Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS4273639 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 06/050,845
Publication dateJun 16, 1981
Filing dateJun 20, 1979
Priority dateJun 20, 1979
Also published asCA1145398A1, DE3067424D1, EP0021798A2, EP0021798A3, EP0021798B1
Publication number050845, 06050845, US 4273639 A, US 4273639A, US-A-4273639, US4273639 A, US4273639A
InventorsWilliam F. Gottermeier
Original AssigneeEastman Kodak Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Capillary bridge in apparatus for determining ionic activity
US 4273639 A
Abstract
A device is disclosed for determining ion activity in liquid solutions by the use of electrodes over which a cover sheet with an internal capillary bridge promotes ionic migration between the electrodes. The cover sheet is formed of a porous material ribbon encapsulated in a nonporous web. Preferably, the cover sheet is punched at each electrode to provide fluid access holes for receiving drops of liquid solutions.
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(10)
What is claimed is:
1. In a device having an electrically insulative frame and a pair of solid electrodes mounted on a surface of the frame in a spaced-apart relationship for generating therein an electrical potential having a predetermined relationship to the amount of ionic analyte activity present in a contacting sample of an aqueous solution; the improvement comprising:
an integral cover sheet extending over both electrodes and substantially the full surface of the frame upon which the electrodes are mounted, said cover sheet being formed of a nonporous material and being bonded to the frame to secure the electrodes therebetween;
a fluid access hole aligned with each electrode, extending through said cover sheet for receiving a sample of the solution in contact with the electrodes; and
an elongated ribbon of porous material encapsulated in said cover sheet and extending at least between said fluid access holes for providing ionic flow between solution samples in each fluid access hole.
2. The improvement as defined in claim 1 wherein said cover sheet nonporous material is a homogeneous plastic which substantially surrounds said encapsulated porous material.
3. The improvement as defined in claim 1 wherein said cover sheet nonporous material comprises:
a base of polystyrene, said elongated ribbon of porous material being impressed into the surface of said base to leave an exposed ribbon surface; and
a layer of polyethylene covering said exposed ribbon surface.
4. The improvement as defined by claim 1 further comprising a layer of adhesive material between said cover sheet and said electrodes for creating a seal around said fluid access holes to prevent solution sample from spreading between said cover sheet and said electrodes.
5. In a device having an electrically insulative base and a pair of solid electrodes mounted on the surface of the base in a spaced-apart relationship for generating therein an electrical potential having a predetermined relationship to the amount of ionic analyte activity present in a contacting sample of an aqueous solution; the improvement comprising:
a spacer web bonded to the base and having at least one opening through which the electrodes extend, said spacer web being thinner than the electrodes so that the electrodes extend beyond the surface of the spacer web; and
an integral cover sheet extending over both the two electrodes and substantially the full surface of said spacer web, said cover sheet being formed of a nonporous material and being bonded to the spacer web to secure the electrodes between the cover sheet and the base under compressive force.
6. The improvement as defined in claim 6 further comprising:
a fluid access hole aligned with each electrode, extending through said cover sheet for receiving a sample of the solution in contact with the electrodes; and
a elongated ribbon of porous material encapsulated in said cover sheet and extending at least between said fluid access holes for providing ionic flow between solution samples in each fluid access hole.
7. The improvement as defined by claim 7 further comprising a layer of adhesive material between said cover sheet and the electrodes for establishing a seal around said fluid access holes to prevent solution sample from spreading between said cover sheet and the electrodes.
8. The improvement as defined in claim 6 further comprising:
a fluid access hole aligned with each electrode, extending through said cover sheet for receiving a sample of the solution in contact with the electrodes; and
an elongated ribbon of porous material encapsulated in said cover sheet, extending substantially the entire distance between opposed edges of said cover sheet and aligned with said fluid access holes for providing ionic flow between solution samples in each fluid access hole.
9. The improvement as defined in claim 1 further comprising at least one vent opening in said cover sheet for permitting air trapped in said porous means between said fluid access holes to escape as the solution in each fluid access hole advances toward the solution in the other fluid access hole.
10. In a device having an electrically insulative frame and a pair of solid electrodes mounted on a surface of the frame in a spaced-apart relationship for generating therein an electrical potential having a predetermined relationship to the amount of ionic analyte activity present in a contacting sample of an aqueous solution; the improvement comprising:
an integral cover sheet extending over both electrodes and substantially the full surface of the frame upon which the electrodes are mounted, said cover sheet (1) being bonded to the frame to secure the electrodes therebetween and (2) being formed of a nonporous material comprising a base of polystyrene and a layer of polyethylene;
a fluid access hole aligned with each electrode, extending through said cover sheet for receiving a sample of the solution in contact with the electrodes; and
an elongated ribbon of porous material encapsulated in said cover sheet, extending between said fluid access holes and substantially the entire distance between opposed edges of said cover sheet for providing ionic flow between solution samples in each fluid access hole, said base impressed into the surface of, and covered by said layer of polyethylene.
Description
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

Reference is made to commonly assigned, copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 927,085 entitled DEVICE FOR DETERMINING IONIC ACTIVITY, filed in the names of J. O. Paul and K. Babaoglu on July 24, 1978, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,184,936.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to devices useful in determining the activity of an ionic analyte of an aqueous solution, and is particularly useful in potentiometrically measuring ion activity in drops of biological fluids.

2. Description of the Prior Art

There is a variety of apparatus in the prior art for measuring ion activity in solutions. A test device incorporating ion-selective electrodes which develop an electrical potential proportional to the logarithm of the activity of the ions to which the electrodes are sensitive is described in the abovementioned commonly assigned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 927,085 and is shown at 10 in FIG. 1 of the accompanying drawings. Two solid electrodes 12 and 14 are mounted on a frame 16, and a capillary bridge 18 is provided for promoting ionic migration between two fluid access holes 20 and 22 at the electrodes. The capillary bridge includes a nonporous support layer, a porous layer with ionic access to both electrodes, and a top nonporous cover layer which is preferably hydrophobic. When a drop of reference solution of known ion activity is applied to one fluid access hole and a drop of test solution is applied to the other fluid access hole, the drops spread into the porous layer until contact is made at a thin junction interface, permitting ionic migration between the drops. An electrometer 24 is provided to measure the electrical potentials at the interfaces between each solution drop and its associated electrode to provide an indication of ion activity in the test solution.

Although the device disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 927,085 provides excellent results in determining ion activity in liquids, the present invention is an improvement which provides advantages in both assembly and performance. As can be seen in FIG. 1, capillary bridge 18 is a small discrete part which must be both accurately placed on the electrodes during assembly and held in place by an adhesive. These constraints increase assembly problems and potentially decrease performance due to possible misalignment of the fluid access holes and failure of the adhesive bond. Further, fluid leakage from the edge of the bridge could affect the area of wetted electrode surface because the edges of the bridge are aligned with the electrodes. Unpredictability of the total area of wetted electrode surface would adversely affect the test results.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with the present invention, a device is provided for determining the activity of an ionic analyte of an aqueous solution wherein two electrodes are held in a frame by an integral cover sheet and capillary bridge. The cover sheet is formed of a nonporous material with an encapsulated porous ribbon, and fluid access holes extend through the cover sheet in alignment with the porous ribbon and each electrode. The test and reference fluids are confined to the porous ribbon to form an ion junction between the electrodes.

In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, the cover sheet is formed by encapsulating a ribbon of porous material in the cross section of a plastic web by a two-pass extrusion process. The porous material is located only in an area along a line generally corresonding to the common centerline of both fluid access holes. Vents are provided in the cover sheet to allow air in the bridge to be displaced by the advancing liquid wave fronts when test and reference solutions are applied at the fluid access holes.

According to another embodiment of the present invention, the cover sheet is formed by coating one side of a porous ribbon with a plastic material and then pressing the coated ribbon into a film of nonporous material.

The present invention permits assembly machines to be significantly less complex because the assembled ion-selective electrode test device has fewer components and the need to accurately locate a small discrete capillary bridge has been eliminated. As a result, test devices manufactured in accordance with the present invention exhibit exceptionally large drop placement latitude (i.e, a drop of liquid may be placed upon the device anywhere over a large area and still wet the electrode area) because the simplified assembly process allows the fluid access hole locations to be more accurately controlled. This feature is important in permitting relaxed manufacturing tolerances in automatic processing apparatus wherein the drops are applied mechanically.

Further, fluid leakage from the edge of the bridge will not affect the area of wetted electrode surface because the edges of the bridge of the present invention are not aligned with the electrodes.

The invention, and its objects and advantages, will become more apparent in the detailed description of the preferred embodiments presented below.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In the detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the invention presented below, reference is made to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a device for determining the activity of an ionic analyte of an aqueous solution constructed in accordance with the prior art;

FIG. 2 is an exploded perspective view of a device for determining the activity of an ionic analyte of an aqueous solution constructed in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 3 is an assembled sectional view taken generally along the line designated as 3--3 in FIG. 2;

FIGS. 4-7 are schematic illustrations of how one embodiment of the cover sheet is fabricated;

FIGS. 8 and 9 are schematic illustrations of how another embodiment of the cover sheet is fabricated; and

FIG. 10 schematically shows the assembly of devices according to the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Although the invention as hereinafter described is directed to a device for potentiometrically determining ion activity through the use of ion-selective electrodes, such device can be used for other electrical tests of a liquid solution. The device is particularly adapted for processing by automated handling equipment.

FIG. 2 illustrates in exploded perspective a device 30 which has an electrically insulative mounting frame 32 formed of a base web 34 and a spacer web 36. Two solid electrodes 38 and 40 are mounted in the frame and electrically isolated from each other. A cover sheet 42, with an internal capillary bridge 44, promotes ionic migration between solution drops deposited in fluid access holes 46 and 48. The fluid access holes extend through the cover sheet in the region of electrodes 38 and 40. Two electrical access holes 50 and 52 are also formed in the cover sheet.

The Electrodes

Electrodes 38 and 40 are either respectively an ion-selective electrode and an external reference electrode, for a direct mode of determining potentials, or respectively two ion-selective electrodes for a differential measurement comparing the ion activity of an unknown test solution with that of a similar reference solution of known ion concentration. Electrodes 38 and 40 are shown as being identical and, therefore, suitable for the differential mode of measurement which is made be electrometer 24 (FIG. 1) when a test drop 54 (FIG. 3) is applied to one electrode and a reference drop 56 having a known concentration of ions is applied to the other electrode. In FIG. 3, the thickness of the layers of the electrodes has been greatly exaggerated for clarity.

Both electrodes are formed of layers comprising an ion-selective membrane 58 (permeable to the ion of choice) coated over a multilayer internal reference element which in turn is coated over a support 60, all of which are solid layers. Each internal reference element is shown as comprising several layers such as metal layer 62, layer 64 which is an insoluble salt of the metal of layer 62, and layer 66 which is an electrolyte containing layer. Although the layers are generally referred to as being "coated" one over another, it should be understood that the term "coating" is meant to include laminating or otherwise forming the various strata one over another by any technique.

For purposes of describing the present invention, it is believed that a detailed discussion of the structure and operation of electrodes 38 and 40 is not necessary. However, a full description of various embodiments of such electrodes and the method of use thereof may be found in co-assigned U.S. Pat. No. 4,053,381. The disclosure of that patent is specifically incorporated herein by reference.

The Cover Sheet and Capillary Bridge

Cover sheet 42 is shown in FIG. 2 and in section in FIG. 3. The cover sheet is preferably a flat, composite web having through-holes 46, 48, 50, and 52. A ribbon of porous material is encapsulated in the cover sheet to form capillary bridge 44 between fluid access holes 46 and 48 as a means of promoting ionic migration between electrodes 38 and 40. Bridge 44 in a preferred embodiment is a porous paper into which liquid drops 54 and 56 are absorbed to form an ionic junction. A suitable paper for correct absorption of human serum is Whatman #2 chroma, 0.007 inch thick, which is manufactured in the United Kingdom by W. and R. Balston, Ltd. When spotted with liquid solution drops at holes 46 and 48, the liquid fills the holes, forms large caps on cover sheet 42, and within 10 to 30 seconds is absorbed into the paper. Another example of the material suitable for the porous ribbon is disclosed in referenced U.S. Pat. No. 4,053,381. However, other porous material which is resistant to becoming clogged by the plastic overcoats will readily occur to those skilled in the art. Throughout this specification and the appendaged claims, the porous material which forms capillary bridge 44 is referred to as a ribbon, and that is meant to define any elongated form such as, for example, a web, a thread, threads, a strip, etc.

The liquid from each drop spreads into capillary bridge 44 until contact is made at about the middle of the bridge to form an ionic junction. Preferably, sufficient liquid is left unabsorbed to fill holes 46 and 48. It is desirable to vent the cover sheet to assure rapid junction formation. Vents, such as shown at 67 in FIG. 3, allow air trapped in the porous material to escape and be displaced by the advancing liquid wave fronts from the fluid access holes. Venting can be accomplished by puncturing the top plastic covering to expose the porous material to the atmosphere. Optimally, vents should be spaced along the entire bridge area between the fluid access holes. This design is better than having vent holes only in the center of the bridge because in this latter case, the vent holes could be sealed off before liquid junction formation. This condition would be augmented when the flow rates from the test and reference drops were significantly different.

Capillary bridge 44 is preferably located only in an area along a line which corresponds to the common center-line of fluid access holes 46 and 48. Generally, the porous material which forms the capillary bridge cannot be used as a full cover sheet because the additional volume would result in too large a fluid capacity.

Operation

Operation of the device is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,053,381, and in general proceeds by spotting a drop of the reference solution in hole 46 and a drop of the test solution in hole 48. Probes contact electrodes 38 and 40 (FIG. 1), and the potentials are read on electrometer 24. The reading indicates ion activity in the test solution.

The test device is then removed from contact with electrometer 24 and disposed of, and a new device is positioned to receive subsequent drops of solution and to contact the electrometer leads.

Cover Sheet Fabrication--First Embodiment

Reference is made to FIGS. 4-7 for a schematic illustration of the fabrication of an elongated web from which a plurality of cover sheets 42 are produced. A roll 70 of suitable porous material for capillary bridge 44 is positioned ajdacent to an extrusion die 72, and the porous material is drawn under the die into contact with a film 74 of molten plastic. Film 74 may be polystyrene, but any plastic which can be formed into a free film would be acceptable.

Before film 74 is completely quenched, the composite web of porous material from roll 70 and plastic film 74 is calendered between a pair of rollers 76 and 78. The resultant composite web 80 has a uniform thickness (as shown in cross section in FIG. 5) and is wound into a roll 82.

Referring to FIG. 6, composite web 80 is next unwound from roll 82 and drawn under an extrusion die 84 into contact with another free film 86 of molten plastic so that the side of web 80 into which the porous material has been pressed is overcoated with a layer of plastic as the web passes between rollers 88 and 90 and is wound into a roll 92. A cross sectional view of the final web is shown in FIG. 7.

Several variations of the above process are within the scope of the present invention. For example, multiple parallel ribbons of porous material can be encapsulated into a wide plastic web. The wide web would then be split between the strands. Further, the need for a two-pass operation could be eliminated by use of multiple coating dies or a crosshead die.

Cover Sheet Fabrication--Second Embodiment

FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of a composite web formed in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 9, a web of porous material from a supply roll 86 is coated with polyethylene from an extrusion die 88. After the polyethylene has been quenched, the web is slit into ribbons at 90 and wound into a plurality of rolls 92.

When the coated web of porous material is drawn under an extrusion die similar to die 72 of FIG. 4 and calendered with the polyethylene coating facing away from free film 74 of molten polystyrene, a composite web 93 as shown in FIG. 8 is formed. In that figure, the porous material is denoted by reference numeral 94, its polyethylene coating by numeral 96, and the quenched polystyrene base by numeral 98.

The cover sheet formed by this process has inherent ventilation because the polystyrene of base 98 does not bond to the polyethylene of coating 96 during the extrusion process. The exposed porous material at the edge of coating 96 provides a venting path to allow air to escape from the bridge as it is displaced by liquid absorbed by the bridge. If additional venting is desired, it can be more easily implemented than in the case of the FIGS. 4-7 embodiment because coating 96 is thinner than the second extrusion layer of the previous embodiment.

Assembly of the Device

The integral capillary bridge and cover sheet eliminates or simplifies a number of slide assembly steps inherent in devices having discrete bridges. Thus, assembly machines can be significantly less complex.

FIG. 10 schematically shows how the devices can be assembled when an integral bridge and cover sheet is used. All of the materials except the ion-selective electrodes are assembled by simply laminating continuous webs of material together and chopping finished slides from the resulting web.

A web 100, which has been manufactured and slit in accordance with, for example, any of the previously described embodiments, is coated at 101 on one side with an adhesive and covered by an interleaving material 102. This composite web is moved continuously in the direction of arrow 104 past a set of punches 106 which moves cyclically to perforate the web, forming round fluid access holes 46 and 48 and rectangular electrical access holes 50 and 52 (FIG. 2).

Following punching station 106, interleaving material 102 is stripped from web 100 to expose the achesive coating. Ion-selective electrodes 107, which are chopped from a web 108 by punches 110 and 111, are applied to the adhesive in alignment with the fluid and electrical access holes. Punches 110 and 111 are close together when they punch web 108 to eliminate waste. As the punches move toward web 100 to deposit the electrodes, the punches separate so that the electrodes are spaced apart. The adhesive coating on web 100 holds the ion-selective electrodes in position and creates a seal around the fluid access holes to prevent the reference and sample fluids from spreading between the cover sheet and the ion-selective electrodes of FIG. 2.

A spacer web 112 is moved in the direction of arrow 114 from a stock roll, not shown. The spacer web has a plurality of ultrasonic energy concentrators on its upper surface. The concentrators are schematically shown as lines c on web 36 in FIG. 2 and aid in the welding process specified hereinafter. As web 112 passes under a pair of punches 116, rectangular holes 118 are punched to align with ion-selective electrodes 107 on web 100 when the two webs join between a pair of rollers 120 and 122.

A third web 124 also passes between rollers 120 and 122 to join with the other two webs. The third web also has ultrasonic energy concentrators c as shown schematically in FIG. 2 and forms base web 34 (FIG. 2) in the finished device.

An ultrasonic horn or horns 126 and anvil or anvils 128 are movable into engagement with, and then along with, the composite web to weld the webs together. The presence of the high energy concentrators between individual webs 100, 112, and 124 increase the welding operation's efficiency.

The joined webs are translated from the welding station to a knife press 130 by a continuously moving vacuum belt drive 132. Knife press 130 has a rotary motion to chop the joined webs into individual slides which are moved by a slide spacer belt 134 to a slide selecting vacuum belt 136. Belt 136 carries the slide above bins 138-141 for sorting as desired. For example, bin 138 could receive slide rejects, bin 139 might receive randomly selected slides for quality control testing, and bins 140 and 141 would be filled with slides for commercial sale.

Advantage of the Full Cover Sheet With Bridge

The integral cover sheet and porous bridge in accordance with the present invention reduces the number of slide components and offers a major slide assembly advantage by eliminating the need for the slower and waste prone process of placing discrete bridge units onto the partially assembled slide. Further, the integral cover sheet minimizes performance problems such as fluid leakage onto the ion-selective electrodes and increased drop placement latitude.

Fluid leakage from the edge of the porous bridge of the integral cover sheet will not increase the area of wetted electrode surface because the edge of the bridge is isolated from the ion-selective electrodes. Accordingly, test results will not be affected by such leakage.

Further, an integral cover sheet permits more accurate fluid access hole placement than in the case where an ionic bridge must be placed on the slide as a discrete part. Accurate fluid access hole placement increases drop placement latitude.

Another advantage of the present invention is derived from the fact that the cover sheet is mechanically held to the slide by an ultrasonic seal around its entire perimeter. Spacer web 36 is slightly thinner than electrodes 38 and 40 so that the cover sheet and electrodes are pressed together. Thus, the adhesive coating on the cover sheet serves primarily as a fluid seal and does not have to be strong enough to hold the bridge and electrodes together, thereby decreasing the risk of delamination of the bridge and fluid leakage thereunder.

The invention has been described in detail with particular reference to preferred embodiments thereof, but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4053381 *May 19, 1976Oct 11, 1977Eastman Kodak CompanyDevice for determining ionic activity of components of liquid drops
US4184936 *Jul 24, 1978Jan 22, 1980Eastman Kodak CompanyPorous and nonporous layers
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4413407 *Nov 9, 1981Nov 8, 1983Eastman Kodak CompanyMethod for forming an electrode-containing device with capillary transport between electrodes
US4454007 *Jan 27, 1983Jun 12, 1984E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyCarbon dispersed in a dielectric polymer, partiallyl interdiffused with membrane
US4473457 *Mar 29, 1982Sep 25, 1984Eastman Kodak CompanyLiquid transport device providing diversion of capillary flow into a non-vented second zone
US4517071 *Aug 30, 1982May 14, 1985Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Ionic activity measuring device
US4528085 *Mar 15, 1983Jul 9, 1985Fuji Photo Film Company, Ltd.Ion selective electrode and process of preparing the same
US4555274 *Jun 7, 1984Nov 26, 1985Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Ion selective electrode and process of preparing the same
US4654127 *Nov 27, 1985Mar 31, 1987Sentech Medical CorporationSelf-calibrating single-use sensing device for clinical chemistry and method of use
US4684445 *Jul 3, 1986Aug 4, 1987Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Method and device of measuring ion activity
US4783251 *Dec 23, 1986Nov 8, 1988Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Quantitative analysis of body fluids; ion-selective electrodes
US4789435 *Aug 14, 1986Dec 6, 1988Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Spotting reference and sample liquids on electrically insulated ion-selective electrode sheets
US4859306 *May 31, 1988Aug 22, 1989Hoffman-La Roche Inc.Selectively ion-permeable dry electrodes for analyzing selected ions in aqueous solution
US4867860 *Dec 16, 1986Sep 19, 1989Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.Method of manufacturing ion-selective electrodes for analyzing selected ions in solution
US4872956 *Dec 29, 1988Oct 10, 1989Horiba, Ltd.Absorbent sheet electrode holds small solution sample; accuracy
US4889612 *May 22, 1987Dec 26, 1989Abbott LaboratoriesDielectric substrate, non-metal conductor, and ion selective membrane
US4948737 *Jan 5, 1989Aug 14, 1990Eastman Kodak CompanyAligning and mating corresponding key and keyway on cartridge and test element
US5034191 *Jan 5, 1989Jul 23, 1991Eastman Kodak CompanyEvaporation caps on test elements, raising at loading and unloading stations by cams
US5056521 *Jun 29, 1989Oct 15, 1991Health Craft International, Inc.Method for monitoring glucose level
US5330625 *Oct 23, 1992Jul 19, 1994Eastman Kodak CompanyConcentric and core ion selective electrodes with ion bridge between
US5540827 *Jun 6, 1995Jul 30, 1996Johnson & Johnson Clinical Diagnostics, Inc.Directional flow ion-junction bridge
US5660791 *Jun 6, 1996Aug 26, 1997Bayer CorporationFluid testing sensor for use in dispensing instrument
US6287451Jun 2, 1999Sep 11, 2001Handani WinartaElectrode strip
US6740216 *May 4, 2001May 25, 2004Schlumberger Technology CorporationPotentiometric sensor for wellbore applications
US6803019Oct 15, 1998Oct 12, 2004Aclara Biosciences, Inc.Laminate microstructure device and method for making same
US6827906May 9, 2000Dec 7, 2004Aclara Biosciences, Inc.Continuous form microstructure assay array
US6837976Apr 19, 2002Jan 4, 2005Nova Biomedical CorporationDisposable sensor with enhanced sample port inlet
US6997343Aug 30, 2002Feb 14, 2006Hypoguard LimitedSensor dispensing device
US7250095Jul 10, 2003Jul 31, 2007Hypoguard LimitedElectrode for indicating amperometrically the catalytic activity of an oxidoreductase enzyme; an electrically conductive base layer of finely divided platinum oxide bonded together by a resin, top layer of a buffer and an oxidoreductase enzyme
US7264139Jan 12, 2004Sep 4, 2007Hypoguard LimitedSensor dispensing device
US7338639Mar 16, 2006Mar 4, 2008Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for analyte measurement
US7390667Oct 17, 2003Jun 24, 2008Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for analyte measurement using AC phase angle measurements
US7407811Oct 17, 2003Aug 5, 2008Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.Determining concentration of glucose in blood via applying excitation signal having direct and alternating current components; biosensor
US7452457Oct 17, 2003Nov 18, 2008Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for analyte measurement using dose sufficiency electrodes
US7488601Oct 17, 2003Feb 10, 2009Roche Diagnostic Operations, Inc.System and method for determining an abused sensor during analyte measurement
US7494816Oct 17, 2003Feb 24, 2009Roche Diagnostic Operations, Inc.System and method for determining a temperature during analyte measurement
US7556723Jan 12, 2005Jul 7, 2009Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.Electrode design for biosensor
US7569126Oct 8, 2004Aug 4, 2009Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for quality assurance of a biosensor test strip
US7597793Oct 17, 2003Oct 6, 2009Roche Operations Ltd.applying an excitation signal having a DC (direct current) component and an AC (alternating current) component; concentration of analyte is determined based on corrected DC response; accurately measuring the concentration of glucose in blood for example
US7604721Jun 18, 2004Oct 20, 2009Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.comprising substrate having measurement electrodes formed on the surfaces and contact pads formed on the surface and conductively coupled to the measurement electrodes, used for measuring the concentration of an analyte of interest in biological fluids
US7645373Jun 18, 2004Jan 12, 2010Roche Diagnostic Operations, Inc.System and method for coding information on a biosensor test strip
US7645421Jun 18, 2004Jan 12, 2010Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.Measurement apparatus comprising at least 10 contact sites for monitoring concentration of preferential analytes in biological fluids; test strips; bioinformatics
US7718439Jun 18, 2004May 18, 2010Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.Biosensing apparatus for monitoring concentrations of preferential compounds in biological fluids
US7977112Dec 9, 2008Jul 12, 2011Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for determining an abused sensor during analyte measurement
US8058077Jun 18, 2004Nov 15, 2011Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.Method for coding information on a biosensor test strip
US8071384Oct 7, 2008Dec 6, 2011Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.Control and calibration solutions and methods for their use
US8083993Dec 17, 2009Dec 27, 2011Riche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for coding information on a biosensor test strip
US8092668Jun 15, 2009Jan 10, 2012Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for quality assurance of a biosensor test strip
US8148164Dec 30, 2009Apr 3, 2012Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for determining the concentration of an analyte in a sample fluid
US8206565Jun 18, 2004Jun 26, 2012Roche Diagnostics Operation, Inc.System and method for coding information on a biosensor test strip
US8293538Feb 24, 2010Oct 23, 2012Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for coding information on a biosensor test strip
US8298828Mar 13, 2012Oct 30, 2012Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for determining the concentration of an analyte in a sample fluid
US8404100Sep 11, 2006Mar 26, 2013Bayer Healthcare LlcGated voltammetry
US8425757Dec 19, 2007Apr 23, 2013Bayer Healthcare Llcmultiple duty cycles of sequential excitations and relaxations provide a shorter analysis time and/or improve the accuracy and/or precision of the analysis; for determining the concentration of an analyte in a sample ( detrmination of glucose level in blood of a diabetic patient); handheld apparatus
US8507289Jul 16, 2012Aug 13, 2013Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for coding information on a biosensor test strip
US8586373Oct 24, 2012Nov 19, 2013Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for determining the concentration of an analyte in a sample fluid
US8647489Feb 28, 2013Feb 11, 2014Bayer Healthcare LlcGated voltammetry devices
US8663442Oct 20, 2008Mar 4, 2014Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.System and method for analyte measurement using dose sufficiency electrodes
EP0207530A2 *Jul 7, 1986Jan 7, 1987Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Method and device of measuring ion activity
EP1032824A1 *Oct 15, 1998Sep 6, 2000Aclara BioSciences, Inc.Laminate microstructure device and method for making same
WO1985004719A1 *Apr 9, 1985Oct 24, 1985Sentech Medical CorpSelf-calibrating single-use sensing device for clinical chemistry analyzer
Classifications
U.S. Classification204/416, 204/435
International ClassificationG01N27/30, G01N27/28
Cooperative ClassificationG01N27/307
European ClassificationG01N27/30G
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 28, 1995ASAssignment
Owner name: CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS INC., NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:007453/0348
Effective date: 19950118
Feb 6, 1981ASAssignment
Owner name: EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, N.Y, A CORP. OF
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:GOTTERMEIER WILLIAM F.;REEL/FRAME:003827/0295
Effective date: 19790615