to one edge of the layers, as and for the purpose set forth.
5. A filter consisting in a casing having an inlet and outlet, seats adjacent to such inlet and outlet, and a coil of layers of fibrous material wound together with in erspaees closed alternately at the opposite edges of the layers and clamped between the seats, substantially as herein set forth.
6. A filter consistirg n a casing having an inlet and outlet, seats adjacent to such inlet and outlet, and a coil -:f layers of fibrous ma-. terial wound together with it. erspaces closed alternately at the opposite edges 01 'the layers and clamped between the seats, with perforated screens at the ends of the coil within the casing, as and for the purpose set forth.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
' J OHN W. HYATT. Witnesses:
H. BUMPUS, THos. S. CRANE.
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