|Publication number||US4294518 A|
|Application number||US 05/965,117|
|Publication date||Oct 13, 1981|
|Filing date||Nov 30, 1978|
|Priority date||Nov 30, 1978|
|Publication number||05965117, 965117, US 4294518 A, US 4294518A, US-A-4294518, US4294518 A, US4294518A|
|Inventors||James M. O'Connor, George W. Goodrich|
|Original Assignee||The Bendix Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (37), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The disclosed invention is related to the commonly assigned co-pending application Ser. No. 972,138 entitled "A Colloidal Light Valve Having Enhanced Image Contrast," filed on Dec. 21, 1978, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,227,775.
1. Field of the Invention
The field of the invention is related to the visual displays and in particular to a dual mode active/passive display.
2. Prior Art
Displays based on the colloidal and electrochromic light valve principal are generally well known in the art. Colloidal light valves as shown by Land in U.S. Pat. Nos. 1,955,923, issued Apr. 23, 1934 and 1,963,496, issued June 19, 1934, embody dichroic dipole particles suspended in a colloid or fluid medium in which the randomly oriented dichroic dipole particles can be caused to align under the influence of electrostatic or electromagnetic fields. The dichroic particles may be reflective or opaque when randomly disposed and transparent when aligned under the influence of an appropriate magnetic or electrostatic field. Electrochromic light valves, such as shown by Castellion in U.S. Pat. No. 3,807,832, issued Apr. 30, 1974 exhibit coloration and bleaching in response to the presence or absence of an electrical field. Although the mechanisms of colloidal and electrochromic light valves are different, their basic functions are equivalent.
Active displays are made by backlighting a colloid or electrochromic light valve. The basic structure of a typical colloidal light valve is shown by Marks in U.S. Pat. No. 3,512,876, issued May 19, 1970. In the unactivated state, the random orientation of the dichroic particles absorb incident light and cause a relatively large transmission loss through the valve. When an AC field is applied across opposing transparent electrodes deposited on the inner surfaces of the substrates, the dichroic dipole particles align along the lines of the field and the colloid suspension becomes transparent. Illumination from a light source behind the light valve passes through the portion of the colloid suspension where the particles are aligned and a light image corresponding to the activated electrode pattern is visible through the front window of the display. Brownian movement of the suspended dichroic particles after the removal of the field will cause the particles to assume their prior light absorbing random orientation.
Passive display panels are made by applying a reflective coating on the inner surface of the rear substrate. This reflective coating may be a mirror surface as taught by Castellion in U.S. Pat. No. 3,807,832, cited above, or may be a reflective surface having a color different from the color of the colloid suspension in the unactivated state. In the unactivated state, the reflective surface is occluded by the dichroic particles and only the color of the dichroic particles is visible when the display is viewed from the same general direction of the incident light. When an AC field is applied across transparent electrodes disposed on the inner surfaces of the substrates, the dichroic particles align with the field and the area underlying the electrodes becomes transparent causing the reflective surface to be illuminated by the incident light producing a visible image at the front face of the display panel.
Active displays work well under relatively low incident light levels but have a tendency to wash out at high light levels, while passive displays work well at high incident light levels but lose visibility under low light levels.
Dual mode displays which are operative in both the active and passive mode are known in the liquid crystal art in which the reflective surface is made from a semi-transparent material. In liquid crystal displays, the difference between the optical density of the liquid crystal material in the activated and non-activated state is sufficient to permit high contrast images in both the active and passive modes of operation. In displays using colloidal suspensions of dipole particles or electrochromic materials, the differences in optical density between the activated and non-activated state tends to be somewhat less such that when the optical density of the electro-responsive material is optimized for use in the passive mode, the optical density of the material is insufficient to produce a high contrast image in the active mode and vice versa. This is because in the passive mode, the light passes through the electro-responsive material twice while in the active mode, the light only passes through the material once. Dual mode displays using a single cell light valve in which the optical density of the electro-responsive material is a compromise between the two modes of operation have had less than desirable image contrast.
The disclosed invention is a dual mode display embodying two tandemly arranged light valves in which the optical density of the electro-responsive material in each light valve is selected to optimize the image contrast in both modes of operation.
The invention is a dual mode display consisting of two tandemly arranged light valves in an integral assembly and a light source illuminating the rear surface thereof. The first of the two light valves has a semi-transparent reflective surface disposed behind the electro-responsive medium having an optical density selected to optimize image contrast with the display acting in the passive mode. The electro-responsive film of the second light valve has a higher optical density optimizing the image contrast with the display operating in the active mode. The electro-responsive film may be either a thin film of electrochromic material or a thin layer of a colloidal suspension of dichroic dipole particles as are known in the art.
The object of the invention is an improved dual mode display having a second light valve tandemly disposed behind a first light valve. Another object of the invention is a dual mode display in which the optical density of the electro-responsive medium of the first light valve is selected to optimize the image contrast of the display in the passive mode. Another object of the invention is a dual mode display in which the optical density of the electro-responsive medium of the second light valve is higher than the optical density of the first light valve to optimize the image contrast of the display in the active mode. These and other objects of the invention will become apparent from a reading of the specification in conjunction with the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a perspective of the disclosed dual mode display.
FIG. 2 is a cross-section of the dual mode display shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an alternate embodiment of the dual mode display.
Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown a perspective of the dual mode display capable of forming block alpha-numerical characters as indicated by the segments 12 shown in phantom. The details of the dual colloidal display 10 are best explained with reference to the cross-sectional view of the display illustrated in FIG. 2.
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, the dual mode display comprises two light valves in tandem relationship. The first light valve comprises a thin front or first window 14. The front window may be transparent or diffusely transparent, such as disclosed in commonly assigned co-pending application, Ser. No. 972,138 filed Dec. 21, 1978 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,227,775 issued Oct. 14, 1980. Application Ser. No. 972,138 is expressly incorporated herein by reference. Deposited on the inner surface of the window 14 are conductive transparent electrodes 16 corresponding to the bar segments 12 of the block alpha-numerical pattern shown in FIG. 1. The electrodes 16 may be a transparent NESA or NESATRON coating deposited in the form of the bar pattern as indicated. The NESA and NESATRON coatings are registered trade names of P.P.G. Industries. A thin non-conductive transparent coating 18 such as an evaporated layer of silicon monoxide is deposited over the electrodes 16. A thin intermediate or second transparent window 20 is disposed a short distance behind the front window 14 and is supported in a parallel relationship thereto by a thin spacer 22. The enclosed volume between the front window 14 and the intermediate window 20 is filled with an electro-responsive material such as a colloidal suspension of dichroic dipole particles 24 or an electrochromic material. A semi-transparent electrically conductive reflective surface 26 is deposited on the front or forward surface of the intermediate window 20. In a manner similar to the non-conductive coating covering the electrodes 16, the semi-transparent surface 26 is overlayed with a thin layer of non-conductive material 28, such as silicon monoxide. The semi-transparent surface 26 may be a vacuum deposited metal such as silver or nichrome or any other metal. To insure the electrical conductivity of the semi-transparent reflective surface, a transparent electrically NESA coating may first be applied to the surface of the intermediate window 20 and the reflective surface 26 deposited over the NESA coating.
The second light valve comprises the intermediate window 20, a rear or third window 34 and intermediate layer of an electro-responsive material 38, such as a thin colloidal suspension of dichroic particles. Conductive transparent electrodes 30 corresponding to the electrode 16 deposited on the inner surface of the front window 14 are deposited on the rear surface of the intermediate window 20. A thin non-conductive transparent layer 32 is also deposited over the electrodes 30. The rear window 34 is disposed behind the intermediate window 20 and is spaced therefrom by means of a thin spacer 36. Conductive NESA electrodes 40 corresponding to electrodes 16 and 30 are deposited on the inner surface of the rear window 34. A thin transparent layer of non-conductive material 32 is deposited over the conductive electrodes 40. The function of the thin layers of transparent non-conductive material 18, 28, 32 and 42 are to protect the underlying electrodes from the corrosive effects of the electro-responsive materials 24 and 38. A light source 44 illuminates the back side of the rear window 34.
The spacings D and D' between the front window 14 and the intermediate window 20 and between the intermediate window 20 and the rear window 34, respectively, are preferably the same so that the activating potentials applied to the opposing sets of electrodes and the semi-transparent surface are identical. To enhance the contrast of the transmitted image, the optical density of the electro-responsive material 38 is comparable to or greater than the optical density of the material 24. Alternatively, the spacing D' may be greater than D to produce the same effect when the optical densities of both electro-responsive materials are the same. This alternative configuration, however, requires that the activating voltage of the second light valve be increased to compensate for the increased spacing D'.
The spacing D and D', the thickness of the electrodes and the reflective surface are greatly exaggerated in the figures for purposes of illustration.
The electrical potentials applied to the electrodes and reflective surface are received from an electrical power source 8. As is well known in the art, electrical power source 8 would be an AC electrical power source when the electro-responsive material is a colloidal suspension of dichroic particles or a DC electrical power source when the electro-responsive material is an electro-chromic material. Only one connection is shown to each set of electrodes, however in actual practice, a lead would be provided for each electrode permitting electrical potentials to be applied between selected electrodes to form the desired image or pattern.
Means for making electrical connections to the individual electrodes inside the structure are not shown but may be provided in any manner known in the art.
The operation of the dual mode colloidal display is as follows: Under high incident light levels, the dual mode display operates primarily in the passive mode. The light incident on the front window is transmitted through the electro-responsive material 24 in the areas of the activated electrodes to the semi-transparent reflective surface 26 where a portion of the light is reflected back through the colloidal suspension and back out through the front window. In the passive mode, the light passes through the electro-responsive material 24 twice, therefore, the thickness of the material and its optical density between the randomly oriented and activated states are selected to produce optimum image contrast with incident light. In this mode of operation, the light source located behind the dual mode display is not required but may be activated depending on the particular applications.
Under low incident light levels, the light source 44 behind the display panel is turned on. Light from the light source 44 passes through the rear window 34, through the transparent portion of the electro-responsive material 38 underlying the activated electrodes and a portion passes through the semi-transparent reflective surface 26. The light transmitted by the semi-transparent reflective surface 26 continues to pass through the electro-responsive material 24 in the areas of the activated electrodes 16 and passes through the front window displaying an illuminated image corresponding to the pattern of the activated electrodes. The optical density of the electro-responsive material 38 is selected to optimize the contrast of the transmitted image.
The light source 44 illuminating the rear window of the display may be left on continuously during the operation of the display panel as previously indicated without degrading the operation of either mode. In situations where power consumption must be considered, the light source may be independently turned off when the display panel is operating only in the passive mode.
In the preferred embodiment, the light source 44 produces a diffuse illumination on the rear window, however, when the light source is a point source such as a light bulb, the rear window 34 may be frosted or made from a translucent material to diffusely disperse the incident light producing a more uniformly illuminated image.
In an alternate embodiment shown in FIG. 3, the second or intermediate transparent window 20 is replaced by a translucent window 46. This translucent window may be made from opal glass or a comparable plastic material. A thin electrically conductive NESA or NESATRON layer 48 deposited over the front surface of the translucent window 46 forms the opposing electrode required for the application of the electric field across the electro-responsive material 24. As in the previous embodiment, the NESA or NESATRON may be overlayed with a thin layer of transparent non-conducting material 50 which may be an evaporated layer of silicon monoxide or any other suitable material. The electrodes 30 and the thin transparent non-conductive overlay 32 are applied to the rear surface of the translucent window 46, the same as they are applied to the rear surface of the intermediate window 20 shown in FIG. 2. The operation of the embodiment of FIG. 3 is basically the same as that previously described.
It is not intended that the invention be limited to the embodiments discussed and illustrated. It is well within the capabilities of one skilled in the art to conceive of alternate embodiments of the disclosed dual mode display without departing from the spirit of the invention.
Further, it would be apparent to one skilled in the art to adapt the disclosed concept to displays using electrochromic materials or any other passive displays where the difference in optical density of the electro-responsive material between the activated and non-activated states is limited.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1955923 *||Aug 11, 1932||Apr 24, 1934||Herbert Land Edwin||Light valve and method of operation|
|US1963496 *||Jan 16, 1933||Jun 19, 1934||Land Edwin H||Light valve|
|US3512876 *||Jun 29, 1964||May 19, 1970||Marks Alvin M||Dipolar electro-optic structures|
|US3743382 *||Apr 12, 1971||Jul 3, 1973||Research Frontiers Inc||Method, material and apparatus for increasing and decreasing the transmission of radiation|
|US3799650 *||Apr 12, 1972||Mar 26, 1974||Research Frontiers Inc||One-way light valve|
|US3807832 *||Nov 9, 1972||Apr 30, 1974||American Cyanamid Co||Electrochromic (ec) mirror which rapidly changes reflectivity|
|US3897137 *||Jan 28, 1974||Jul 29, 1975||Rockwell International Corp||Display device containing a liquid-crystal cell and a suspended-crystal cell arranged in series|
|US4093356 *||Feb 14, 1977||Jun 6, 1978||General Electric Company||Transflective liquid crystal display|
|US4104627 *||May 2, 1975||Aug 1, 1978||Merz & Bentili Nuklear Ag||Digitale, an indicating device containing liquid crystals|
|US4135790 *||Apr 25, 1977||Jan 23, 1979||Nippon Kogaku K.K.||Electrochromic element|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4465340 *||Feb 12, 1982||Aug 14, 1984||Citizen Watch Co., Ltd.||Electrochromic display cell|
|US4465341 *||Jun 3, 1982||Aug 14, 1984||Citizen Watch Co., Ltd.||All solid state complementary electrochromic display devices|
|US4516834 *||Apr 8, 1983||May 14, 1985||Rockwell International Corporation||Contrast enhanced liquid crystal display|
|US4541692 *||May 31, 1983||Sep 17, 1985||General Electric Company||Transflective liquid crystal display with enhanced contrast ratio|
|US4630040 *||Mar 31, 1983||Dec 16, 1986||Motorola, Inc.||Variable color electrooptic display|
|US4648956 *||Dec 31, 1984||Mar 10, 1987||North American Philips Corporation||Electrode configurations for an electrophoretic display device|
|US4693560 *||Sep 25, 1986||Sep 15, 1987||Taliq Corporation||Double layer display|
|US4832459 *||May 27, 1987||May 23, 1989||Rogers Corporation||Backlighting for electro-optical passive displays and transflective layer useful therewith|
|US4856877 *||Nov 30, 1987||Aug 15, 1989||Minolta Camera Kabushiki Kaisha||Display unit|
|US5071231 *||May 24, 1990||Dec 10, 1991||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force||Bidirectional spatial light modulator for neural network computers|
|US5076673 *||Aug 10, 1990||Dec 31, 1991||Donnelly Corporation||Prolonged coloration electrochromic assembly|
|US5124818 *||Aug 24, 1990||Jun 23, 1992||In Focus Systems, Inc.||LCD system having improved contrast ratio|
|US5446577 *||Oct 31, 1994||Aug 29, 1995||Martin Marietta Corporation||Electrode for display devices|
|US5790298 *||Dec 26, 1996||Aug 4, 1998||Gentex Corporation||Method of forming optically transparent seal and seal formed by said method|
|US6714334||Jan 27, 2003||Mar 30, 2004||Gentex Corporation||Electrochromic device having a seal including an epoxy resin cured with a cycloaliphatic amine|
|US6963439||Feb 13, 2004||Nov 8, 2005||Gentex Corporation||Electrochromic device having a seal including an epoxy resin cured with a cycloaliphatic amine|
|US7256924||Jan 30, 2006||Aug 14, 2007||Gentex Corporation||Multi-cell electrochromic devices|
|US7450291||Jul 10, 2007||Nov 11, 2008||Gentex Corporation||Multi-cell electrochromic devices|
|US7884995||Feb 8, 2011||Gentex Corporation||Electrochromic device having an improved fill port plug|
|US7961375||Jun 14, 2011||Soladigm, Inc.||Multi-cell solid-state electrochromic device|
|US8345345||Jan 1, 2013||Gentex Corporation||Electrochromic device having an improved fill port plug|
|US8350783 *||Nov 20, 2009||Jan 8, 2013||Samsung Lcd Netherlands R&D Center B.V.||Electrowetting element, display device and control system|
|US8891154||Dec 31, 2012||Nov 18, 2014||Gentex Corporation||Electrochromic device having an improved fill port plug|
|US9057925||Mar 12, 2014||Jun 16, 2015||Gentex Corporation||Fill port plugs for electrochromic devices|
|US9128345||Aug 20, 2014||Sep 8, 2015||Gentex Corporation||Electrochromic device having an improved fill port plug|
|US20030133177 *||Jan 27, 2003||Jul 17, 2003||Tonar William L.||Electrochromic device having a seal including an epoxy resin cured with a cycloaliphatic amine|
|US20040165248 *||Feb 13, 2004||Aug 26, 2004||Tonar William L.||Electrochromic device having a seal including an epoxy resin cured with a cycloaliphatic amine|
|US20040201566 *||Apr 14, 2003||Oct 14, 2004||Hsien-Hsing Wu||Display apparatus having alterable penetrative index and reflective index and method of same|
|US20060268385 *||Jan 30, 2006||Nov 30, 2006||Guarr Thomas F||Multi-cell electrochromic devices|
|US20070258128 *||Jul 10, 2007||Nov 8, 2007||Guarr Thomas F||Multi-cell electrochromic devices|
|US20090002803 *||Jun 27, 2008||Jan 1, 2009||Tonar William L||Electrochromic device having an improved fill port plug|
|US20090323155 *||Jun 25, 2008||Dec 31, 2009||Phillips Roger W||Multi-Cell Solid-State Electrochromic Device|
|US20100128015 *||Nov 20, 2009||May 27, 2010||Liquavista B.V.||Electrowetting element, display device and control system|
|US20110176195 *||Jul 21, 2011||Veenman Steven J||Electrochromic device having an improved fill port plug|
|WO1988002499A1 *||Sep 14, 1987||Apr 7, 1988||Taliq Corporation||Double layer display|
|WO1994016356A1 *||Dec 16, 1993||Jul 21, 1994||Martin Marietta Corporation||Improved electrode for display devices|
|WO2005029170A1 *||Sep 10, 2004||Mar 31, 2005||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Switchable transflector and transflective display|
|U.S. Classification||359/274, 359/275|
|International Classification||G02F1/153, G02F1/17, G02F1/01|
|Cooperative Classification||G02F1/0102, G02F1/1533, G02F1/172|
|European Classification||G02F1/17A, G02F1/01A, G02F1/153B|