Reciprocating electric engine
US 431493 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
M e h S P t e e h S 2 H L E O P E D N A V l O m d 0 M 0 m REGIPROOATING ELECTRIC ENGINE.
Patented July 1, 1890.
(No Model.) I 2 Sheets-Sheet 2. O. J. VAN DEPOELE. RBGIPROGATING ELECTRIC ENGINE.
No. 431,493. Patented July 1,1890.
[In no: l for H (71 (flies J )Gmj/cpuele $1M 'hiofltro zucu a 3 Q V-rl meme-o UNITED STATES PATE T OFFICE.
CHARLES J. VAN DEPOELE, QF'LYNN, MASSACHUSETTS.
RECIPROCATIN'G ELECTRIC ENGINE.
SPECIFICATION forming part Of Letters Patent NO. 431,493, dated July 1, 1890. Application filed April 3, 1890. Serial No.'346,3 96. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, CHARLES J. VAN DE- POELE, a citizen of the United States, residing at Lynn, in the county of Essex and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Reciprocating Electric Engines, of which the following is a description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to the letters of reference marked thereon. I
My invention relates to improvements in electro-magnetic reciprocating engines, and comprises improvements in the structure thereof whereby they are better adapted to meet the various conditions .ofactual service and of varying circumstances.
,The means for producing the current by which my said engines are operated and the circuits and connections existing between the source of current and the motor-coils is not herein shown, and the same may be substantially such. as is shown, described, and claimed in Letters Patent Nos. 400,809 and sitioned at starting.
'bodying my invention.
401,231, granted to me, respectively, April 2 and April 9, 1889, or as shown in subsequent patents.
The present invention relates, principally, to means whereby the forward or backward stroke may be caused to preponderate in force, and to means whereby the plunger or magnetic piston may be always properly pothe working-coils when at rest.
The invention also comprises other details of construction and arrangement, as will be fully set forth in the following description,-
and referred to in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a View in elevation, partly in section, showing the construction and arrangement of an electromagnetic reciprocating engine em- Fig.2 is a vie similar to Fig. 1, except that certain parts of the Vhere the engine is to machine are diiferently disposed. Fig. 3 is a detail View, partly in section, showing the porttherefor. Fig. 5 is a seotional view on the line 5 5 of Fig. 4, with parts broken away to show friction-joint. Figs. 6 and 7 are detail views, on an enlarged scale, illustrating the tool-rotating mechanism seen in Fig. 1.
As indicated in Figs. 1', 2, and 5, A B are C is an exterior iron casing the motor-coils. or shell inclosing said coils, and D D are iron heads secured in the extremities of the shell and inclosing the said motor-coils.
()n the inside of the motor-coll isp'la'ceda' non-metallic protecting-tube E, which should be of a material not affected by moisture or bylubricants. Said tubebeing tightly oined at its ends to the heads D D forms a most effective protection to the motor coils.
F is a plunger of magnetic material, which.
is adapted to be moved back and forth under the influence of current flowing in the said ,motor-coils.
G is a forwardly or downwardly extending rod connected permanently at one end to the plunger F, and adapted to be provided at its outer end with a chuck g for the reception of a drill or other tool. The head D is provided with'a gland d, surroundingand centering the piston-rod G. The other end of the piston F is also provided with an extension in the form of a rod H, which worksthrough'a gland d 1n the head D". The piston F, being fthus guided at both ends, moves within the non metallic tube E without coming into actual mechanical contact therewith.
In order to be able to start the piston F with equal facility in either direction, 1 provide counterbalancing-springs f f, which may be disposed as. convenient, being shown in Fig. l on the interior of the cylinder, having their bearings aigainst the ends of the piston and the iron heads of the machine. These springs being about equal in power will, when no current is flowing through the motor-coils A B, normally hold. the piston F in central position with relation to said motorcoils, so that it may move underthc influence of whichever coil first receives the current.
Where the engine is designed to perform work under similar conditions at all timesas, for example, in sinking shallow holes with a light drill and in a vertical position-com paratively few difficulties are encountered, and all complications may be avoided; but where, as is frequently the case, the length and consequent weight of the tools to be operated are altogether disproportionate to the Weight the plunger can lift a readjustment of the parts becomes desirable, and under such circumstances I keep the magnetic pull in one direction or the other by elongating the plunger F in the desired direction, and I also, in some instances, add to this effect or prevent detraction therefrom by making the piston-rod G of non-magnetic metal, such as phosphor-bronze or tempered copper.
As a specific feature of the invention I claim the employment, in connection with a magnetic piston, of extensions or continuations guiding the same and serving also as a magnetic continuation in either direction to be used, arranged, and employed according to the work required. Both extensions may be nonmagnetic and used as guides for mechanical purposes, or either one may be magnetic for electrical reasons,no limitation whatever belng placed upon the employment of these extensions as and for the purposes set forth, and as a means for extending the capacity of the apparatus to various different kinds of work which it would otherwise be unable to perform. Where one extension is magnetic and the other non-magnetic, the side having the magnetic extension will be drawn into the solenold most forcibly, so that with a magnetic extension toward the tool in working vertically more lifting-power is secured than where the magnetic extension is in the opposite posltion. In deep vertical drilling, therefore, the, magnetic extension would be from the lower portion of the piston, in order to compensate for the added weight of the tool as the work progresses, while in machines used for undercutting coal or to operate on any material in a horizontal position the magnetic extension would be on the'upper end of the pistonthat is, on the end opposite the tool-hoidersince in that case the We ght of the tool would not vary, and the ob ect would be to strike the hardest possible blow. l In deep vertical boring, when the weight of the moving part is considerable, the magnetic extension is on the lower end of the piston, and it would be actually better to make the ,upper extension non-magnetic, in order to hinder the descent of the drill as little as possible and to secure the greatest working effect therefrom. A very desirable construction is embodied in a piston having a magnetic extension at one end and a nonmagnetic extension at the other, both being of the same size and shape, so that under varylng conditions the piston can be reversed and the tool attached to either end. The form seen in Fig. 2, for instance, is capable of such ward or backward.
use, since the tool-holder can be screwed or otherwise attached to either of the extensions G H. Obviously the machine may be reversed upon its bearings, if desired, instead of removing the piston and reversing it.
The counterbalancing-springs ff exert a beneficial influence in the operation of the machine, for not only do they help to start the piston on its return-stroke, but they aid in bringing it forward before the magnetic maximum has been attained, and this condition is advantageous, since it both increases the rapidity of the stroke and the effective force of the blow by helping the piston toward the point of greatest magnetic effect,
and thereby, of course, enabling the field of force to produce a stronger effect upon the piston.
Various methods of arranging and adjusting the springs may be employed with a like effect, and by using springs at each end the power absorbed in one direction is given off in the other, and springs of differentstrength can be used to modify the effect either for- The construction shown in Fig. 2 differs from that seen in Fig. 1 principally in the arrangement of the counterbalance-springs. The continuations G H from the plunger F appear to be somewhat longer than those seen in Fig. 1; but itmust be understood that the magnetic part or parts of these extensions may be as long or as short as required by the diverse conditions to be met. As seen in said Fig. 2, the springs f f are placed upon the rods G H upon that portion exterior to the cylinder formed by the shell and heads of the drilling-engine. The rods G H are furthermore screwthreaded upon a part of their lengthand provided with jam-nuts f f between which and the ends of the said cylinder the springs f 2 f 3 are held. The extremities of the Iods G H may be slotted and shouldered to receive the chuck g, (seen in Fig. 1,) or a screw-threaded chuck may be employed. As here indicated, the said springs are equal in tension and adapted to produce equal effects. This, of course, applies and is the correct arrangement for conditions under which the results should always be the sameas, for example, in a horizontally-acting machine. lVhere, however, a constantly-increasing weight of apparatus is to be moved, the spring most affected thereby may be'made to preponderate in power, as by the substitution of a heavier spring or by the adjustment of the tension devices here represented by the jam-nuts. A
hand-wheel might, of course, be substituted for the jam-nuts, and various other specific forms of adjusting mechanism may be employed without aifecting the invention.
Adesirable construction isindicated in Fig. 3, in which is shown a plunger F with extensions. The piston F can be made hollow, and to'its upper end is secured a magnetic extension H, while its lower end is provided with a non-magnetic extension G, it being distinctly nnderstood,however, that this arrangement is designed for special conditions onlysuch, for instance, as the operation oi a hori zontally-actin g machine, as a coal-digger. As
before stated, where other conditions have to he met, the magnetic and non-magnetic continuations of the piston are reversed by simply turning the piston end for end, as both eiitensions can hold the tool, or modified in accordance withthe principles set forth.
In view of the fact that a piston guided as the one herein referred'to cannot rotate freely in its bearing, means for imparting to the same the usual step-hy-step rotary movement become necessary, and this I provide by form-i ing a vertical groove in the continuation oi the piston, whether the sanie be magnetic or also carry magnetic armatures arranged in position to be attracted byelectro-magnetic cores 70 In, which maybe energized from the magnetism of the said cylinder-head or by screw, and upon the edges of this portion .Eornied. parallel vertical guiding-surfaces meansofsmallfield-magnetcoilsLLQ provided -for the purpose and connected in circuit with one of the motor-coils. This would result in intermittently magnetizing the said cores 10 k, which, attracting the armatures K K upon the'lever J, will impart a step-by-step movement to the ratchet and the tools l As seen in Fi 4, the engine when operated" as a drillmay be arranged .to be fed "upon a vertical support, and the support itselfmay be arranged in any convenient manner-as, for example, an upright or postM is secured in any convenient manner, and upon this post is placed an adjustable clip m, which is provided with a friction or other clamp N, From the clamp N extends a part which forms a frame 0, partially inclosing the exterior of the cylinder of the engine. The frame 0 carries a vertically-mounted feed-screw Revhich is provided with operating-gears go p and a handle Q. Guide-rods q q are rigidly attached to the heads of the engine'and serve to guide its vertical movement, in the frame Q under the influence of the feed-screw P The trance 0 has a narrower portion adjacent to the feed- The upper cylinder-head D is provided with a cross-head r, formed. to engage the guides R R and to keep the parts in desired inecharr ical relation while being moved hy the feedsorew, and alsoto aiford a strong durable con nection capableof withstanding the jarring and vibration incident to the operation of the.
I the invention, the specirioiornis E'combination, with a motor combination,
The engine-sustaining devices niay beech-- strncted in a variety of Ways, the one here showinhowever, being found convenient and serviceable. 'lhe frictionclarnp N comprises grooved semicircular parts held together by bolts n, The clamp m terminates in aheveledged disk m, and corresponding disk m extends from the frame 0. "W hen the two disksare forced together clanips N npon their oppositeiysloping edges, the faces of the disks are in frictionai contact and a very firm and solid, though adjustable,
Under some circninstanoes 1 find that a single counterbalance-spring may he used with advantage as a rneans oi compensating for the Weight of the drillingtool, and thereby qni'ckeningthe movements of the parts. Sash an arrangement shown in a, a spring f 'loeing there indicated in theupper piston-extension, Where it will assist the ripper motor-coil in raising the driil,
Various changes and modifications may loo made in the apparatus herein shown and (1&1. scribed Without departing" from the spirit of shown being byway of illustration, and not for the parpose of limiting the invention thereto, since the same relation oi the essential element of the invention might be otherwise secured. Having described my invention, claim, and desire to secure by Letterslatent,
1. In a reciprocating electric engine, the combination, with a' motor coil or coilgof a magnetic piston adapted to he reciprocated therein, and a magnetic extension upon said piston for causing said piston to move with by the action of the position aronnd greater forcei-inbne direction than in the v othen' 2. In a reciprocating electric eng ne, the coil or coils, of a magnetic piston, a tool-holder connected thereto for carrying the tool, and a magnetic extension upon said piston for imparting a preponderance of power to the stroke in one direction, substantially as desciiloed I 3, in a reciprocating electric engine; the combination, with niotoncoils, of a rnagnetio piston adapted to he reciprocatco therein, and a magnetic continuation extending" from one end of said piston, whereby the stroke of said piston is caused to or n 'n in power in one direction, sch 1 ily as described 4-, in a reciprocating: electric engine, the
or and a metro piston adapted for exterior casing: for s from the ends o i. passing suitable ings in the ends of the'casinp; said piston in its movement, snhstantially described.
5. in a reciprocating electric engine, the combination of motor-coils, a magnet c piston adapted to reciprocate in said'eoils, a casing inclosing the coils and having hearings at its extremities, extensions upon the piston pass ing through said bearings for guiding the piston in its movement, one of said extensions being of magnetic material and forming a mag netic extension of the piston, thereby acting to produce a preponderance of power in one direction, substantially asdescribed.
6. In a reciprocating electric engine, the combination of motor-coils, a magnetic piston adapted to be reciprocated therein, an exterior shell or casing, metallic heads connected'to the casing and provided with central bearings, a non-metallic lining upon the interior of the motor-coils, and guide-rods extending from the ends of thepiston through the ends of the'casing and guiding said piston in its movement, thereby keeping the same out of contact with the non-metallic lining.
7. A reciprocating electric engine comprising a motor coil or coils, a magnetic piston adapted tobe reci procated therein, an exterior shell incasing the coils and heads therefor, an extension from the piston for connection with the tool, an extension from the opposite end of the piston, and an adjustable spring upon said last-named extension'for modifying the action of the scribed.
8. In a reciprocating electric engine, motorcoils and a magnetic piston adapted to be reciprocated therein, a casing inclosing said piston, substantially as decoilsand piston,an d counterbalancirig-springs at each end of said piston,.substantially as described.
9. In a reciprocating electric engine, motor coils, a magnetic piston adapted to be reciprocated therein, an exterior casing having apertured heads, extensions from said piston passing through said heads and guided therein, and an adjustable spring or springs between the casing and piston, substantially as described.
10. In a reciprocating electric engine, motorcoils, a magnetic piston adapted to be reciprocated therein, an exterior casing having apertured heads, extensions from said piston passing through said heads and guided therein, and adjustable springs placed between the casin and the extensions of the piston, substantially as described.
11. In a reciprocating electric engine, a magnetic piston provided with an extension at each end adapted for connection to a toolholder, one of said extensions being formed of magnetic and the other of non-magnetic material. I
12. In a reeiprocating electric engine, a hollow magnetic piston provided with anextensionat each end adapted for connection to a tool-holder, one of said extensions being formed of magnetic metal, substantiallyas described.
13. In an electric reciprocating engine actuated by rising and falling currents, the combination, with a rotatable tool-actuating-piston, of magnetic or electro-niagnetic means for imparting an intermittent rotary movement thereto.
14. In an electric reciprocating engine, a rotatable piston, an intermittently-energized stationary magnet, an armature therefor, and
detachable connections between said armature and the piston, substantially as described.
15. In an electric reciprocating engine actuated by rising and falling currents, at tool-operating piston and electro-magnetic means for rotating the piston and tool, comprising an intermittently-energized electro-magnet, 4
and a detachable connection between the piston and actuating-magnet,said detachable connection comprising a magnetic body.
16. In an electric reciprocating engine, the combination, with a motor coil or coils and suitable casing therefor, of a magnetic piston for reciprocation therein, said piston having a tool-holding extension atone end and a guiding-extension atthe other, a ratchet engaging the guiding-extension, an armature having pavvls adapted to engage the ratchet, and an electro-magnet arranged to be energized intermittently to attract the armature and operate the ratchet, thereby imparting rotary movement to the guiding-extension, the piston, and tool-holder, substantially as described.
17. .The combination, with an engine or device to be supported, said device provided with a friction-disk having a beveled edge, of asupport provided with a corresponding disk, and an adjustable clamp engaging the disks and forcing them together, substantially as described;
18. The combination, with an engine or device to be supported, said device provided With a friction-disk having a bevel edge, of a support provided with a corresponding disk, and an adjustable grooved clamp engaging the edges of the disks to forcethem into frictional contact, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
CHARLES J. VAN DEPOELE.
JOHN W. GIBBONEY, W. J. PLUMSTEAD.