|Publication number||US4269713 A|
|Application number||US 06/071,671|
|Publication date||May 26, 1981|
|Filing date||Aug 31, 1979|
|Priority date||Sep 7, 1978|
|Also published as||DE2935097A1, DE2935097C2|
|Publication number||06071671, 071671, US 4269713 A, US 4269713A, US-A-4269713, US4269713 A, US4269713A|
|Inventors||Shuzo Yamashita, Syuji Kawai, Hirokuni Tanii, Koichi Takakura|
|Original Assignee||Kuraray Co., Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (55), Classifications (20)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates to ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVA) copolymer membranes useful as separation membranes having good water permeability and more particularly to novel EVA copolymer membranes comprising a skin layer and a porous layer having a specific structure.
2. Description of the Prior Art
Various membranes have heretofore been developed as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes for medical and industrial uses. The present inventors have been searching for EVA copolymer membranes having good biocompatibility, good antihemolytic and antithrombotic properties, good durability and good chemical stability, and have already developed an EVA membrane having a homogeneous structure.
The previously developed homogeneous structure EVA membrane has an excellent performance for a dialysis membrane and is being put to practical use as a membrane for artificial kidneys. It has a structure formed by particles having an average diameter in the range of 100-10,000 Angstrom units bonded to each other, said structure being substantially free from pores in excess of 2 microns in diameter.
Generally, in addition to the homogeneous structure membrane such as mentioned above, there is another kind of membrane, which is the so-called asymmetrical membrane having a skin layer. While asymmetrical membranes made from cellulose acetate or polyacrylonitrile are known in the art, asymmetrical membranes from EVA polymers are scarecely known. One example of an asymmetrical EVA membrane appears in Japanese Patent Application Laid Open No. 53-77833, which discloses asymmetrical type EVA membranes for use as separator membranes for storage batteries. This membrane comprises a skin layer and a porous supporting layer thereunder. However, said porous layer, i.e. the supporting layer, has a honeycomb structure with pore sizes of 0.05-10 microns, said structure being essentially different from the structure of the membrane provided by the present invention.
The present inventors have endeavored to obtain an EVA copolymer membrane with a more improved water permeability, and have now succeeded in obtaining an asymmetrical membrane having large vacuoles or voids in the porous layer, and a high porosity.
The present invention provides an improved ethylenevinyl alcohol copolymer membrane and processes for preparing it. The membrane comprises at least a skin layer on the surface thereof and a porous layer supporting said skin layer, wherein said porous layer, when said membrane is observed in the dry state with an electron microscope, comprises a plurarity of vacuoles or voids, which present a mono- or multi-layer structure, with an average straight-line length corresponding to 20-99% of the whole thickness of the membrane, and the polymer portion of said porous layer comprises micropores with an average diameter of 0.1-5 microns, and said membrane has a porosity of 60-90%.
One process according to the invention, for producing a flat membrane comprises dissolving an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer in a solvent consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylacetamide, N-methylpyrrolidone and pyrrolidone to a polymer concentration, C, of 10-40% by weight, and coagulating the resulting solution in an aqueous coagulation bath, at a coagulation bath temperature, T°C, which satisfies the following relation: ##EQU1##
Also provided according to the invention are wet and dry-wet processes for preparing hollow fiber membranes. In both of these, an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer is dissolved in a solvent consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidone and pyrrolidone. In the wet process, where the solution is extruded directly into a coagulating liquid, the polymer concentration, C, will be 10-40% and the coagulation bath temperature, T, will be as defined above. In the dry-wet process, where the solution is extruded through and drafted in an air gap prior to passing it through a coagulation bath, the concentration, C, will be 15-40% and the coagulation temperature, T°C will satisfy the following relation: ##EQU2##
The invention will be better understood and some of its advantages will become more apparent from the following detailed description, especially when read in light of the attached drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is an electron photomicrograph, at a magnification of 240 times, of a cross-sectional structure of a membrane obtained according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of the structure shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an electron photomicrograph, at a magnification of 2,400 times, showing the structure of the membrane in the neighborhood of the skin layer;
FIG. 4 shows the structure of FIG. 3 at a magnification of 12,000 times;
FIG. 5 is an electron photomicrograph showing a cross-sectional structure, at a magnification of 600 times, of a hollow fiber membrane according to the invention; and
FIG. 6 is an electron photomicrograph at a magnification of 1,200 times of a membrane obtained according to Japanese Patent Application No. 52-108,251 corresponding to U.S. Ser. No. 962,962, filed Nov. 22, 1978.
The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer to be used in this invention may be a random, block or graft copolymer. However, if the ethylene content is below 10 mole %, wet mechanical properties of the resulting membrane are insufficient and the amount of elution therefrom, is large, and if the ethylene content is above 90 mole %, decreased biocompatibility and permeability characteristics result. Therefore, ethylene contents of 10-90 mole %, especially 15-60 mole %, are preferred. Such ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers are distinguished from polyvinyl alcohol in that the amount of eluted substance is very small, and therefore are suited as materials for making blood treating membranes in the field of the medicine.
As regards the degree of the saponification of said ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, it should be 80 mole % or more, preferably 95 mole % or more. If it is below 80 mole %, the wet mechanical properties of the membrane are insufficient. Usually, said copolymer is used in the substantially completely saponified state, i.e. with a saponification degree of 99 mole % or more. The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer may be a copolymer of ethylene, vinyl alcohol and such other copolymerizable monomer or monomers as methacrylic acid, vinyl chloride, methyl methacrylate, acrylonitrile or vinylpyrrolidone with the content of said other monomer or monomers being 15 mole % or below. Said copolymer may also be crosslinked before or after membrane formation by treating the same with an inorganic crosslinking agent such as a boric compound or an organic crosslinking agent such as a diisocyanate or a dialdehyde. Further, it may be a copolymer acetalized with an aldehyde such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, butyraldehyde or benzaldehyde to the extent of not more than 30 mole % of the functional hydroxyl groups in the vinyl alcohol units. Preferably, the ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer to be used in this invention has a viscosity of 1.0-50 centipoises as measured for a 3 weight % solution in dimethyl sulfoxide at 30° C. with a B type viscometer. If the viscosity is below said range, i.e. if the degree of polymerization is lower, those mechanical properties that are necessary for a membrane cannot be obtained, and if the viscosity exceeds said range, membrane formation is difficult.
The EVA membrane of the invention has a dense layer on one side or both sides thereof. This so-called skin layer determines the permeability and cut-off performance of the membrane. Although it is very difficult to state explicitly the microstructure of said skin layer, observation of a dry membrane with an electron microscope shows that the layer has minute openings of not more than 5,000 Angstrom units across.
The skin layer has a porous supporting layer thereunder. Since such porous layer constitutes a kind of barrier to the skin layer, the structure of the porous layer has a great influence upon the performance of the membrane. The structure of the porous layer of the membrane of the invention is such that the vacuoles or voids present a mono- or multi-layer structure and have an averge straight-line length corresponding to 20-90% of the membrane thickness. Therefore, the porosity of said layer is very great. Furthermore, the polymer portion or phase of the porous layer has micropores having an average diameter of 0.1-5 microns, and therefore is of a relatively porous structure. Thus, said porous layer is characterized in that it has vacuoles or voids and at the same time the polymer portion thereof itself is porous. When coagulation proceeds from one side of the membrane, a monolayer vacuole structure is apt to form, and, when coagulation goes on from both sides, a multilayer structure having two or more layers may result.
One of the present inventors has filed a patent application, Japanese Patent Application No. 52-108,251 corresponding to U.S. Ser. No. 962,962, filed Nov. 22, 1978, on an invention concerning an asymmetrical membrane having a specific structure as obtained from a specific EVA composition. This membrane is made from a specific composition comprising two kinds of EVA copolymers different in ethylene content, and therefore is different from the membrane of the present invention which is obtained from a single EVA copolymer. Moreover, the porous layer of the former membrane has a specific structure comprising cylindrical voids having lengths of at most 90% of the membrane thickness and sperical voids having sizes of the order of microns. In the membrane of the present invention, the porous layer comprises substantially one single kind of vacuoles or voids in respect of shape or configuration. It is clear also from the electron photomicrograph shown in FIG. 5 that the former membrane and the membrane of the present invention are different in the shape of the voids.
FIG. 1 is an electron photomicrograph (magnification 240 times) of an example of the membrane according to the present invention. The membrane has a monolayer vacuole structure. FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of the same. Referring to FIG. 2, the method of measuring the straight-line lengths of vacuoles is now described.
The membrane comprises a skin layer 1 on the membrane surface, vacuoles or voids 2 and a polymer portion or phase 3 of the porous layer. The "straight-line" of a vacuole means the length of the longest line connecting both ends of the vacuole on a straight line drawn in the direction of the membrane thickness. In the case of a multilayer vacuole structure, it means the sum total of such lengths of vacuoles in respective layers. That the vacuoles or voids have those straight-line lengths that correspond to 20-99% of the membrane thickness means that the vacuoles or voids are very large as compared with the membrane thickness. However, as can be understood from FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the shape of the vacuole should not be construed high critically. It should be understood that a small number of relatively small vacuoles may be present. Such small number of small vacuoles can be thought to have little influence on the fundamental structure of the membrane according to the invention.
FIG. 3 is an electron photomicrograph (magnification 2400 times) showing the polymer portion of the porous layer in the neighborhood of the skin layer. FIG. 4 is a more enlarged photomicrograph (magnification 12,000 times) of the same portion.
The microstructure of said polymer portion can clearly be ascertained from FIG. 4. FIG. 5 shows a cross-sectional structure (magnification 600 times) of a hollow fiber membrane embodiment of the invention.
The porosity as used herein is calculated from the following formula: ##EQU3## where Pa is the apparent density of a membrane and Pr is the density of the membrane having no pores and voids.
The membrane of the present invention can take any desired form such as flat sheet, tube or hollow fiber, which are formed by methods known per se. In the case of a flat membrane, the membrane thickness may be about 10-2,000 microns, and in the case of a hollow fiber, the outer diameter may be about 40-3,000 microns, preferably 100-2,000 microns, and the membrane thickness may be about 10-1,000 microns, preferably 20-500 microns.
The EVA membrane of the present invention has a water permeability not less than 20 m.m2 ·hr·mmHg, a uric acid permeability of not more than 120×10-4 cm/min. and a vitamin B12 permeability of not more than 25×10-4 cm/min. Such membrane can be used as a filtering membrane in a hemofiltration type artificial kidney, as a membrane for filtering and/or concentrating accumulated ascites, and also as a filter membrane for use in various industrial liquids.
In this invention, electron photomicrographs are prepared in the following manner. A dried membrane obtained by the process of the invention is frozen in liquid nitrogen, and broken to prepare a fracture. Gold is then deposited on the fracture to the thickness of about 100 Angstrom units by a vapor deposition technique. Observation or photomicrography is carried out using a Hitachi electron microscope model HFS-2.
While a great number of solvents for the above-mentioned ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer are known including monohydric alcohols such as methanol and ethanol, polyhydric alcohols such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and glycerol, phenol, m-cresol, N-methylpyrrolidone and formic acid, and mixtures of them with water, it is preferable according to the method of the present invention for the production of separation membranes with well-balanced and desirable water permeability and solute permeability, to use a solvent selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylacetamide, N-methylpyrrolidone, pyrrolidone and mixtures thereof. The most preferable solvent is dimethyl sulfoxide in which ethylene- vinyl alcohol copolymers are highly soluble. The above-mentioned solvent to be used in dissolving the ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, especially dimethyl sulfoxide, may contain such other solvent as water, methanol, isopropyl alcohol or dimethylformamide, or other liquid miscible with said solvent, and/or an inorganic salt, provided that the precipitation temperature (temperature at which the ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer begins to precipitate by cooling gradually after said copolymer is completely dissolved in a solvent) is not higher than 60° C.
The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer is dissolved in the above-mentioned solvent at a concentration of 10-40% by weight. More specifically, in the production of flat membranes, concentrations of 10-40% by weight are preferable, and in the production of hollow fiber membranes, concentrations of 10-40% by weight are preferable for wet coagulation processes and of 15-40% by weight for dry-wet coagulation processes. In the production of hollow fiber membranes by the dry-wet coagulation processes, concentrations of not less than 15% are desirable for the purpose of improving spinnability of the hollow fiber. The temperature of the polymer solution is preferably 0°-120° C., more preferably 5°-60° C. At higher temperatures, there is the possibility of polymer deterioration, whereas at lower temperatures, membrane formation becomes difficult because of much higher viscosity of the solution.
The coagulating agent to be used in the coagulation bath is an aqueous medium. Said aqueous medium may be either water alone or a mixture of water and a water-miscible organic solvent, usually the same solvent as used in the polymer solution, with a content of said solvent up to 70% by weight. The coagulation bath may further contain an inorganic salt dissolved therein, such as sodium sulfate.
The EVA copolymer membrane of the present invention can be produced either by the wet coagulation process which comprises extruding a polymer solution directly into a coagulation bath or by the dry-wet coagulation process comprising first extruding a polymer solution into a gaseous atmosphere and then introducing the extruded product into a coagulation bath to cause coagulation of the same. It is a novel finding obtained by the present inventors that both the wet coagulation process and the dry-wet coagulation process give membranes having the same structure from a solution of the EVA polymer.
Thus, a flat membrane and a hollow fiber membrane each having the structure described herein can be produced by the following wet coagulation process.
An EVA copolymer is dissolved in a solvent consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfoxide, diemthylacetamide, N-methylpyrrolidone and pyrrolidone to a polymer concentration, C, of 10-40% by weight, and the polymer solution is coagulated in an aqueous coagulation bath at a coagulation bath temperature, T°C., in the range defined by the following relation: ##EQU4##
In the production of a hollow fiber membrane by the wet coagulation process, the above-mentioned polymer solution is extruded through a spinneret for hollow fiber production into a coagulation bath at a temperature in the range defined above while introducing a noncoagulation fluid through the central aperture of the spinneret. In the hollow fiber membrane production, it is necessary to introduce such a noncoagulating gas as air or nitrogen gas or such a noncoagulating liquid as n-hexane, cyclohexane or cyclopentane through the central aperture of the spinneret for hollow fiber spinning so that hollow configuration may be achieved precisely. Especially when a noncoagulating liquid is introduced, a very round hollow fiber membrane having excellently uniform wall thickness can be obtained.
A hollow fiber membrane according to the present invention can also be produced by the dry-wet coagulation process. The hollow fiber membrane can be obtained by a process which comprises dissolving an EVA copolymer in a solvent consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylacetamide, N-methylpyrrolidone and pyrrolidone to a polymer concentration, C, of 10-40% by weight, extruding the polymer solution through a spinneret for hollow fiber spinning while introducing a coagulating liquid through the central aperture of the spinneret, subjecting the spun fiber to 0.5-20 times of drafting while passing the same through a gaseous atmosphere, and then coagulating the fiber in a coagulating bath at a temperature, T°C., in the range defined by the following relation: ##EQU5##
The coagulating liquid to be introduced through the central aperture of the spinneret for hollow fiber spinning may be water, a mixture of water and a water miscible organic solvent, or an aqueous solution of a salt such as sodium sulfate. Especially preferable is, however, an aqueous solution of the same solvent as used in the polymer solution with a water content of 20-100% by weight, preferably 45-100% by weight. The coagulating power of said solution is especially suited for the membrane structure formation.
The spun fiber extruded through the spinneret is first passed through a gaseous atmosphere. Since the spun fiber retains the fluidity (flowability) in said gaseous atmosphere, the spun fiber is drawn to form a highly round membrane configuration which is uniform in thickness. The spun fiber is also subjected to drafting in said gaseous atmosphere. The conditions of said drafting are important in this process. For attaining perfect roundness and uniform wall thickness, especially for obtaining a thinner membrane, a higher draft ratio is desirable. If, however, the draft ratio is too high, the membrane thickness will be too small, and pinhole-like defects are apt to occur on the membrane.
In practicing the invention, it is preferable that the spun fiber is subjected to 0.5-20 times drafting, more preferably 1-15 times of drafting. The distance between the nozzle or spinneret and the coagulation bath surface is preferably about 10-500 mm which forms the gaseous atmosphere.
The gaseous atmosphere is usually an open space. However, in case evaporation of the solvent is to be controlled, it is possible to arrange a covering member having a cylindrical or other appropriate shape so that an atmosphere may be filled with a vapor from the coagulation bath or with a separately supplied vapor, or through which a controlled stream of a gas or vapor is passed. By selecting the draft conditions, the microstructure of the skin layer on the outer surface of the hollow fiber membrane can be adjusted.
The spun fiber is then led to the coagulation bath and coagulated therein. The composition and temperature of the coagulation bath may each be selected from within a broad range. However, as a result of investigations by the present inventors, it has been found desirable to employ the same composition for the above-mentioned coagulation liquid introduced through the central aperture, as is used for the coagulation bath. Thus, the aqueous solution of the solvent used in the spinning solution, especially an aqueous solution of dimethylsulfoxide, is preferable. The amount of each component should be determined depending on such conditions as the kind of the coagulating liquid introduced through the central aperture of the spinneret and the coagulation temperature. Generally, the water content is 20-100% by weight.
The coagulation temperature is also one of the important factors influencing the formation of the membrane structure specified by the present invention. It has been found that the polymer concentration, C% by weight, of the spinning solution and the temperature, T°C., of the coagulation bath are each required to be in a specific range. Namely, the following relation must be satisfied: ##EQU6## At higher temperatures, the resulting membrane has a porous structure in which micropores having sizes of about 0.1-10 microns are present throughout the membrane, hence the membrane according to the invention cannot be obtained.
The hollow fiber which has passed through the coagulation bath is, if necessary, further subjected to drawing between rollers, wet heat treatment, wet heat drawing, or the like, so as to adjust the membrane performance and mechanical characteristics. The fiber may be acetalized in the vinyl alcohol units in EVA copolymer with a monoaldehyde such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, chloroacetaldehyde or benzaldehyde, or with a dialdehyde such as glutaraldehyde, glyoxal or PVA dialdehyde, or further, there may be introduced an ester-crosslinkage by a diisocyanate such as phenylene diisocyanate or tolylene diisocyanate, or an ether-crosslinkage by epichlorohydrin. Especially preferable is the crosslinking with a dialdehyde such as glutaraldehyde because such crosslinking can improve heat durability, chemical resistance, strength, and dimensional stability of the membrane, to a large extent.
The hollow fiber membrane according to the invention can be used either as a wet membrane or as a dry membrane. Drying can be accomplished, for example, by the method comprising replacing the water contained in the hollow fiber by a water miscible organic solvent and incapable of dissolving the polymer, such as acetone, methanol or tetrahydrofuran, followed by removing the organic solvent e.g. by heating at a low temperature, the method comprising treating the fiber during or after the membrane formation with a polyhydric aliphatic alcohol such as ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol or glycerol, followed by drying by heating at a relatively low temperature, and the freeze drying method comprising freezing the wet membrane containing water in liquid nitrogen, for instance, followed by removing the water utilizing sublimation of water under reduced pressure.
The values given herein for permeability to water, uric acid or vitamin B12 were obtained in the following manner:
(1) The water permeability was determined at 37° C. and at 100-300 mmHg and the permeability coefficient K' was calculated by the equation:
K'=V/A·t·ΔP (ml/m2 ·hr·mmHg)
where V is the volume of permeated water (cm3), A is the area of the membrane (cm2), t is the permeation time (sec.), ΔP is the measuring pressure (dyne/cm2)=980(13.54y+x)C(g/cm·sec2), y is the height of the mercury column, and x is the height of the water column of the measuring cell.
(2) The permeabilities to solutes such as uric acid and vitamin B12 were determined at 37° C., and the overall permeability values (Po) were calculated by the equation: ##EQU7## wherein,
[Ct']1 and [Ct"]1 are the concentrations of the solution of uric acid ect. (first cell) after permeation for t' and t" minutes respectively.
[Ct']2 and [Ct"]2 are the concentrations of the solution containing solute permeated through the membrane (second cell) after permeation for t' and t" minutes respectively.
V1 is the volume of the solution of uric acid, etc. (first cell)
V2 is the volume of the solution containing permeated solute. (second cell)
The following examples illustrate the invention in more detail.
An ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer with an ethylene content of 33 mole % and a saponification degree of 99.9 mole % was dissolved in a mixed solvent of methanol and water (70/30 wt/wt) or dimethyl sulfoxide respectively to prepare polymer solutions with a concentration of 20% by weight. Membranes were prepared from each solution under various conditions. The results are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1__________________________________________________________________________ Coagulation Permeability to MoistureMembrane Temperature Water Uric acid Vitamin B12 Appearance ContentNo. Solvent (°C.) (ml/m2 . hr . mmHg) (cm/min × 104) (cm/min × 104) when wet %__________________________________________________________________________1 Methanol/water 2 5 20 0 Opaque -- (70/30 by weight)2 Dimethyl sulfoxide 0 10.5 115 33 Transparent 553 Dimethyl sulfoxide 4 15.0 135 43 Transparent 634 Dimethyl sulfoxide 15 60.0 105 17 Opaque 705 Dimethyl sulfoxide 30 180.0 90 8 Opaque 836 Dimethyl sulfoxide 40 300 75 4 Opaque 84__________________________________________________________________________
The membrane No. 1, obtained by using a methanol/water mixed solvent system and not within the present invention, had a honeycomb structure comprising uniform pores with sizes on the order of microns. The membranes Nos. 2 and 3, also obtained by conventional coagulation conditions, each had a substantially uniform structure. The membranes Nos. 4, 5 and 6, were obtained according to the present invention, and each had an asymmetric structure, and, when wet, was opaque. It is clear from the data that the membranes provided by the invention, as compared with the prior art membranes, have a high water permeability but low permeabilities to solutes, and therefore have those properties that render them suitable for use as filtration membranes.
An ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer with an ethylene content of 33 mole % was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide to prepare a solution having a polymer concentration of 22% by weight. This solution has a viscosity of 100 poises at 40° C. This spinning solution was filtered, defoamed and extruded into an aqueous bath containing 20% by weight of dimethyl sulfoxide at 20° C., using an annular nozzle (0.8 mm in outer diameter, 0.4 mm in inner diameter) and feeding air into the hollow portion. The fiber coagulated in the bath was taken up at a rate of 20 m/min. The hollow fiber thus obtained showed a water permeability of 105 ml/m2.hr.mmHg and uric acid permeability of 100×10-4 cm/min. Its membrane structure was the same as that of membranes 4, 5 and 6 of Example 1.
The spinning procedure of Example 2 was followed except that n-hexane, a noncoagulating liquid, was fed into the hollow fiber. The hollow fiber thus obtained had a water permeability of 100 ml/m2 ·hr·mmHg and a uric acid permeability of 96×10-4 cm/min.
An ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer with an ethylene content of 33 mole % was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide with heating, to prepare a solution having a polymer concentration of 22% by weight. This solution was allowed to stand overnight at 70° C. for the purpose of defoaming. An annular nozzle having a nozzle opening diameter of 1.5 mm, a needle outer diameter of 1.13 mm and a needle inner diameter of 0.87 mm was arranged 20 mm above the coagulating bath. While feeding through the inner portion of the nozzle a mixed solvent consisting of dimethyl sulfoxide and water (45/55 wt/wt) at a rate of 1.3 cc/min., the spinning solution was extruded through the outer portion of the nozzle at a rate of 1.9 cc/min. into a coagulation bath (19° C.) consisting of a mixed solution of dimethyl sulfoxide and water (60/40 wt/wt). The spun fiber was led vertically through the air downward into the coagulation bath at a spinning rate of 9.4 m/min. The draft in air was 3.8 times. The wet hollow fiber obtained showed an almost perfectly round cross section with an outer diameter of 590 microns and a wall thickness of 80 microns. Irregularities in diameter and wall thickness could hardly be observed over a fiber length of 1 km. The fiber was thus excellent in uniformity. Electron microscopy revealed the same structure as that shown in FIG. 5. It had a water permeability (UFR) of 104 ml/m2 ·hr·mmHg, a uric acid permeability of 226×10-4 cm/min., and a vitamin B12 permeability of 46×10-4 cm/min.
A hollow fiber membrane was produced by the same procedure as Example 4 except that water was introduced into the hollow portion and the coagulation bath of water at 23° C. The wet hollow fiber obtained had an almost perfectly round cross section with an outer diameter of 470 microns and a wall thickness of 130 microns. It had a UFR of 190 ml/m2 ·hr·mmHg, a uric acid permeability of 445×10-4 cm/min., and a vitamin B12 permeability of 184×10-4 cm/min.
Hollow fibers were produced by the same procedure as Example 4 except that the nozzle was changed (in Examples 6 and 7, a nozzle having respective diameters of 1.0/0.6/0.3 mm, and in Example 8, a nozzle having a respective diameters of 2.0/0.8/0.4 mm), that the spinning rate was 10 m/min., and that the composition and temperature of the coagulation bath were varied. The details are shown in Table 2. Electron microscopy revealed that each of the hollow fibers was similar to that shown in FIG. 5 and could be used as a filtration membrane.
TABLE 2______________________________________Example No. 6 7 8______________________________________Liquid fed into the hollow 45/55 45/55 45/55portion of the fiber (DMSO/water)Draft (times) 2.3 2.3 5.6Coagulation bath (DMSO/water) 0/100 0/100 20/80Coagulation temperature (°C.) 18 22 22Shape of hollow Outer diameter 579 571 667fiber (microns) Wall thickness 87 94 83UFR (ml/m2 . hr . mmHg) 72.8 158 173______________________________________
A hollow fiber was obtained by the same spinning procedure as in Example 4 except that water at 20° C. was fed as a coagulating liquid into the hollow fiber. This fiber had a water permeability of 91 ml/m2 ·hr·mm·Hg and uric acid permeability of 87×10-4 cm/min. Electron microscopy showed that its cross section had a multilayer vacuole structure.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3817880 *||Aug 4, 1972||Jun 18, 1974||Desoto Inc||Method of making high opacity resin porous films and aqueous latex for producing said films|
|US3907675 *||Jul 19, 1973||Sep 23, 1975||Rhone Poulenc Sa||Semi-permeable polyvinyl alcohol membranes|
|US3957935 *||Dec 5, 1974||May 18, 1976||Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft||Process for the production of a dry desalting cellulose acetate membrane|
|US4061821 *||Dec 14, 1976||Dec 6, 1977||Asahi Kasei Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Semipermeable composite membranes|
|US4134837 *||Jun 10, 1976||Jan 16, 1979||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer membranes having improved permeability characteristics and a method for producing the same|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4357312 *||Jul 16, 1981||Nov 2, 1982||The Children's Hospital Medical Center||Method of making prolonged release body|
|US4362677 *||Jun 4, 1981||Dec 7, 1982||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Method of producing ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer hollow fiber membranes|
|US4385094 *||Apr 21, 1980||May 24, 1983||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Ethylene-vinyl alcohol hollow fiber membrane and method for the production thereof|
|US4423099 *||Jul 28, 1980||Dec 27, 1983||Ciba-Geigy Corporation||Membrane modified hydrogels|
|US4510169 *||Aug 23, 1983||Apr 9, 1985||The Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas||Method and apparatus for cryopreparing biological tissue for ultrastructural analysis|
|US4567847 *||Nov 30, 1984||Feb 4, 1986||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Apparatus and method for cryopreparing biological tissue for ultrastructural analysis|
|US4664681 *||Nov 1, 1985||May 12, 1987||Dainippon Ink And Chemicals, Inc.||Heterogeneous membrane and process for production thereof|
|US4676070 *||Aug 29, 1985||Jun 30, 1987||The Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas||Apparatus and method for cryopreparing biological tissue|
|US4742690 *||Dec 16, 1986||May 10, 1988||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Apparatus and method for cryopreparing biological tissue for ultrastructural analysis|
|US4745771 *||Apr 13, 1987||May 24, 1988||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Apparatus and method for cryopreparing biological tissue for ultrastructural analysis|
|US4799361 *||Nov 4, 1986||Jan 24, 1989||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Method for cryopreparing biological tissue for ultrastructural analysis|
|US4802988 *||Sep 17, 1987||Feb 7, 1989||Texaco Inc.||Dehydration of glycols|
|US4822352 *||Jun 25, 1987||Apr 18, 1989||Ube Industries, Ltd.||Medical tubes with porous textured walls|
|US4954381 *||Mar 21, 1988||Sep 4, 1990||The Research Foundation Of The State University Of New York||Preparation of porous substrates having well defined morphology|
|US5024830 *||Aug 9, 1988||Jun 18, 1991||The Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas||Method for cryopreparing biological tissue for ultrastructural analysis|
|US5044165 *||Dec 15, 1988||Sep 3, 1991||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas||Cryo-slammer|
|US5084173 *||Jul 20, 1987||Jan 28, 1992||Asahi Medical Co., Ltd.||Hydrophilic composite porous membrane, a method of producing the plasma separator|
|US5240997 *||Jan 8, 1992||Aug 31, 1993||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Process for producing ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers|
|US5352750 *||May 27, 1993||Oct 4, 1994||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Process for producing ethylene-vinyl ester copolymers, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers, and process for producing shaped articles therefrom|
|US6508897||Oct 16, 2000||Jan 21, 2003||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Porous fibrous structure and process for producing the same|
|US6514409 *||Jan 10, 2001||Feb 4, 2003||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Hollow fiber membrane made of an ethylene-vinyl alcohol polymer|
|US6632359 *||Nov 9, 1999||Oct 14, 2003||Asahi Medical Co., Ltd.||Blood purifying apparatus|
|US6818247 *||Apr 27, 2001||Nov 16, 2004||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Ethylene vinyl alcohol-dimethyl acetamide composition and a method of coating a stent|
|US7022372||Nov 12, 2002||Apr 4, 2006||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Compositions for coating implantable medical devices|
|US7319078||Oct 11, 2002||Jan 15, 2008||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Porous fibrous structure and process for producing the same|
|US7504125||Dec 28, 2001||Mar 17, 2009||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||System and method for coating implantable devices|
|US7572336||May 19, 2006||Aug 11, 2009||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Clamp mandrel fixture and a method of using the same to minimize coating defects|
|US7622070||Nov 24, 2009||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Method of manufacturing an implantable polymeric medical device|
|US7648725||May 19, 2006||Jan 19, 2010||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Clamp mandrel fixture and a method of using the same to minimize coating defects|
|US7735449||Jul 28, 2005||Jun 15, 2010||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent fixture having rounded support structures and method for use thereof|
|US7823533||Nov 2, 2010||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent fixture and method for reducing coating defects|
|US7867547||Dec 19, 2005||Jan 11, 2011||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Selectively coating luminal surfaces of stents|
|US7985440||Sep 7, 2005||Jul 26, 2011||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Method of using a mandrel to coat a stent|
|US7985441||May 4, 2006||Jul 26, 2011||Yiwen Tang||Purification of polymers for coating applications|
|US8003156||May 4, 2006||Aug 23, 2011||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Rotatable support elements for stents|
|US8007858||Aug 30, 2011||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||System and method for coating implantable devices|
|US8069814||Dec 6, 2011||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent support devices|
|US8211489||Jul 3, 2012||Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Methods for applying an application material to an implantable device|
|US8361538||Jan 29, 2013||Abbott Laboratories||Methods for applying an application material to an implantable device|
|US8465789||Jul 18, 2011||Jun 18, 2013||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Rotatable support elements for stents|
|US8596215||Jul 18, 2011||Dec 3, 2013||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Rotatable support elements for stents|
|US8596467 *||Oct 11, 2007||Dec 3, 2013||Gambro Lundia Ab||Hollow fiber membrane and method for manufacturing thereof|
|US8632845||Apr 23, 2010||Jan 21, 2014||Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc.||Method of drying bioabsorbable coating over stents|
|US8637110||Jul 18, 2011||Jan 28, 2014||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Rotatable support elements for stents|
|US8664313 *||May 13, 2005||Mar 4, 2014||Sumitomo Seika Chemicals Co., Ltd.||Method for producing aqueous ethylene/vinyl alcohol based copolymer dispersion|
|US8741379||Jul 18, 2011||Jun 3, 2014||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Rotatable support elements for stents|
|US9156005||Sep 4, 2013||Oct 13, 2015||Gambro Lundia Ab||Hollow fiber membrane and method for manufacturing thereof|
|US20030032358 *||Oct 11, 2002||Feb 13, 2003||Kuraray Co. Ltd.||Porous fibrous structure and process for producing the same|
|US20030054721 *||Oct 30, 2002||Mar 20, 2003||Kuraray Co. Ltd.||Porous fibrous structure and process for producing the same|
|US20080176989 *||May 13, 2005||Jul 24, 2008||Norihiro Sugihara||Method For Producing Aqueous Ethylene/Vinyl Alcohol Based Copolymer Dispersion|
|US20090181160 *||Dec 9, 2008||Jul 16, 2009||Abbott Laboratories||Methods for applying an application material to an implantable device|
|US20100323093 *||Apr 23, 2010||Dec 23, 2010||Yung-Ming Chen||Method of Drying Bioabsorbable Coating Over Stents|
|US20110031184 *||Oct 11, 2007||Feb 10, 2011||Bernd Krause||Hollow Fiber Membrane and Method for Manufacturing Thereof|
|CN1097116C *||Oct 16, 2000||Dec 25, 2002||可乐丽股份有限公司||Porous fiber structure and its making method|
|EP1094140A1 *||Oct 10, 2000||Apr 25, 2001||Kuraray Co., Ltd.||Porous fibrous structure and process for producing the same|
|U.S. Classification||210/500.23, 264/41, 264/28, 428/398, 210/500.42|
|International Classification||B01D69/02, B01D69/08, B01D67/00, B01D71/38|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10T428/2975, B01D69/08, B01D71/38, B01D69/02, B01D2325/02, B01D2323/12, B01D67/0009|
|European Classification||B01D67/00K14, B01D69/08, B01D69/02, B01D71/38|