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Publication numberUS4319130 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 06/129,536
Publication dateMar 9, 1982
Filing dateMar 12, 1980
Priority dateMay 18, 1976
Also published asDE2700636A1, DE2700636B2, DE2700636C3
Publication number06129536, 129536, US 4319130 A, US 4319130A, US-A-4319130, US4319130 A, US4319130A
InventorsAlexander Spitzner
Original AssigneeVeb Applikationszentrum Elektronik Berlin
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Device for the automated digital transcription and processing of quantities and units
US 4319130 A
Abstract
A calculator has an alphanumeric keyboard and an alphanumeric display, in order to enable entry and read out of data corresponding to specified physical quantities or the like. Internally, the calculator comprises means for transforming the input quantities as a function of the type of units entered by way of the keyboard, to a given type of unit for processing. The calculator further transforms a type of unit for display either to a specified type of unit or to a unit that either is most readable and understandable to an operator, in accordance with a given relationship, or has the smallest exponential products.
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Claims(10)
What is claimed is:
1. Device for the automated digital transcription and processing of various quantities and units of a defined quantity system of the kind including units of the International System of Units, national units, and other NonInternational System units, wherein each input or output quantity is termed a homoscriptive quantity and has a first portion representing the numerical part of the quantity and a second portion termed a homoscriptive unit representing the unit of measurement in the form of an exponential product of units of the quantity, said device comprising:
entry and display means including an alphanumeric display and an alphanumeric keyboard connected to the input of a numeric value register for storing the numerical part and to the input of a homoscriptive unit register for storing the homoscriptive unit;
input transformation means connected to the output of said homoscriptive unit register and cooperating with said keyboard, a calculating assembly, and said numeric value register for transforming said homoscriptive quantity into an internally operable format, termed an autoscriptive quantity, having a first portion for storage in said numeric value register and representing the numerical part of the autoscriptive quantity and a second portion representing the autoscriptive units of the quantity in the form of exponents to base units of the quantity system;
an autoscriptive unit register connected with the output of said input transformation means for storing the autoscriptive units;
an exponent-1 register connected with the output of said input transformation means for storing the exponent of the first factor of the exponential product of the homoscriptive unit;
calculating means selectively operably connected with said numeric value register and a numeric value accumulator for storing the numerical parts of a first and a second autoscriptive quantity and selectively operably connected with said autoscriptive unit register and an autoscriptive unit accumulator for storing the autoscriptive units of the first and the second autoscriptive quantity and being connected with said calculating assembly and connected to be controlled by said keyboard, said calculating means operating to process at least the first autoscriptive quantity to an intermediate result termed a third autoscriptive quantity upon a given signal by said entry means for storing in said numeric value accumulator and said autoscriptive unit accumulator, wherein the numerical part and the autoscriptive unit of the third autoscriptive quantity are processed separately and independently from each other;
output transformation means connected with said numeric value accumulator, said autoscriptive unit accumulator, and said exponent-1 register and cooperating with said calculating assembly and a prefix generator for transforming the processed autoscriptive quantities into homoscriptive quantities suitable for display by said display means;
said prefix generator being connected with said calculating assembly, said numeric value accumulator, and said exponent-1 register for generating a prefix in dependence on the contents of said numeric value accumulator and the contents of said exponent-1 register, the output of said prefix generator being connected to said homoscriptive unit register for storing said generated prefix; and
control means operably connected for controlling and timing the entry, transcription, processing, and display of quantities.
2. The device according to claim 1, wherein said entry means includes an input keyboard having digit keys, letter keys, symbol keys, and operating keys and further comprises a coder means for generating letter codes differing from the outputs of said digit keys and said special symbol keys by a predetermined bit, the output of said coder means being selectively connected through an input discriminator to the input of said numeric value register and the input of said homoscriptive unit register, thereby controlling the storage of a first partial sequence of characters representing the numerical part of the input homoscriptive quantity in said numeric value register and the storage of a second partial sequence of characters in said homoscriptive register, said second partial sequence beginning with a letter and representing the homoscriptive unit of the input homoscriptive quantity in an alphanumeric character sequence, whereby the output of said numeric value register and said homoscriptive unit register can be displayed.
3. The device according to claim 1, wherein said alphanumeric keyboard of said entry means comprises the input keyboard for quantities and commands, and includes at least one pressure-shift key for the input of quantities, said pressure-shift key being arranged for actuation before the entering of a homoscriptive quantity, said actuation continuing until an operational key or another pressure-shift key is activated.
4. The device according to claim 1, wherein said input transformation means comprises:
a logic network connected between the output of said homoscriptive unit register and the input of a stringed unit register and the input of a factor exponent register to perform a separation of a predetermined character sequence in dependence on the last character transferred and on the next character to be transferred said separation including cyclically separating the homoscriptive unit stored as an exponential product in said homoscriptive unit register into stringed-together units and exponents for storage in said stringed unit register and said exponent register, respectively, the output of said logic network being connected to control an exponent-sign switch, a sign-next factors switch, a factor-end switch, and an analysis-end switch;
an elementary units read-only memory containing specific bit sequences for each elementary unit of a defined large set of elementary units, a prefixes read-only memory containing specific bit sequences for each prefix of a defined set of prefixes, wherein each specific bit sequence begins with a check character and further contains factors for relative addresses for a numeric values read-only memory, containing coefficients of incoherent elementary units, and for an exponents read-only memory containing groups of exponents to base units;
a check code generator, connected with the output of said stringed unit register and containing at least one 1-bit memory for generating at least a first check character from at least one character of said stringed unit register according to a predetermined bit pattern mask, and being further connected with the outputs of said elementary units read-only memory and said prefixes read-only memory to provide one bit marking equality between the generated check characters and the read check characters from said elementary units read-only memory and said prefixes read-only memory;
said calculating assembly being connected with the output of said stringed unit register and being controlled by said check code generator for cyclic determination of code sums to partial letter sequences from the letter sequence store in said stringed unit register for controlling an address register addressing said elementary units read-only memory and said prefixes read-only memory to separate a stringed unit into a prefix and an elementary unit, whereupon said calculating assembly in combination with the said numeric value register, said register for autoscriptive unit, said exponent register, said numeric values read-only memory, and said exponents read-only memory generates the autoscriptive quantity cyclically and in dependence on the status of said exponent-sign switch, said sign-next factors switch, said factor-end switch and said analysis-end switch, as controlled by said logic network.
5. The device according to claim 1, wherein said calculating means comprises a control network connected with said keyboard which includes at least an addition key, a subtraction key, a multiplication key, a division key, a power-raising key, and a root-extracting key, said keys being connected for starting the quantity processing by said calculating assembly, said control network being connected with said numeric value accumulator and said autoscriptive unit accumulator and having a byte-number equal to the number of base units of said quantity system for storing a first autoscriptive quantity and a second autoscriptive quantity and for processing at least one autoscriptive quantity in dependence on a predetermined signal by said entry means to an intermediate third autoscriptive quantity, wherein the numerical part and the autoscriptive unit of said third autoscriptive quantity are processed separately and independently from each other, and said control network being further connected for storage of said third autoscriptive quantity in said numeric value accumulator and in said autoscriptive unit accumulator.
6. The device according to claim 1, wherein said output transformation means for performing a controlled output transformation without qualitative limitation of the quantity stored in said numeric value accumulator and said autoscriptive unit accumulator, comprises:
said calculating assembly connected with the output of said autoscriptive unit accumulator in combination with an address register which determines in cycles a packed numerator unit and a packed denominator unit from the positive and negative numbers stored in said autoscriptive unit accumulator, the results being compounded in a compounder network transforming specified bit sequences for specified large numbers to specified bit sequences for specified small numbers for use as addresses, whereupon a homoscriptive unit is read out from the output of a homoscriptive units read-only memory into said homoscriptive unit register;
a unit generator having an input connected to the output of said autoscriptive unit accumulator and an output connected to the input of said homoscriptive unit register and operating to determine whether said homoscriptive units read-only memory contains a looked for homoscriptive unit and if not for transforming the positive and negative exponents to base units stored in said autoscriptive unit accumulator to a homoscriptive unit in the form of an exponential product of base units for storage in said homoscriptive unit register.
7. The device according to claim 1, wherein said output transformation means performs an optimal output transformation without qualitative limitation of the quantity stored in said numeric value accumulator, and said autoscriptive unit accumulator includes, wherein said transformation means includes said calculating assembly having an input coupled to said autoscriptive unit accumulator containing positive and negative numbers representing an autoscriptive unit to be transformed and being coupled with a unit generator, said unit generator including a reference unit memory containing a first sequence of bit combinations representing derived units of the International System of Units with special names, said reference unit memory including comparator means for performing a second sequence of bit combinations by switching on or switching off single bit combinations of said first sequence of bit combinations and by comparing the provided second sequence of bit combinations with the content of said autoscriptive unit accumulator, whereby the second sequence of bit combinations representing a homoscriptive unit contains a minimum number of bit combinations of the first sequence in the form of an exponential product of derived units of the International System of Units with special names and/or of base units.
8. The device according to claim 1, wherein said output transformation means performs a parameter controlled output transformation of a first autoscriptive quantity provided by said calculating means and stored in said numeric value accumulator and in said autoscriptive unit accumulator, wherein said output transformation means cooperates with said prefix generator for generation of a prefix without qualitative limitation of said first quantity, said output transformation means comprising a coefficient register for storing the numeric value of a second autoscriptive quantity and a unit register for storing the homoscriptive unit, the autoscriptive unit of said second quantity is given as an output parameter to said first autoscriptive quantity, whereby said coefficient register and said unit register are connected with the output of said input transformation means, which has transformed the second homoscriptive unit;
said calculating assembly connected with the output of said autoscriptive unit accumulator and the output of said unit register to compare the autoscriptive unit of the first quantity with the autoscriptive unit of the second quantity, whereupon if equal said calculating assembly will be connected with said coefficient register and said numeric value accumulator for dividing the numeric value of the first autoscriptive quantity by the numeric value of the second autoscriptive quantity and the output of said unit register will be connected by said control means with said homoscriptive unit register for storing the second homoscriptive unit in said homoscriptive unit register.
9. The device according to claim 8, wherein said output transformation means for performing a parameter controlled output transformation of the first autoscriptive quantity provided by said calculating means and stored in said numeric value accumulator and said autoscriptive unit accumulator without generation of a prefix and without qualitative limitation of said first quantity, comprises control means for suppressing the activation of said prefix generator, whereby the second homoscriptive unit given as a parameter to said first quantity contains a prefix.
10. The device according to claim 1, wherein said homoscriptive unit register, said numeric value register, said autoscriptive unit register, said exponent-1 register, said numeric value accumulator, said autoscriptive unit accumulator, said prefix generator, said input transformation means, said calculating means, said output transformation means, said control means, and said calculating assembly, comprise a microprocessor system including an operably interconnected microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory, a read-only memory, and a read-write memory.
Description

This is a continuation-in-part of my copending application, Ser. No. 758,606, filed Jan. 12, 1977 and now abandoned.

SUMMARY

A device for the automated digital transcription and processing of quantities and units is provided as an extension of the technology of calculators (EDPM, process computers, desk calculators, pocket calculators), data collecting and data output equipment as well as measuring, control and regulating equipment. It is a combination of electronic, sequentially operating individual circuits, which allows all quantities and units of a quantity system, such as e.g. 20 OHM/M, be put in by an alphanumeric keyboard, processed with each other and then read out by an alphanumeric output in the usual representation. When used in programmable equipment, programs of a high universality and transparency arise; e.g., the programmed quantity equation (vt)/s=1 (v: velocity; t: time; s: path) replaces about 100,000 programmed numeric value equations. The device can be divided into several circuits complementing one another in function: input-transformation, automated processing, and output-transformation. The device can be in the form of LSI circuits. A pocket or desk calculator is described, and FIG. 6 shows the interaction of the most important assemblies.

APPLICATION OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a device for the automatic digital transcription and processing of quantities and units by means of a sequentially operating circuit including an alphanumeric input keyboard and an alphanumeric display.

The device is an extension of the hardware technology of calculators (electronic data processing systems, process computing systems, pocket calculators, and the like), measuring, control and regulating equipment, as well as of data collecting and data output devices.

Known technical solutions

In calculators of the usual design for calculating with quantities, a given generally accepted quantity equation is transcribed in a specific numeric value equation; that is, the calculation with quantities by calculators is always transcribed by a calculation with numeral digits tailored to the specific case of application.

For instance, in the quantity equation

(vt)/s=1

v: velocity

t: time

s: path

the path "s" can be indicated in 19 different units (e.g., micrometer, meter, angstrom etc.), the time in 62 different units (e.g., nanoseconds, years, millions of years) and accordingly, the velocity in 1, 178 different units. In this case, the given quantity equation replaces 96, 596 numeric value equations, such as ##EQU1## Presently, in measuring, control, and regulating equipment the presetting of defined values via switches and the like and the display with analogously operating measuring instruments, optical recorders, or graphic output devices, permits the specific quantities to be displayed in units which are "coherent" and compatible.

The state of engineering of calculators necessitates the tracing back of each operation with quantities to an operation with numeric values; with the result that:

Extensive manual preliminary and secondary operations are necessary.

The established solutions (programmes) generally apply only to a special case.

The high percentage of manual work introduces a source of misinterpretations and errors.

Automated separation and stringing together of formulas by a calculator for a system solution is complicated.

Regarding the known state of engineering of measuring, control, and regulating equipment it can be critically stated:

The presetting or the display of values is directed only to the respective case.

Presetting or display devices adaptable to a great number of kinds of quantities, in the manner of writing of quantities that the technician is familiar with, are not known.

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

The invention is directed to the provision of a system enabling the present utilitarian value of calculators, measuring, control, and regulating equipment, as well as of data collecting and data output devices, to be greatly increased by:

the clearer and more rapidly understandable representation of quantities for and by the equipment;

the universal use of quantity presetting or display equipment for a great number of kinds of quantities;

the reduction of the requirements for the manual preliminary and secondary operations for the processing of quantities;

the rationalization of the programming of calculators due to the programming of quantity equations, as defined by the quantity equation rule;

the direct processing of quantities without limitation of the kinds of quantities of a quantity system; and

the potential of automation updating of the parameters of the data processing technology of quantities.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention is based on the principle that homoscribtively represented quantities are reversibly unambiguously represented or transferred to autoscribtive quantities and that without further additional instructions autoscribtive quantities can be added, subtracted, multiplied, divided, raised to a power, or the roots can be extracted, by the array.

A homoscribtively represented quantity is a quantity representation form that is very understandable, easily perceptible and impressive for man, and which corresponds to the usual representation of quantities e.g., "96 KM/HR" for 96 kilometers per hour.

An autoscribtive quantity is the representation form for a quantity chosen for a fast and uncomplicated processing with the device, in the form of a sequence of numbers, for the numeric value and the autoscribtive unit of this quantity. An autoscribtive unit can be represented by two numbers as a packed unit or with n numbers as an unpacked unit; where n depends on the number of base units of the selected unit system. The two numbers of the packed unit are called numerator unit and denominator unit. The terms "homoscribtive" and "autoscribtive" are used interchangeably with the terms "homoscriptive" and "autoscriptive" throughout the specification and drawings.

A calculator according to the invention is characterized by the several facts as follows:

That homoscribtive quantities--such as "1 A" (1 Ampere), "50 GOHM" (50 gigaohms), "95 V/M" (95 volts per meter), "130 KA/HAR" (130 kiloamperes per hectare), which according to the generally accepted formation rules for units from elements of a provided set of abbreviations for elementary units (see table 1) and of abbreviations of prefixes (see table 2) are formed and stringed together with a numeric value--can be put into a calculator directly and immediately as one data entry.

That useful operations between quantities or between quantities and numbers are solved by the calculator immediately and independently, as for example:

15 V/3MA=5 KOHM; 15 V/3MA=5 KOHM

With this feature, all those kinds of quantities are allowed, wherein the unit of the quantity is representable with elements of the provided set of elementary units as an exponential product. In the execution of the operations, the calculator uses the autoscribtive representation form of quantities.

That autoscribtive resulting quantities determined by the calculator are read out homoscribtively in an optimal, surveyable and impressive representation form. Thus, the output of "0.03511011 WB.S.A." (webers-seconds-amperes) is displayed in form of "3.51 GOHM". For this kind of quantity to be displayed, the calculator generates a homoscribtive unit with a minimum number of factors in the exponential product.

That autoscribtive quantities determined by the calculator for a specified kind of quantity are read out in a preset homoscribtive unit of this kind of quantity. For example, for a resulting quantity of velocity, the unit "KM/HR" (kilometer per hour may be preset, in which case the result is always read out in this unit--regardless of the units, in which the path is given (meters, inches, miles, kilometers, or angstroms . . .) or the time is given (picoseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days or years . . . ).

That autoscribtive quantities determined by the calculator for a specified kind of quantity in a preset homoscribtive unit of this kind of quantity--with representation of the numeric value as fixed-point digits in the number area 0.001 to 999.999 and determination of a prefix for the homoscribtive unit--are read out. Thus, if for a resulting quantity of frequency the unit "HZ" (Hertz) is preset, the output of the quantity "3104 s-1 ", is given in the form of "30 KHZ" (30 kilohertz).

That when operating with quantities, the calculator executes extensive checking measures--e.g. whether useful quantities were made available for processing at all or whether the operations with quantities yield efficient new (measuring) units or kinds of quantities (this function is to be put on a level with the "dimension computing", which engineers and physicists use for checking the corrections of formulas).

A measuring or data collecting device extended according to the invention is characterized by the several facts as follows:

That at its output an autoscribtive quantity in the form of a pulse sequence is available, which represents unambiguously, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the quantity made available for processing.

That the autoscribtive quantity made available at the output of the device in the form of a pulse sequence, without limitation to the kinds of quantities used, can be processed by all assemblies and device units without special programming or matching (the prerequisite is that these devices are designed according to the technique for the automated processing of quantities described in this work).

A measuring or data output device extended according to the invention is characterized by the several facts as follows:

That it represents a given autoscribtive quantity in the form of a pulse sequence for a quantity measured or determined in the system in an optimal, surveyable and impressive homoscribtive representation form.

That a specified kind of quantity resulting in the system for a defined point can be read out a preset homoscribtive unit of this kind of quantity.

That it can read out any quantities, which are representable with a preset set of elementary units.

A control or regulating device according to the invention is characterized by the several facts as follows:

That the presetting of regulating variables, measured value limits and others is performed in the usual homoscribtive representation form.

That input and output assemblies of control and regulating devices are applicable without limitation to the kinds of quantities of the quantity system and therewith are universally applicable.

That the output of homoscribtive quantities is displayed as a character sequence in an optimal and surveyable representation form.

In order to provide the above results, the following requirements must be met:

(1)

The first requirement consists in the use of a defined set of abbreviations for prefixes and abbreviations for elementary units.

Prefixes are independent designations, or independent designations reduced to a few characters ("abbreviations"), for powers of the number 10.

Elementary units are units with independent designations, or independent designations reduced to few characters ("abbreviations"), for coherent or incoherent (measuring) units.

The defined set of abbreviations for prefixes and of abbreviations for elementary units has to meet the following requirements:

Only the characters of a limited character set are used.

The set of prefixes, as well as the set of elementary units, is not to contain homonymous abbreviations.

Abbreviations, which can be formed by the stringing together of an abbreviation of a prefix and an abbreviation of an elementary unit, may not be equal either to an abbreviation of the prefixes, or to an abbreviation of the elementary units; unless, the abbreviation has the same semantic content as its homonym (example: "KG" is the abbreviation of the elementary unit kilogram on the one hand, and, on the other hand, this abbreviation arises from stringing together the abbreviation of the prefix "K" (kilo) with the abbreviation "G" of the elementary unit gram.

In tables 1 and 2, a set of abbreviations for prefixes and of abbreviations for elementary units, which meets the requirement mentioned, is listed as an example--with this set the units of the fields of natural science, engineering, industry and economy can be represented to a large extent.

In table 3, which is a part of the list of table 1, a set of abbreviations for elementary units is set forth. Thus, with the physical-technical prefixes according to table 2, the physical-technical units are all representable.

Homoscribtive quantities can be represented by a defined set of abbreviations for prefixes and abbreviations for elementary units. A homoscribtive quantity is a closed string of characters consisting of a "numeric value" followed by an "abbreviation of the unit".

Example: 22 M/S2

Therefore, for the formation of the abbreviation of the unit the following general rules have to be followed:

All abbreviations of the elementary units according to table 1 or table 3 are allowed as abbreviations of the unit.

Examples: M, S, KG, V, H, HPW

Decimal parts and multiples of elementary units, which are represented by stringing together an abbreviation of a prefix with an abbreviation of an elementary unit, are allowed as abbreviations of the unit; such a unit is also called a "stringed unit" or "stringed-together unit" hereinbelow.

Examples: MM, MYS, KV

Integer powers of elementary or stringed-together units are allowed as abbreviations of the unit; so that in stringed-together units the exponent is related to the prefix, as well as to the elementary unit.

Examples: MM3, S-2

Derived units in form of exponential products are allowed as abbreviations of the unit. They are represented by inserting a period, ".", between the multiplicatively stringed factors of the exponential product.

Examples: OHM.M, A.S., KM.HR-1

Derived units in the form of exponential products can be represented such that on the left side of the character "/" all elements of the exponential product with a positive exponent are given and on the right side of that character all elements with a negative exponent are given, so that the negative sign of the exponent in the element is omitted.

Examples: KM/HR, A/MM2

For the formation of stringed units legal rules, international standards, and the traditional use are to be considered.

(Note: All combinations logically possible of the defined set are correctly interpreted by the device when they are put in; in the output the above mentioned instructions can be followed.)

Example: The unit "horsepower" is not to be stringed-together with decimal prefixes since there is no accepted usage of "microhorsepower", for example.

(2) The second requirement is that, for the defined set of elementary units, there is a basic number B of base units L and each elementary unit F is representable according to the formula

Fx =Ln.sbsp.11 Ln.sbsp.22 . . . Ln.sbsp.kk 

with

B=(L1, . . . , Lk)

k: positive integer numeral digit

n: integer exponent

In table 4, as an example, the pertinent basic set of base units is represented for the set of elementary units defined in table 1.

In table 5, the pertinent basic set of base units is represented for the set of elementary units defined, for example, in table 3.

In table 6, the elementary units determined in table 1, for example, are listed in form of exponential products from base units.

The invention, for the extension of the device technology of calculators, data collecting and data output devices, measuring, control and regulating equipment for the automated digital transcription and processing of quantities and units thereby requires:

That an input device, designated as a circuit for the input transformation of quantities, is designed such that quantities in the form of digital data as homoscribtive quantities are transcribed in a form processable by the equipment or the device as autoscribtive quantity, without changing the content of the data;

That a processing device, designated as a circuit for the automated processing of autoscribtive quantities, is designed such that autoscribtive quantities can be processed with each other, resulting in data with a new content;

That an output device, designated as a circuit for the output transformation of quantities, is designed such that autoscribtive quantities can be transcribed and displayed by the equipment or the device in a form clear, familiar and easily impressive for man, without changing the content of the data.

According to the invention, a device for the automated digital transcription and processing of quantities and units, for the extension of the device technology of calculators, data collecting and data output devices, measuring, control and regulating equipment, comprises a digital, electronic, sequentially operating circuit having the following essential assemblies characterizing their functions (the numbers refer to the reference numerals in the drawings):

A control network 46, a calculating assembly 14,

a logical network 9, a compounder network 31,

a check code generator 10,

a unit generator-1 28 or

a unit generator-2 51,

a prefix generator 27,

a register for a homoscribtive unit 5,

a register for an autoscribtive unit 8,

a unit register 47, a coefficient register 48,

a numeric value register 3,

an address register 13,

a numeric value accumulator 24,

an accumulator for an autoscribtive unit 25,

a read-only memory for elementary units 16,

a read-only memory for prefixes 18, a read-only

memory for numeric values 20, a read-only memory for

groups of exponents to base units 23,

a display device 50 and an input keyboard 1.

The control network 46 combines the functions

of a control network-1 21,

of a control network-2 26,

of a control network-3 32, as well as

of a control network-4 34.

The character transfers between the assemblies and the character processing in the assemblies are performed bit serially and/or bit parallel.

The assemblies,

control network 46, control network-1 21,

control network-2 26, control network-3 32,

control network-4 34, logic network 9,

compounder network 31, check code generator 10,

unit generator-1 28, unit generator-2 51,

and prefix generator 27,

designed as a digital electronic circuits or logic networks, are also representable by a read-only programming memory and a microprocessor system.

The whole circuit arrangement can be divided into three circuits that complement each other in their functions:

Circuit arrangement for the input transformation of quantities.

Circuit arrangement for the automated processing of autoscribtive quantities.

Circuit arrangement for the output transformation of quantities.

In the circuit arrangement for the output transformation of quantities there are two variants to be distinguished:

Circuit arrangement for the controlled output-transformation of quantities.

Circuit arrangement for the optimal output transformation of quantities.

Thus the assemblies characterizing the function of the invention can be not only an element of all circuit arrangements, but also an element of only one subordinate circuit arrangement. With the circuit arrangements functionally complementing one another, six main functions can be realized.

(1) Representation of a homoscribtive quantity by an autoscribtive quantity with the circuit arrangement for the input transformation of quantities.

(2) Processing of two autoscribtive quantities to an autoscribtive resulting quantity with the circuit arrangement for the automated processing of autoscribtive quantities.

(3) Controlled representation of an autoscribtive quantity by a homoscribtive quantity with the circuit arrangement for the controlled output transformation of quantities, whereby the units of a certain set of kinds of quantities are fixed.

(4) Optimal representation of an autoscribtive quantity by a homoscribtive quantity with the circuit arrangement for the optimal output transformation of quantities, the circuit generating an optimal unit for any kind of quantity in a quantity system.

(5) Parameter-controlled representation of an autoscribtive quantity by a homoscribtive quantity including generation of a prefix for a given unit in dependence on the numeric value of the quantity with the circuit arrangement for the input transformation of quantities and the prefix generator 27.

(6) Parameter-controlled representation of an autoscribtive quantity by a homoscribtive quantity without generation of a prefix for the given unit with the circuit for the input transformation of quantities.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In order that the invention will be more clearly understood, it will now be disclosed in greater detail with respect to the drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 the representation of the symbols for assemblies of the FIGS. 2 to 6 and FIG. 8;

FIG. 2 the circuit arrangement for the input transformation of quantities

FIG. 3 the circuit arrangement for the automated processing of autoscribtive quantities;

FIG. 4 the circuit arrangement for the controlled output transformation of quantities;

FIG. 5 the circuit arrangement for the optimal output transformation of quantities;

FIG. 6 a circuit arrangement for the automated digital transcription and processing of quantities and units;

FIG. 7 an input/output field of a scientific-technical pocket or desk calculator with automated processing of quantities;

FIG. 8 a schematic representation of the functional principle of a pocket or desk calculator with automated processing of quantities;

FIG. 9 is a representation of the symbols for the circuit elements and assemblies shown in FIGS. 10 through 13;

FIG. 10 the logic circuit scheme for the input transformation of quantities (partial drawings: FIGS. 10a . . . 10y, 10za, 10zb);

FIG. 11 the logic clock sequence scheme for the input transformation of quantities (partial drawings: FIGS. 11a . . . 11k);

FIG. 12 the logic circuit scheme for the optimal output transformation of quantities (partial drawings: FIGS. 12a . . . 12z, 12za, 12zb); and

FIG. 13 the logic clock sequence scheme for the optimal output transformation of quantities (partial drawings: FIGS. 13a . . . 13k).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

The circuit arrangement for the input transformation of quantities, as shown in FIG. 2, is a combination of assemblies such that by operation of the control network-1 21, the calculating assembly 14, the logic network 9, the check code generator 10, the address register 13, the numeric value register 3, the register for an autoscribtive unit 8, the read-only memory for numeric values 20, the read-only memory for elementary units 16, the read-only memory for groups of exponents to base units 23, the read-only memory for prefixes 18, as well as other switches and memories, can be controlled in an ordered sequence, when the register for a homoscribtive unit 5 and the numeric value register 3 are charged and the circuit is activated, e.g., via the input keyboard 1.

The loading of the register for a homoscribtive unit 5 and of the numeric value register 3 is performed via the input keyboard 1. The input keyboard 1 for the sequential character input of a homoscribtive quantity is designed in such a way that for letters a numeric value code is made available, and the letters are distinguishable from numeral digits and special symbols by a special bit. On the input keyboard 1, there are four different classes of keys:

1st class: operation keys (e.g. "+", ":");

2nd class: letter keys ("A" . . . "Z");

3rd class: numeral digit keys ("0" . . . "9") and special symbol keys ".", "-", "/", ";" and

4th class: switching keys (e.g. for switching in case of a multiply occupied key, switching from calculation with quantities to numeric calculating).

The input keyboard 1 is connected with an input disoriminator 2, which in combination with the control network-1 21, controls the input process.

When calculating with quantities,, each data setting has to start with the activation of a sequence of number digit keys. These characters are accepted in the given sequence in the numeric value register 3, designed as a shift register. When a letter key is activated, the input discriminator 2 activates the charging of the register for a homoscribtive unit 5, in which both this letter and all following characters are accepted, provided that the activated keys belong to the second or third classes. By pressing a key of the first or fourth classes the input of a quantity is finished.

The keys of the second or third classes can be used as input keys for programmed instructions at the same time, when the fourth class contains, e.g., a switching key "quantity", which is to be activated before the setting of a quantity and continues to be activated, until a key of the first or fourth class is activated.

Additionally, a display device 50 can be assigned to the input keyboard 1. The keyboard inserts a homoscribtive quantity in a n-digit numeric display 4 representing the numeric value, and into a p-digit alphanumeric display 6 representing the unit of the homoscribtive quantity.

The representation of the content of the register for a homoscribtive unit 5 to an autoscribtive quantity is performed in several timing cycles, which will be explained.

In the first timing cycle sequence, the homoscribtive unit is separated in factors of the exponential product; a factor is always located between two separators ("." or "/" or space). The logic network 9 divides the homoscribtive unit in cycles, character for character. The logic unit 9 controls a register 11 for a stringed-together unit to accept the stringed-together units of a factor and controls a register 12 for a factor exponent to accept the exponent of a factor of the exponential product for an intermediate storage, respectively. An exponent-sign switch 15, a sign-next factors switch 17, a factor-end switch 19, and an analysis-end switch 22 are switched by the logic network 9, as a sequence of the exponential product separation and for controlling the further cycle sequences of the control network-1 21.

The logic network 9 controls the flow such that, in the next shift cycle, the first character of the register 5, designated as shift register for a homoscribtive unit:

(1) is accepted in the shift register 11 for a stringed-together unit when this character is a letter, and when in the running cycle of separation of a factor, only if letters have been transferred up to now or the first character of the factor is concerned;

(2) causes a switching of the exponent sign switch 15 to "L", when this character is a "-", which follows the transfer of a letter;

(3) is accepted in the factor exponent register 12, when this character is a numeral digit, which follows the transfer of a negative sign or a letter;

(4) causes a switching of the sign-next factors switch 17 to "L", prepares the finishing of the representation of an exponential product factor by transfer of the factor-end switch 19 to "L", and the flow control is transferred to the cycle separation of a stringed-together unit, when this character is a "/", which follows the transfer of a letter or a numeral digit;

(5) is not exchanged and prepares the finishing of the representation of an exponential product factor by transfer of the factor-end switch 19 to "L", and the flow control is transferred to the cycle separation of a stringed-together unit, when this character is a ".", following the transfer of a letter or a numeral digit;

(6) is not exchanged and prepares the representation of a homoscribtive quantity by transfer of the analysis-end switch 22 to "L", and the flow control is transferred to the cycle separation of a stringed-together unit, when this character is a space following the transfer of a letter or a numeral digit; and

(7) is not exchanged and the flow control is transferred to the cycle truncation because of a syntactical error, when none of the cases (1) to (6) are concerned.

The exponent of the first factor of the exponential product is already stored in an exponent-1 register 7.

The second timing cycle sequence covers the cycle separation of a stringed-together unit. The stringed-together unit, stored in register 11, is separated into a prefix and an elementary unit. The timing cycle can be passed through multiply in a modified way. Under the control of the control network-1 21 the assemblies check code generator 10, calculating assembly 14, address register 13, and read-only memory 18 for prefixes, perform the separation of the actual stringed-together unit in such a way that by the calculating assembly 14, in a maximum of m subcycles per subcycle i, starting with i=1, the i-first characters are added to an ordinal number for the read-only memory 18 for prefixes and by the check code generator 10 from the sequence of i-first characters of the stringed-together unit bits to a check character for the accepted prefix and are compounded according to an established scheme. All characters of the stringed-together unit, from the (i+1) character for an ordinal number for the read-only memory 16 for the elementary units, are timely added in parallel or in series to it and, by the check code generator 10 from the sequence of all characters of the stringed-unit from the (i+1) character bits for a check character for the accepted elementary unit are compounded according to an established scheme.

The i subcycles are passed through as often as necessary, until the check character read from this read-only memory, via the determined ordinal number for the read-only memory 18 for prefixes, is equal to the check character for the separated prefix above, determined by the check code generator 10, and also when the check character read from this read-only memory, determined via the ordinal number for the read-only memory 16 for elementary units, is equal to the check character for the separated elementary unit, determined above by the check code generator 10.

The scheme for the generation of the check character (bit pattern mask) for an accepted prefix, as well as for an accepted elementary unit, can be established such that the first 3 bits of the first character, the first 2 bits of the second character, and the first 3 bits of the third character result in the check character.

After a positively finished i subcycle for the separation of a stringed-together unit, the calculating assembly 14 generates the numeric value of the autoscribtive quantity in steps by multiplying the content of the numeric value register 3 with the numeric value of the prefix, which was read via an actual ordinal number--that has been exchanged from the read-only memory 18 for prefixes--from the read-only memory 20 for numeric values, and with the numeric value of the elementary unit, which was also read via an actual ordinal number--that has been exchanged from the read-only memory 16 for elementary units--from the read-only memory 20 for numeric values 20, and by storing in the numeric value register 3.

In these multiplications, the switch positions of the exponent sign switch 15 and sign next factors switch 17 are considered further, before the multiplications of the numeric values read from the read-only memory 20 for numeric values are raised to a power with the content of the register 12 for a factor exponent, as determined by the position of the exponent sign switch 15 and sign next factors switch 17.

Further, after a positively finished i subcycle for the separation of a stringed-together unit, the calculating assembly 14 generates the unpacked unit of an autoscribtive quantity in the form of a sequence of exponents to base units in steps, while the unpacked-nominator unit and/or the unpacked-denominator unit of the actual stringed-together unit are/is added to the content of the register 8 for an autoscribtive unit, element for element, depends on the position in the sequence of exponents for base units. The unpacked-nominator unit and/or the unpacked-denominator unit have/has been read out from the read-only memory 23 for groups of exponents to base units via one or two actual ordinal numbers, have been exchanged from the read-only memory 16 for elementary units. In these additions the position of the exponent sign switch 15 and sign-next factors switch 17 are considered and, before the additions, the numeral digits read out from the read-only memory 23 for groups of exponents for base units are multiplied with the content of the register 12 to obtain a factor exponent, which takes into account the position of the exponent sign switch 15 and sign-next factors switch 17.

If the i subcycle is finished unsuccesfully, then sufficient shift cycles follow such that the register 11 for a stringed-together unit finishes a circulation. The stepping forward of the modified control and the beginning of the (i+1) subcycle of the second cycle sequence follow.

When, after a positive finishing of the cycle separation of a stringed-together unit, the factor-end switch 19 is "L", the control network-1 21 initiates a new cycle separation of an exponential product element.

When, after a positve finishing of the cycle separation of a stringed-together unit, the analysis-end switch 22 is "L", the cycle sequence of the array for the input transformation of quantities is duly finished.

When one of the conditions mentioned is not met, due to a syntactical error in the homoscribtive unit, the cycle sequence is truncated.

The read-only memories mounted in the array for the input transformation of quantities have the following design:

The read-only memory 16 for elementary units contains systematically, according to the sums via the numeric value code of the letters of the abbreviation of an elementary unit, the check character generated in dependence on the sequence of letters and one ordinal number each for the numeric value, the unpacked-numerator unit and the unpacked-denominator unit for the respective elementary unit.

The read-only memory 18 for prefixes contains systematically, according to the sums via the numeric value code of the letters of the abbreviation of a prefix for each prefix, the check character generated in dependence of the sequence of letters and an ordinal number for the numeric value of the prefix.

The read-only memory 20 for numeric values contains numeric values for the elementary units and prefixes in an established order.

The read-only memory 23 for groups of exponents for base units contains, in an established order, sequences of exponents for base units, which may be an unpacked-numerator unit or an unpacked-denominator unit.

An example of the circuit arrangement for the input transformation of quantities is shown in FIG. 10, and the logic clock sequence for it is shown in FIG. 11, in the form of a flow chart. Additionally, in Tables 7, 8, 9, and 10 the detailed arrangement of the read-only memories for elementary units 16, for prefixes 18, for numeric values 20, and for groups of exponents to base units 23, is given.

The circuit of FIG. 10 is to be operated with a single-phase clock, this conditions the use of the master-slave flip-flop. The circuit causes the digital transformation of an optionally arranged homoscribtive quantity, containing abbreviations of the elementary units according to Table 3b and abbreviations of the physical-technical prefixes according to Table 2; to an autoscribtive quantity consisting of a floating-point number (8 bytes with 2 bytes of exponent) and an 8-byte autoscribtive unit, each byte of the autoscribtive unit representing the exponent to a base unit in the sequence, e.g., second, meter, ampere, kilogram, kelvin, candela, steradian and radian. For instance if the homoscribtive quantity

2 KNT (2 knots)

is put in, it is transformed to the autoscribtive quantity

102888.-05, -1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.

However, the same autoscribtive quantity is also determined by the circuit, if one of the following is put in as a homoscribtive quantity:

2 NTMI/HR (2 nautical miles per hour) or

3.704 KM/HR (3.704 kilometers per hour) or

6173.28 CM/MIN (6173.28 centimeters per minute) or

1.02888 M/S (1.02888 meters per second).

At the end of the transformation process, the numeric value of the autoscribtive quantity (102888.-05) in the numeric value register 3-3 and the autoscribtive quantity (-1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) in the register for an autoscribtive unit 8, are stored for external interrogation.

The operation of the invention circuit will be demonstrated by the example of the transformation of the homoscribtive quantity, 6173.28 CM/MIN:

During the input via the input keyboard 1 (FIG. 10h) the input discriminator 2 (FIGS. 10d and 10e) performs the storage of "617328.+02" in the numeric value register 3-3 and of "00000000000NIM/MC" in the register for a homoscribtive unit 5 according to logic clock sequence, "Input and separation of a homoscribtive quantity", of the FIGS. 11c and 11d, and with it a coding is performed, as shown in FIG. 10h.

The logic network 9 (FIGS. 10f and 10g) during a first flow of the clock sequence, "Separation of a homoscribtive unit", according to FIGS. 11e and 11f, causes the loading of the register for a stringed-together unit 11, during the status 9-7 with the character sequence "MC".

The check code generator 10 (FIGS. 10o, 10s, 10t, 10u, 10w, 10x, 10y, 10za and 10zb) finishes the cyclic flow of the clock sequence "Separation of a stringed-together unit", according to FIGS. 11g and 11h, if the check characters determined in status 10-8 are equal to the stored check characters, stored in the storage positions of the read-only memory for prefixes 18 and of the read-only memory for elementary units 16, computed for it in the status 10-8 and in the status 10-11. The arrangement of the addresses becomes evident from FIGS. 10p and 10q, the outputs of the address counter 13-6="00". The conditions are fulfilled with the separation of the contents of the register for a stringed-together unit 11 into the partial-character sequences "C" and "0000M".

For the partial-character sequence "C", it follows that

according to the bit pattern mask already mentioned the check character is: "00000011"

according to FIG. 10p the address for ROM 18 (shifted code for "C") is: "011 1011 0"

For the partial-character sequence "0000M" it follows that

the check character is: "00000110"

the address for ROM 16 is: "0001 1110 00"

The check characters determined are equal to the check characters given in Table 7 and Table 8, respectively.

Due to the conditional latch "prefix" 10-19 set by the check code generator 10 in the status 10-18 by the control network 21-2 of the control network-1 21 (FIGS. 10r and 10v) in the clock sequence, "Building up the numeric value of the autoscribtive quantity", according to FIG. 11i, the factor corresponding to the prefix "C" is read out from the read-only memory for prefixes 18, split via the address register 13-5 according to FIG. 10q, and multiplied with the contents of the numeric value register 3-3; the exponent of the prefix is stored in ROM 18 in the last 6 binary positions-hence the range of numbers, -31≦ exponent≦+31, is allowed.

The control network 21-3 (FIGS. 10m and 10n) of the control network-1 21 in the steps during the clock sequence, "Building up the autoscribtive unit of the autoscribtive quantity", according to FIGS. 11j and 11k, determines the contents of the register for an autoscribtive unit 8 by reading out, by means of repeated increments of the address counter 13-6 with the occupied positions "10" or "11" from the read-only memory for elementary units 16, two expanded addresses for the read-only memory for groups of exponents to base units 23: "00000010" and "10000000", wherein the first 2 bits are used for control purposes and the last 6 bits serve as a higher address part for reading the ROM 23, to which a lower address part of 3 bits is added by the address counter 13-7 for the corresponding base unit. The bytes of the ROM 23, according to Table 10, contain "1" as the first bit, if the attached exponent=0. The actual contents of the register for an autoscribtive unit 8, when this clock sequence is finished is: "0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0"

The logic network 9 (FIGS. 10f and 10g) during a second flow of the clock sequence, "Separation of a homoscribtive unit," according to FIG. 11e and FIG. 11f, causes the loading of the register for a stringed-together unit 11 during the status 9-7 with the character sequence "NIM".

The check code generator 10 (FIGS. 10o, 10s, 10t, 10u, 10w, 10x, 10y, 10za and 10zb) finishes the flow of the clock sequence, "Separation of a stringed unit", according to FIGS. 11g and 11h, after the first cycle, since prior to the summing of all lettes, the check character equivalence is determined under yes-condition 10.18 with:

Address (shifted code sum "M+I+N"): "0101 0110 00"

check character "00000110"

The control network 21-2 of the control network-1 21 (FIGS. 10r and 10v) during the clock sequence, "Building up the numeric value of the autoscribtive quantity", according to FIG. 11i, continues building up the numeric value by reading, with the higher address part "101010" read out from ROM 16, a coefficient (600000.-04) from the read-only memory for numeric values 20 and after considering the conditions (exponent=-1) multiplies it with the contents of the numeric value register 3-3 (result: "102888.-05").

The control network 21-3 of the control network-1 21 (FIGS. 10m and 10n) during the clock sequence, "Building up the autoscribtive unit of an autoscribtive quantity", according to FIGS. 11j and 11k, continues building up the autoscribtive unit by reading, with the higher address parts "000000" (not concerned) and "000001" read out from ROM 16, from the read-only memory for groups of exponents to base units 23 a sequence of exponents (1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) and after considering the conditions (reversal of signs) adds it, element for element to the contents of the register for an autoscribtive unit 8 (result: -1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0).

The circuit arrangement for the automated processing of autoscribtive quantities (FIG. 3) is such a combination of assemblies that by the control network-2 26

the calculating assembly 14,

the numeric value register 3,

the register 8 for an autoscribtive unit,

the numeric value accumulator 24, and

the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit

are controlled in an ordered sequence, when the registers and accumulators are charged and the circuit is activated by the bit sequence for the execution of a special operation with quantities, e.g., via the input keyboard 1.

The circuit adds or subtracts two autoscribtive quantities of the same kind of quantity without limitation, it multiplies or divides two autoscribtive quantities of the same or different kind of quantity, or it raises an autoscribtive quantity to a power or extracts its root, and makes available the resulting quantity in an autoscribtive form of representation always in the numeric value accumulator 24 and in the accumulator for an autoscribtive unit 25.

In the addition/subtraction of two autoscribtive quantities the calculating assembly 14 compares the content of the register 8 for an autoscribtive unit with the content of the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit, and in the case of an equality adds/subtracts the content of the numeric value register 3 to/from the content of the numeric value accumulator 24, and stores the sum in the numeric value accumulator 24.

In the multiplication/division of two autoscribtive quantities the calculating assembly 14 adds/subtracts, depending on the position, element for element, the content of the register 8 for an autoscribtive unit to/from the content of the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit. The calculating assembly 14 further multiplies/divides the content of the numeric value accumulator 24 with/by the content of the numeric value register 3, and the results are stored, in each case, in the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit and in the numeric value accumulator 24.

When an autoscribtive quantity is raised to a power, or when its root is extracted, the calculating assembly 14 checks whether the numeric register 3 contains an integer exponent with the mantissa "1", and whether the elements of the register 8 for an autoscribtive unit are always "0". In case of a fulfilled condition, the calculating assembly 14 divides the content of the accumulator for an autoscribtive unit 25, element for element, by the exponent/root-exponent of the numeric value register 3 and writes the result in the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit. Further, the calculating assembly 14 raises to a power, or extracts the root from, the content of the numeric value accumulator 24 with the content of the numeric value register 3 and stores the result in the numeric value accumulator 24.

The circuit arrangement for the controlled output transformation of quantities (FIG. 4) is a combination of assemblies operating such that with the control network-3 32

the calculating assembly 14, the compounder network 31,

the unit generator-1 28,

the prefix generator 27,

the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit,

the numeric valve accumulator 24,

the register for a homoscribtive unit 5,

the read-only memory 29 for homoscribtive units,

the address read-only memory 33, and

the address register 13

are controlled in an ordered sequence, when the circuit is activated by a starting impulse, e.g., via the input keyboard 1.

This circuit transforms an autoscribtive quantity stored in the numeric value accumulator 24 and in the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit without limitation of the kind of quantity to a homoscribtive quantity, thereby determining a suitable homoscribtive unit. From this homoscribtive quantity, the numeric value in the numeric value accumulator 24 and the homoscribtive unit in the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit are stored.

Using the content of the accumulator for an autoscribtive unit 25, the calculating assembly 14 determines a packed-numerator unit and a packed-denominator unit. These packed units are multiplied exponential products, analogous to the homoscribtive form of representation, whereby for a certain base unit a certain number is chosen, but not an abbreviation. The packed-numerator unit and the packed-denominator unit are compounded by the compounder network 31 to a small numeral digit area. The compounder network 31 is a logic network, which reduces a bit sequence for a certain large number to a bit sequence for a certain small number. These compounded packed units are ordinal numbers for reading a homoscribtive unit from the read-only memory 29 for homoscribtive unit in the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit. When a homoscribtive unit cannot be determined for the autoscribtive quantity, then the unit generator-1 28 generates a homoscribtive unit in the form of an exponential product for base units.

The prefix generator 27 separates a factor from the content of the numeric value accumulator 24, depending on its value, and shifts the abbreviation for a prefix as the first character into the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit.

The control network-3 32 clocks the controlled output transformation in the following way:

(1) The calculating assembly 14 determines a packed numerator unit in cycles from the content of the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit and stores it in the address register 13.

(2) In one cycle, the packed numerator unit is compounded in the compounder network 31 and written into the address register 13. By way of the compounded packed-numerator unit from an address read-only memory 33, an address for a section of the read-only memory 29 for homoscribtive units is read out. When an address cannot be read out from the address read-only memory 33, the control network-3 32 continues the cycle sequence according to (7).

(3) A repetition factor k is read into an auxiliary memory from the read-only memory 29 for homoscribtive units; k expresses how many denominator units of the given numerator unit homoscribtive units are established in the read-only memory 29 for homoscribtive units.

(4) Determination of the packed-denominator unit analogously to (1) with following compounding analogously to (2) and storing in the auxiliary memory 30.

(5) The calculating register 14 determines in k cycles, cyclic increase of the address according to (3), whether the compounded denominator unit is contained in the read-only memory 29 for homoscribtive units. When it is contained therein, the control network-3 32 causes a reading of a homoscribtive unit in the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit and an exponent to the first factor of the exponential product of the homoscribtive unit in the exponent-1-register 7 from the read-only memory 29 for homoscribtive units. When the search in all k cycles is finished negatively, the control network-3 32 continues the cycle sequence according to (7).

(6) In connection with the calculating assembly 14, the prefix generator 27 separates a factor from the content of the numeric value accumulator 24, depending on its value and the content of the exponent-1 register 7. The abbreviation of a prefix is inserted into the register for a homoscribtive unit 5. The representation of an autoscribtive quantity to a homoscribtive quantity is finished.

(7) The unit generator-1 28 generates a homoscribtive unit, and n cycles are run through, wherein n is equal to the number of base units of the quantity system employed. In each cycle, an exponential product factor is generated, when the corresponding element is not equal to zero. The first cycle is started with the last base unit of the established order. Within one cycle, which covers the generation of a factor, the exponent of the factor is first accepted from the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit into the register 8 for an autoscribtive unit, and subsequently the abbreviation of the base unit is accepted from the unit generator-1 28. Further, the exponent of the factor is stored in the exponent-1 register 7. The control network-3 32 continues the cycle sequence according to (6).

The circuit for the optimal output transformation of quantities (FIG. 5) is such a combination of assemblies that, by the control network-4 34

the calculating assembly 14, the unit generator-2 51,

the prefix generator 27,

the accumulator for an autoscribtive unit 25,

the numeric value accumulator 24,

the exponent-1-register 7, and

the register for a homoscribtive unit 5

are controlled in an ordered sequence when the circuit is activated by a starting impulse.

The circuit transforms an autoscribtive quantity stored in the numeric value accumulator 24 and in the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit without limitation of the kind of quantity of the quantity to a homoscribtive quantity, whereby the homoscribtive unit is generated in an optimal form of representation.

An optimal kind of representation of a homoscribtive unit is understood herein to refer to an exponential product with a minimum number of factors whereby the factors contain only certain units. These units may be:

reference units (derived units of the SI with independent names), such as Newton, Volt, Pascal;

base units, such as second, ampere; or

supplementary units, such as radian.

For instance, for quantities of specific resistivity, the unit OHM.M and not V.M/A is always generated.

The unit generator-2 51 generates an optimal kind of representation of the homoscribtive unit in connection with the calculating assembly 14. This unit contains such a combination of subassemblies that by a generator control circuit 45, in dependance on the control network-4 34:

a deficiency register 37, an overflow register 35, a reference unit register 41, a deficiency memory 38, and an overflow memory 36 all store an integer number in each case,

a reference unit counter 40,

a memory of the separated units 42, in which the abbreviations of certain elementary units circulate in an established order, and

a memory of the reference units 39, in which the exponents to base units of reference exponents to base units of reference units circulate in an established order,

are controlled such that, at first, if possible, from the content of the accumulator for an autoscribtive unit 25 reference units are separated and the remainder of the autoscribtive unit is represented with base units and supplementary units.

The unit generator-2 51 operates according to the following scheme:

(1) A separation attempt is started, when the given unit contains at least (k-1) base units of a group of reference units, whereby all reference units of a group contain the same k base units.

(2) In case of a fulfillment of (1), an evaluation of the deviation of the given autoscribtive unit from the individual reference units according to points is performed. A point means that a base unit with the exponent 1 deviates in relation to the base units considered. It is to be distinguished between efficiency points and overflow points.

(3) The reference unit with the smallest deviation is separated, but no more than the two deficiency points are allowed.

(4) A reference unit may be separated reciprocally and multiply.

(5) The remainder of the given autoscribtive unit after the separation of reference units is changed into an exponential product from base units and supplementary units.

The generation of a homoscribtive unit by the unit generator-2 51 is performed in several timing cycles, for example:

(1) The calculating assembly 14 determines the difference between the content of the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit and the content of the memory of the reference units 39, element for element, and sums the deficiency and overflow points, which are stored in the deficiency register 37 and in the overflow register 35, respectively, for the actual reference unit 1 in each case.

(2) When the content of the deficiency register 37 is >2, the flow according to (1) is repeated, but with a sign reversion of the elements of the content of the accumulator for an autoscribtive unit 25.

(3) When the content of the deficiency register 37 is >2, the memory 39 of the reference units makes available the reference unit i+1 and then continues according to (1) above, when the actual reference unit of the memory 39 of the reference units is not the last reference unit, then continuation is according to (6) below.

(4) The content of the deficiency register 37, of the overflow register 35 and of the reference unit counter 40 is accepted in the deficiency memory 38, the overflow memory 36 and the reference unit register 41, respectively, and the cycle sequence is continued, when the content of the deficiency register 37 and the content of the overflow register 35 are zero.

(5) The content of the deficiency register 37, of the overflow register 35 and of the reference unit counter 40 is accepted in the deficiency memory 38, the overflow memory 36 and the reference unit register 41, respectively, when the content of the deficiency register 37 is smaller as to its amount than the content of the deficiency memory 38; continuation of the cycle sequence is according to (1) with the reference unit (i+1), when the actual reference unit of the memory 39 for reference units is not the last reference unit.

(6) According to the content of the reference unit register 41 in the memory of the separated units 42, a bit is added to the content of the memory location assigned to a certain reference unit, according to its sign as in (2) above, when the content of the deficiency memory 38 is >3. From the content of the accumulator for an autoscribtive unit, the content of the memory 39 for reference units is subtracted from the reference unit indicated in the reference unit register 41 according to its sign as in (2) and the result is stored in the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit. Beginning a new sequence of timing cycles (1) . . . (6) with (1), the deficiency memory 38 is put to 3.

(7) When the content of the deficiency memory 38 is >2, the remaining content of the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit is transferred, element for element, in the memory 42 of separated units.

(8) During a full circulation of the memory 42 of separated units and of the memory 44 of unit abbreviations, one number each from the memory 42 of the separated units and after that an abbreviation of a unit from the memory 44 of unit abbreviations are exchanged, element for element, in the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit, when the respective number of the content of the memory 42 of separated units is >0. The first number is stored in the exponent-1 register 7 and at the first negative number a negative element switch 43 is turned on.

(9) In the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit the symbol "/" is shifted, when the negative elements switch 43 is "1".

(10) When the negative elements switch 43 is "1", a further full circulation of the memory 42 of separated units and of the memory 44 of unit abbreviations 44 follows. The amount of a number from the register 42 of separated units are first exchanged and after that the abbreviation of a unit from the memory 44 of the unit abbreviations are exchanged, when the respective number of the content of separated units 42 is <0.

Subsequently the prefix generator 27 connected to the calculating assembly 14 separates a factor from the content of the numeric value accumulator 24, depending on its value and on the content of the exponent-1 register 7. The abbreviation of a prefix is shifted from the prefix generator 27 in the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit. The optimal representation of an autoscribtive quantity to a homoscribtive quantity is finished.

A circuit example of the circuit arrangement for the optimal output transformation of quantities is shown in FIG. 12, the logic clock sequence for this circuit being represented in the form of a flow chart in FIG. 13, while Table 11 gives the detailed contents of the memory of reference units 39, arranged as ROM.

The circuit of FIG. 12 is operated with a single-phase clock. It effects the transformation of an optionally arranged autoscribtive quantity, consisting of a floating point number (exponent 2 bytes) and an autoscribtive unit (8 bytes) with each byte of the autoscribtive unit representing the exponent to a base unit in the sequence of second, meter, ampere, kilogram, kelvin, candela, steradian and radian--to a homoscribtive quantity, arranged from abbreviations of units to reference units (WB, V, H, OHM, SIE, F, T, N, PA, J, W, GY, C, LX, LM) and to base units (S, M, A, KG, K, CD, SR, RAD) as well as from abbreviations of physical-technical prefixes according to Table 2. The supplementary units radian and steradian are used as base units. For instance, the autoscribtive quantity

0.173456-05, -3, 3, -2, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

made available by the inventive device is transformed to the homoscriptive quantity

17.3456 MOHM.M

The circuit can be started from the status 34-10 (FIG. 12h, FIG. 13a), if the mantissa m of the numeric value of the autoscribtive quantity is arranged such that it fulfills the condition 1>m≧10-1, if the exponent of the numeric value of the autoscribtive quantity (-5) is loaded in the numeric value accumulators 24-1 and 24-2 (FIG. 12q) and the sign-memory 45-55 (FIG. 12f), and if the autoscribtive unit (0, 0, 0, 0, 1, -2, 3, -3) was stored in the accumulator for an autoscribtive unit 25-1 (FIG. 12n).

With the status 34-18 (FIG. 12g, FIG. 13a), the circuit finishes the transformation. For the external interrogation the value of the exponent of the numeric value of the homoscribtive quantity is stored in the numeric value accumulator 24-1 and 24-2 (FIG. 12q) and the homoscribtive unit (M.MHOM) is stored in the register for a homoscribtive unit 5 (FIG. 12f).

The operation of the circuit will be demonstrated with the example of the transformation of the autoscribtive quantity mentioned above: the unit generator-2 51 (FIGS. 12i, 12j, 12n, 12s, 12x, 12y, 12z, 12za and 12zb) discriminates 7 groups of reference units:

group 1: The squares of the reference units WB, V, H, OHM, SIE, F, T, N, PA, J, W;

group 2: The reference units WB, V, H, OHM, SIE, F, T, N, PA, J, W;

group 3: The same as in group 2, but with blanking out of the base unit meter;

group 4: GY;

group 5: C;

group 6: LX;

group 7: LM;

The elements of the groups can be separated, repeated or reciprocated, during the clock sequence "Generation of a homoscribtive unit" (FIGS. 13b, 13c, 13d, 13e, 13f and 13g). If the group-counter 51-9 (FIG. 12j), arranged as a shift register, has the position "2", then after the 4th base unit in the status 45-5 (FIG. 13b), the signal "Separation" is set and, in connection with the memory of reference units 39 (FIG. 12n) and the reference-unit counter 40 (FIG. 12n), separation attempts for elements of the second group begin.

In the status 45-15 (FIG. 12y, FIG. 13c) the determination of the deficiency or overflow points by comparing the exponents from the accumulator for an autoscribtive unit 25-1 (FIG. 12n) and the exponents from the memory of reference units 39 (FIG. 12n) is carried out. In it, the address for the memory of reference units 39 is determined by the reference-unit counter 40 (FIG. 12n), the base-unit counter 51-8 (FIG. 12i) and the group-counter 51-9 (FIG. 12j) in connection with the selection network according to FIG. 12j. If the reference-unit counter 40 has the contents "0100", then in the status 45-27 (FIG. 12z, FIG. 13d) the overflow memory 36 is loaded with "0001" and an address register 41-2 (FIG. 12n) is loaded with "0100", respectively, with this the unit OHM is prepared for the separation. In the status 45-41 (FIG. 12za, FIG. 13f) within one cycle of base units the accumulator for an autoscribtive unit 25-1 (FIG. 12n) is loaded with the remaining "autoscribtive residual unit" (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0). During the status 55-43 (FIG. 12za, FIG. 13f) in the memory of the separated units 42 (FIG. 12p), arranged as RAM, the writing of a "+1" is carried out. All further separation attempts up to the 7th group are without success.

During the subsequent clock sequence, "Formation of a homoscribtive unit," (FIGS. 13h, 13i) the control-network-4 34-2 (FIGS. 12d, 12e) takes over the process control. The status 34-40 (FIG. 13i) is passed through as often as necessary, with an increment of the reference-unit counter 41-1 (FIG. 12n) taking place in each case, until in the status 34-34 (FIG. 13h), an exponent 0 is loaded into the exponent-1 register 7 (FIG. 12q); in the example it takes place with a counter condition of "0100". Since the conditional latch "1. element" 5-1 (FIG. 12e) is set, when passing through the status 34-45 (FIG. 13i) the abrupt transition to the clock sequence, "Generation of a prefix", takes place.

During one passage of the clock sequence, "Generation of a prefix", (FIGS. 13i, 13k) the prefix generator 27 (FIGS. 12l, 12m, 12q) in dependence on the value of the exponent of the first factor of the homoscribtive unit, which is stored in the exponent-1 register 7 (FIG. 12q), effects the separation of a coefficient from the exponent mentioned of the numeric value of the autoscribtive quantity. In the status 27-30 (FIG. 12g, FIG. 13i) a partial exponent (Δ-exponent) is repeatedly subtracted from the value of the exponent of the numeric value ("0101"), until the remaining difference is smaller than the partial exponent made available. The number of subtractions is counted by the prefix-counter 27-1 (FIG. 12q). In each case the partial exponent in the status 27-24 and the status 27-25 (FIG. 12l, FIG. 13i) is loaded into the numeric value register 3-1 and 3-2 (FIG. 12q) via a selection network 27-2 (FIG. 12q) in dependence on the exponent-1 register 7 and prefix-counter 27-1. In the example, the status 27-32 (FIG. 13k), as FIG. 12q shows, is passed through only once, thus, on bus 353 the byte "010" for the generation of a prefix that resulted from the increment of the prefix-counter 27-1, is maintained. In the status 27-35 (FIG. 12x, FIG. 13k) the register for a homoscribtive unit 5 (FIG. 12f) is loaded with "M".

The control network-4 34 (FIGS. 12g, 12h) activates the mentioned clock sequence, "Formation of a homoscribtive unit", (FIGS. 13h, 13i) from status 34-35 (FIG. 13h). The reference-unit counter 41-1 (FIG. 12n) or the prefix counter 27-1 (FIG. 12q), a character counter 34-6 (FIG. 12f) and the lines of a preselection bus 351 drive the memory of the unit abbreviations 44 (FIGS. 12a, 12b and 12c), which is realized as a matrix memory with a selection network.

With the above-described system, via the lines of the preselection bus 351, groups of unit abbreviations or prefix abbreviations are fixed as follows:

group 1: WB, V, H, OHM, SIE, F, T, N;

group 2: PA, J, W, GY, C, LX, LM;

group 3: S, M, A, KG, K, CD, RAD, SR;

group 4: DA, H, K, MA, G, TA, PE, EX;

group 5: D, C, M, MK, N, PK, F, A.

During one cycle of the character counter 34-6 (FIG. 12f) in the status 34-38 (FIG. 13i) the characters "0", "H" and "M" are loaded into the register for a homoscribtive unit 5. The further process is evident from FIG. 13 in connection with FIG. 12.

In the parameter-controlled representation of an autoscribtive quantity by a homoscribtive quantity, including the generation of a prefix for the unit given as a parameter, (depending on the numeric value of the autoscribtive quantity) an autoscribtive quantity of a certain kind determined with the circuit for the automated processing of autoscribtive quantities is represented by a homoscribtive unit of the same kind of quantity, given as a parameter. In this case, the first factor of the exponential product of the given unit is not allowed to contain a prefix. The circuit combination necessary for this requires

the circuit for the input transformation of quantities,

the exponent-1 register 7, the unit register 47, the coefficient register 48, the numeric value accumulator 24, the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit, the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit, and the prefix generator 27.

The control network 46 controls the assemblies mentioned such that a homoscribtive unit made available as a parameter at the time T1 is represented by the circuit for the input transformation of quantities to an autoscribtive quantity, whereby both the autoscribtive unit and the homoscribtive unit are stored in the unit register 47, and the numeric value of this autoscribtive quantity is stored in the coefficient register 48.

The autoscribtive quantity to be represented by the parameter is the content of the numeric value accumulator 24 and of the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit and may be stored at the time T2, while T2 may be before or after T1.

The execution of the parameter-controlled representation occurs at the time T3.

(1) By means of the calculating assembly 14, the autoscribtive unit of the unit register 47 is checked with the content of the register 8 for an autoscribtive unit as to equality and, subsequently, the content of the numeric value accumulator 24 is divided by the content of the coefficient register 48, and the result is made available in the numeric value register 24.

(2) The homoscribtive unit of the unit register 47 is exchanged in the register for a homoscribtive unit 5.

(3) After separation of a factor from the content of the numeric value accumulator 24 by the calculating assembly 14 in connection with the prefix generator 27 and the content of the exponent-1 register 7, a prefix is inserted into the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit. The homoscribtive quantity determined is available in the numeric value accumulator 24 and in the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit.

In the parameter-controlled representation of an autoscribtive quantity by a homoscribtive quantity without generation of a prefix for a given unit (FIG. 6), an autoscribtive quantity of a specified kind of quantity determined, for example, with the circuit for the automated processing of quantities, is represented by a homoscribtive unit of the same kind of quantity given as a parameter. The circuit combination necessary for this corresponds to the circuit combination of the parameter-controlled representation with generation of a prefix, but it does not require the prefix generator 27 and the exponent-1 register 7.

The present invention will be further explained in relation to the practical application of a pocket or desk calculator for scientific-technical tasks.

FIG. 7 shows the essential elements of the input/output field 55. It serves for setting and displaying the input quantities and for the display of the output quantities. The input keyboard consists of 6 key lines, the first key line having operational keys, the second key line having numeral-digit keys, and in the subsequent key lines the letter and special symbol keys are combined. The input-key field also contains pressure-shift keys for the switching of calculating processes. The numeral digit keys "0" . . . "9" and the special symbol keys "." and "↑" serve for the input of numbers, numeric values to quantities or exponents to units. The letter keys "A" . . . "Z" and the special symbol keys "." and "/" serve for the input of units or, after the switching of the pressure shift keys "MAT", for the call of mathematical functions. The pressure shift key "KON" switches from stringed-together operations to constant operations. By clicking the pressure shift key "NUM" into place, the pocket or desk calculator is shifted to purely numerical operation in the sense of a usual calculator. The following operational keys are distinguished:

+--addition key (with input transformation)

---Subtraction key (with input transformation)

*--multiplication key (with input transformation)

:--division key (with input transformation)

U--unit key (with input transformation, for presetting a unit as a parameter)

=S--output key-1 (with controlled or optimal output transformation)

=U--output key-2 (parameter-controlled output without generation of a prefix)

R--register key

D--rounding key

C--clearing key

CE--input clearing key

The output field consists of an undervoltage display 56, an overflow display 57, a 12-digit-numeric display 58 (also 10-digit mantissa, two-digit exponent) for the representation of numbers and numeric values of quantities, of a 12-digit alphanumeric unit display 59 for the representation of homoscribtive units of the input or output quantities and of an error display 60.

FIG. 8 shows the most important functional groups of the extended calculator with the essential information lines. With the setting via the input/output field 55 the numeric value of the homoscribtive quantity is stored in the numeric value register 3, and its homoscribtive unit is stored in the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit.

The assembly input-transformation 61 (part of the circuit array for the input transformation of quantities) represents a given homoscribtive quantity by an autoscribtive quantity, when one of the keys "+", "-", "*", ":" or "U" is pressed. When one of the operational keys "+, -, *, :" is activated, a correction of the numeric value in the numeric value register 3 is performed, and the autoscribtive unit is intermediately stored in the register for an autoscribtive unit 8. When the operational key "U" is activated, then the homoscribtive unit and the autoscribtive unit are intermediately stored in the unit register 47, and the numeric value of the autoscribtive quantity determined as a parameter is intermediately stored in the coefficient register 48.

The assembly output transformation 62 (part of the circuit array for the output transformation of quantities) is activated by the key "=S", and transcribes the autoscribtive unit of the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit in a homoscribtive unit. This fills the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit, simultaneously the numeric value of the numeric value accumulator 24 is corrected, and the content of the numeric value accumulator 24, as well as the content of the register 5 for a homoscribtive unit, are displayed as homoscribtive unit in the input/output field 55.

When two autoscribtive quantities are stringed together ("+, -, *, :"), the calculating unit processes the contents of the numeric value register 3 and of the numeric value accumulator 24 to a new content of the numeric value accumulator 24, and the contents of the register 8 for an autoscribtive unit and of the accumulator 25 for an autoscribtive unit to a new content of the autoscribtive unit accumulator 25.

The control and clock unit 63 controls the connecting lines between the individual assemblies in dependence on the actuated input key. Additionally, this embodiment contains "i" quantity registers 64, for the intermediate storage of autoscribtive units, which can be accepted from the accumulators 24, 25 or stored back into them.

The following calculating examples are intended for the demonstration of the functional principles (abbreviations are made according to table 1 and table 2):

______________________________________Handlingof a non-programmable pocket calculatorwith automated processing of quantitiesExamples______________________________________Example 1:3.2 YD + 11.6 M = aYD : yardM : meterstep  input               display______________________________________  ##STR1##                 02.               3.2    YD      3.2   YD  ##STR2##                 3.2   YD4.               11.6   M       11.6  M  ##STR3##                 14.35 M = a______________________________________Example 2:44.2 MIN + 1.53 HR = bb is to be put out in `HR`MIN : minuteHR : hourstep  input               display______________________________________  ##STR4##                 02.               1      HR      1     HR  ##STR5##                 1     HR4.               44.2   MIN     44.2  MIN  ##STR6##                 44.2  MIN6.               1.53   HR      1.53  HR  ##STR7##                 2.67  HR = b______________________________________Example 3:20 KW + 23 HPW = cc is to be put out in `HPW`KW : kilowattHPW : horse powerstep  input               display______________________________________  ##STR8##                 02.               1      HPW     1     HPW  ##STR9##                 1     HPW4.               20     KW      20    KW  ##STR10##                20    KW6.               23     HPW     23    HPW  ##STR11##                50.19 HPW = c______________________________________Example 4:15 V : 3 MA = dV : voltMA : milliamperestep  input               display______________________________________  ##STR12##                02.               15     V       15    V  ##STR13##                15    V4.               3      MA      3     MA  ##STR14##                5     KOHM = dKOHM : kiloohm______________________________________Example 5:11.6 M2 * 0.85 INCH = ee is to be put out in `L`M2 : square inchINCH : inchL : literstep  input               display______________________________________  ##STR15##                02.               1      L       1     L  ##STR16##                1     L4.               11.6   M2      11.6  M2  ##STR17##                11.6  M26.               0.85   INCH    0.85  INCH  ##STR18##                250.44                                 L = e______________________________________Example 6:3 M : 120 MS = ff is to be put out in `MI/HR`M : meterMS : millisecondMI : mile (statute) HR : hourstep  input               display______________________________________                           0  ##STR19##        02.               3      M       3     M  ##STR20##                3     M4.               120    MS      120   MS  ##STR21##                25    M/S6.               1      MI/HR   1     MI/HR  ##STR22##                1     MI/HR  ##STR23##                55.923                                 MI/HR = f______________________________________

              TABLE 1______________________________________Set of elementary unitsfor the representation of quantitiesin natural science, engineering, industry and economy(including Anglo-American units)  abbreviation ofconsecu-  the elementary              name of the elementarytive no.  unit        unit______________________________________1      A           ampere2      ACRE        acre3      ANG         angstrom4      ANN         year (calendar)5      APSB        apostilb6      ARE         are7      ATM         atmosphere (normal)8      ATT         technical atmosphere9      AUT         astronomical unit10     B           bel11     BA          barye12     BADR        barrel, dry13     BAPE        barrel (petroleum)14     BAR         bar15     BARN        barn16     BD          baud17     BIT         bit18     BQ          becquerel19     BU          bushel20     BYTE        byte21     C           coulomb22     CAL         calorie (International Table)23     CD          candela24     CEL         degree Celsius25     CHAL        chaldron26     CHN         chain27     CI          curie28     DEG         degree (angle)29     DI          day (mean solar, lat.: dies)30     DOL         $ (US-dollar)31     DPT         dioptrie32     DR          dram33     DRAP        dram, apothecaries (drachm)34     DRFL        drachm, fluid35     DYN         dyne36     ERG         erg37     EV          electron volt38     F           farad39     FATH        fathom40     FOOT        foot41     FUR         furlong42     G           gram43     GAL         gal (galileo)44     GALL        gallon45     GAUS        gauss46     GIL         gilbert47     GILL        gill48     GON         grad49     GR          grain50     GRF         grain-force51     GY          gray52     H           henry53     HHD         hogshead54     HAND        hand55     HAR         hectare56     HPW         horse-power (metric)57     HR          hour (mean solar)58     HZ          hertz59     INMI        international nautical mile60     INCH        inch61     j           joule62     K           kelvin63     KAR         carat64     KG          kilogram65     KNT         knot66     L           liter67     LB          pound68     LBF         pound-force69     LBTR        pound, troy70     LGY         langley71     LINE        line72     LINK        link73     LM          lumen74     LX          lux75     LY          light year76     M           meter77     MEN         month (mean calendar,lat.: mensis)78     MHG         meter of mercury79     MI          mile (statute)80     MIL         mil81     MIM         minim82     MIN         minute (mean solar)83     MNT         minute (angle)84     MOL         mole85     MR          mark86     MWS         meter of water87     MX          maxwell88     MYM         micron89     N           newton90     NEP         neper91     NIT         nit92     NAMI        nautical mile93     OER         oerstedt94     OHM         ohm95     OZ          ounce96     OZFL        ounce, fluid97     OZLI        ounce, liquid98     OZTR        ounce, troy99     OZTR        ounce, apothecary100    P           pond101    PAR         parsec102    PAS         pascal103    PDL         poundal104    PECK        peck105    PERS        person106    PFS         horse-power (metric)107    PHON        phon108    PINT        pint109    POI         poise110    PPM         part per million111    PRM         per mille112    PTDR        pint, dry113    PTLI        pint, liquid114    PWT         pennyweight115    PZ          per cent116    QR          quarter (length)117    QT          quart118    QTDR        quart, dry119    QTLI        quart, liquid120    QTR         quarter (mass)121    QTRL        quarter, liquid (volume)122    RAD         radian123    RD          rad124    REV         revolutions125    ROD         rod (perch, pole)126    ROE         roentgen127    ROOD        rood128    RT          register ton129    S           second (time)130    SAP         scruple131    SB          stilb132    SEP         week (lat.: septimana)133    SEC         second (angle)134    SFL         scruple, fluid135    SIE         siemens136    SLUG        slug137    SM          nautical mile ("Seemeile")138    SR          steradian139    ST          piece140    STON        stone141    STO         stokes142    T           tesla143    TEX         tex144    TNE         ton (metric)145    TNSH        ton, short146    TON         ton147    TONF        ton-force148    TORR        torr149    U           atomic mass unit150    UNA         1-unit151    USSF        US Survey foot152    V           volt153    VAR         var154    W           watt155    WB          weber156    XE          x-unit157    YD          yard______________________________________

              TABLE 2______________________________________Set of prefixesfor the representation of quantities in naturalscience, engineering, industry and economy______________________________________consecu-                         numerictive no. abbreviation   name     value______________________________________1. Physical-technical prefixes1        A              atto     10-182        F              femto    10-153        P              pico     10-124        N              nano     10-95        MY             micro    10-66        M              milli    10-37        C              centi    10-28        D              deci     10-19        DA             deca     10110       H              hecto    10211       K              kilo     10312       MA             mega     10613       G              giga     10914       TA             tera     101215       PE             peta     101516       EX             exa      10182. Commercial prefixes17       H              hundred  10218       T              thousand 10319       MIO            million  10620       MRD            milliard 10921       BIO            billion  101222       BRD            billiard 101523       TRO            trillion 101824       TRD            trilliard                            1021______________________________________

              TABLE 3a______________________________________Set of elementary unitsSelected amount for the representationof physical-technical quantities    abbreviation ofconsecu- the elementary                 name of the elementarytive no. unit         unit______________________________________1        A            ampere2        ANG          angstrom3        ANN          year4        ATM          atmosphere (normal)5        ATT          technical atmosphere6        AUT          astronomical unit7        BAR          bar8        BARN         barn9        BQ           becquerel10       C            coulomb11       CAL          calorie (International Table)12       CD           candela13       CI           curie14       DEG          degree (angle)15       DI           day (mean solar)16       DYN          dyne17       ERG          erg18       EV           electron volt19       F            farad20       G            gram21       GAL          gal (galileo)22       GON          grad23       H            henry24       HR           hour (mean solar)25       HZ           hertz26       INCH         inch27       J            joule28       K            kelvin29       KAR          carat30       KG           kilogram31       KNT          knot32       L            liter33       LGY          langley34       LM           lumen35       LX           lux36       LY           light year37       M            meter38       MIN          minute (mean solar)39       MNT          minute (angle)40       MOL          mole41       MWS          meter of water42       N            newton43       OHM          ohm44       P            pond45       PAR          parsec46       PAS          pascal47       PFS          horse-power (metric)48       POI          poise49       PRM          per mille50       PZ           per cent51       RAD          radian52       RD           rad53       ROE          roentgen54       S            second (time)55       SEC          second (angle)56       SEP          week (lat.: septimana)57       SIE          siemens58       SM           nautical mile ("Seemeile")59       SR           steradian60       STO          stokes61       T            tesla62       TEX          tex63       TNE          ton (metric)64       TORR         torr65       U            atomic mass unit66       UNA          1-Einheit67       V            volt68       W            watt69       WB           weber70       XE           x-unit______________________________________

              TABLE 3b______________________________________Set of elementary unitsselected amount for the representationof physical-technical quantitiesand anglo-american units   abbreviation ofconsecu-   the elementary                name of the elementarytive no.   unit         unit______________________________________1       A            ampere2       ACRE         acre3       ANG          angstrom4       ANN          year5       ARE          are6       ATM          atmosphere (normal)7       ATT          technical atmosphere8       AUT          astronomical unit9       BAR          bar10      BARN         barn11      BBL          barrel12      BQ           becquerel13      BTU          british thermal unit14      BU           bushel15      C            coulomb16      CAL          calorie (International Table)17      CD           candela18      CI           curie19      CRAN         cran20      CWT          hundredweight21      DEG          degree (angle)22      DI           day (mean solar)23      DRAM         dram24      DYN          dyne25      ERG          erg26      EV           electron volt27      F            farad28      FATH         fathom29      FOOT         foot30      G            gram31      GAL          gal (galileo)32      GALL         gallon33      GILL         gill34      GON          grad35      GR           grain36      GY           gray37      H            henry38      HAND         hand39      HAR          hectare40      HPW          horse-power (metric)41      HR           hour (mean solar)42      HZ           hertz43      INCH         inch44      J            joule45      K            kelvin46      KAR          carat47      KG           kilogram48      KNT          knot49      L            liter50      LB           pound51      LBF          pound-force52      LGY          langley53      LM           lumen54      LX           lux55      LY           light year56      M            meter57      MEN          month (mean calender)58      MHG          meter of mercury59      MI           mile60      MIN          minute (mean solar)61      MNT          minute (angle)62      MWS          meter of water63      N            newton64      NTMI         nautical mile65      OHM          ohm66      OZ           ounce67      OZFL         ounce, fluid68      OZTR         ounce, troy69      P            pond70      PA           pascal71      PAR          parsec72      PDL          poundal73      PECK         peck74      PINT         pint75      POI          poise76      PPM          part per million77      PRM          per mille78      PWT          pennyweight79      PZ           percent80      QR           quarter (length)81      QT           quart82      RAD          radian83      RD           rad84      REM          rem85      ROE          roentgen86      ROOD         rood87      S            second (time)88      SEC          second (angle)89      SEP          week90      SIE          siemens91      SLUG         slug92      SR           steradian93      STO          stokes94      STON         stone95      T            tesla96      TEX          tex97      TNE          ton (metric)98      TON          ton99      TONF         ton-force100     TORR         torr101     U            atomic mass unit102     UN           una (1-unit)103     V            volt104     W            watt105     WB           weber106     XE           x-unit107     YD           yard______________________________________

              TABLE 4______________________________________Base unitsfor the set of elementary unitsaccording to table 1consecu-     abbreviation of                       name of thetive no.     the base unit  base unit______________________________________1            M              meter2            S              second3            A              ampere4            KG             kilogram5            K              kelvin6            CD             candela7            RAD            radian8            SR             steradian9            BIT            bit10           ST             piece11           MR             mark12           MOL            mole13           PERS           person______________________________________

              TABLE 5______________________________________Base unitsfor the set of elementary unitsaccording to table 3consecu-     abbreviation of                       name of thetive no.     the base unit  base unit______________________________________1            M              meter2            S              second3            A              ampere4            KG             kilogram5            K              kelvin6            CD             candela7            MOL            mole8            SR             steradian9            RAD            radian______________________________________

              TABLE 6______________________________________Representationof the elementary units according to table 3as exponential product from base units              representation of theconsecu-  abbreviation of              elementary unit as quantitytive no.  the elem. unit              with base units______________________________________1      A           (base unit)2      ANG         1 ANG = 1 . 10-10 M3      ANN         1 ANN = 3.1536 . 107 S4      ATM         1 ATM = 1.01325 . 105 KG/M . S25      ATT         1 ATT = 0.980665 . 105 KG/M . S26      AUT         1 AUT = 1.49598 . 1011 M7      BAR         1 BAR = 1 . 105 KG/M . S28      BARN        1 BARN = 1 . 10-28 M29      BQ          1 BQ = 1 S - 110     C           1 C = 1 A . S11     CAL         1 CAL = 4.1868 M2 . KG/S212     CD          (base unit)13     CI          1 CI = 3.7 . 1010 S - 114     DEG         1 DEG = 1.745392 . 10-2 RAD15     DI          1 DI = 8.64 . 104 S16     DYN         1 DYN = 1 . 10-5 M . KG/S217     ERG         1 ERG = 1 . 10-7 M2 . KG/S218     EV          1 EV = 1.60210 . 10-19 M2 . KG/S219     F           1 F = 1 S4 . A2/M2 . KG20     G           1 G = 1 . 10-3 KG21     GAL         1 GAL = 1 . 10-2 M/S222     GON         1 GON = 1.5708 . 10-2 RAD23     H           1 H = 1 M2 . KG/S2 . A224     HR          1 HR = 3.6 . 103 S25     HZ          1 HZ = 1 S - 126     INCH        1 INCH = 2.54 . 10-2 M27     J           1 J = 1 M2 . KG/S228     K           (base unit)29     KAR         1 KAR = 2 . 10-4 KG30     KG          (base unit)31     KNT         1 KNT = 5.14444 . 10-1 M/S32     L           1 L = 1 . 10-3 M333     LGY         1 LGY = 4.1868 . 104 KG/S234     LM          1 LM = 1 CD . SR35     LX          1 LX = 1 CD . SR/M236     LY          1 LY = 9.46055 . 1015 M37     M           (base unit)38     MIN         1 MIN = 60 S39     MNT         1 MNT = 2.908882 . 10-4 RAD40     MOL         (base unit)41     MWS         1 MWS = 9.80665 . 103 KG/M . S242     N           1 N = 1 M2 . KG/S243     OHM         1 OHM = 1 M2 . KG/S3 . A244     P           P = 9.80665 . 10-3 KG . M/S245     PAR         1 PAR = 3.0857 . 1016 M46     PAS         1 PAS = 1 PAS = KG/M . S247     PFS         1 PFS = 735 . 499 W48     POI         1 POI = 1 . 10-1 KG/M . S49     PRM         1 PRM = 1 . 10- 350     PZ          1 PZ = 1 . 10-251     RAD         (base unit)52     RD          1 RD = 1 . 10-2 M2/S253     ROE         1 ROE = 2.57976 . 10-4 S . A/KG54     S           (base unit)55     SEC         1 SEC = 4.848137 . 10-6 RAD56     SEP         1 SEP = 6.048 . 105 S57     SIE         1 SIE = 1 S3 . A2/M2 . KG58     SM          1 SM = 1852 M59     SR          (base unit)60     STO         1 STO = 1 . 10-4 M2/S61     T           1 T = 1 KG/S2 . A62     TEX         1 TEX = 1 . 10-6 KG/M63     TNE         1 TNE = 1 . 103 KG64     TORR        1 TORR = 1.33322 . 102 KG/M . S265     U           1 U = 1.66053 . 10-27 KG66     UNA         1 UNA = 167     V           1 V = 1 M2 . KG/S3 . A68     W           1 W = 1 M2 . KG/S369     WB          1 WB = 1 M2 . KG/S2 . A70     XE          1 XE = 1 . 10-13 M______________________________________

              TABLE 7______________________________________Read-only memory for elementary unitsordinalnumber     address   contents     remark______________________________________0          00000000 00                11111111     --      00000000 01                00000000      00000000 10                00000000      00000000 11                000000001          00000001 00                11111111     --      00000001 01                00000000      00000001 10                00000000      00000001 11                000000002          00000010 00                00000010     A      00000010 01                11000000      00000010 10                00000011      00000010 11                100000003          00000011 00                00000011     T      00000011 01                11000000      00000011 10                00000100      00000011 11                000011014          00000100 00                00000100     N      00000100 01                11000000      00000100 10                00010011      00000100 11                000010115          00000101 00                11111111     --      00000101 01                00000000      00000101 10                00000000      00000101 11                000000006          00000110 00                00000110     L      00000110 01                10111100      00000110 10                00010110      00000110 11                100000007          00000111 00                11111111     --      00000111 01                00000000      00000111 10                00000000      00000111 11                000000008          00001000 00                01111010     ATT      00001000 01                00110110      00001000 10                00000100      00001000 11                000011009          00001001 00                11111111     --      00001001 01                00000000      00001001 10                00000000      00001001 11                0000000010         00001010 00                10000010     ANN      00001010 01                00111011      00001010 10                00000001      00001010 11                1000000011         00001011 00                00001110     LX      00001011 01                11000000      00001011 10                00010111      00001011 11                0001010012         00001100 00                00101010     ARE      00001100 01                10000010      00001100 10                00010100      00001100 11                1000000013         00001101 00                00110011     TORR      00001101 01                00101011      00001101 10                00000100      00001101 11                0000110014         00001110 00                00001101     XE      00001110 01                00001011      00001110 10                00000010      00001110 11                1000000015         00001111 00                10010011     TON      00001111 01                00101101      00001111 10                00000100      00001111 11                1000000016         00010000 00                00100011     TNE      00010000 01                10000011      00010000 10                00000100      00010000 11                1000000017         00010001 00                10101011     TEX      00010001 01                10111001      00010001 10                00000100      00010001 11                0000001018         00010010 00                00100001     ROE      00010010 01                00001111      00010010 10                00001010      00010010 11                0000010019         00010011 00                00000011     G      00010011 01                10111100      00010011 10                00000100      00010011 11                1000000020         00010100 00                00001011     GR      00010100 01                00001101      00010100 10                00000100      00010100 11                1000000021         00010101 00                11111111     --      00010101 01                00000000      00010101 10                00000000      00010101 11                0000000022         00010110 00                11111111     --      00010110 01                00000000      00010110 10                00000000      00010110 11                0000000023         00010111 00                00000111     H      00010111 01                11000000      00010111 10                00010101      00010111 11                0000111024         00011000 00                00001111     HR      00011000 01                00110000      00011000 10                00000001      00011000 11                1000000025         0011001 00                01100010     ANG      00011001 01                10110101      00011001 10                00000010      00011001 11                1000000026         00011010 00                00110111     HAR      00011010 01                10000100      00011010 10                00010100      00011010 11                1000000027         00011011 00                11010011     GAL      00011011 01                10111101      00011011 10                00000010      00011011 11                0000101128         00011100 00                11111111     --      00011100 01                00000000      00011100 10                00000000      00011100 11                0000000029         00011101 00                01101001     ERG      00011101 01                10111000      00011101 10                00010101      00011101 11                0000101130         00011110 00                00000110     M      00011110 01                11000000      00011110 10                00000010      00011110 11                1000000031         00011111 00                10000011     GON      00011111 01                00011010      00011111 10                00001000      00011111 11                1000000032         00100000 00                11111111     --      00100000 01                00000000      00100000 10                00000000      00100000 11                0000000033         00100001 00                11010011     GALL      00100001 01                00000100      00100001 10                00010110      00100001 11                1000000034         00100010 00                11111111     --      00100010 01                00000000      00100010 10                00000000      00100010 11                0000000035         00100011 00                11011010     ATM      00100011 01                00110111      00100011 10                00000100      00100011 11                0000110036         00100100 00                00010110     LM      00100100 01                11000000      00100100 10                00010111      00100100 11                1000000037         00100101 00                01100110     MNT      00100101 01                00001110      00100101 10                00001000      00100101 11                1000000038         00100110 00                00000110     K      00100110 01                11000000      00100110 10                00000101      00100110 11                1000000039         00100111 00                00000111     J      00100111 01                11000000      00100111 10                00010101      00100111 11                0000101140         00101000 00                01101001     REM      00101000 01                10111101      00101000 10                00010100      00101000 11                0000101141         00101001 00                00110110     KAR      00101001 01                00010000      00101001 10                00000100      00101001 11                1000000042         00101010 00                11111111     --      00101010 01                00000000      00101010 10                00000000      00101010 11                0000000043         00101011 00                10001110     MEN      00101011 01                00111010      00101011 10                00000001      00101011 11                1000000044         00101100 00                11111111     --      00101100 01                00000000      00101100 10                00000000      00101100 11                0000000045         00101101 00                01100110     KNT      00101101 01                00011100      00101101 10                00000010      00101101 11                0000000146         00101110 00                11111111     --      00101110 01                00000000      00101110 10                00000000      00101110 11                0000000047         00101111 00                00000011     S      00101111 01                11000000      00101111 10                00000001      00101111 11                1000000048         00110000 00                00001011     SR      00110000 01                11000000      00110000 10                00000111      00110000 11                1000000049         00110001 00                00000001     F      00110001 01                11000000      00110001 10                00010010      00110001 11                0001010150         00110010 00                00000010     P      00110010 01                00010001      00110010 10                00010011      00110010 11                0000101151         00110011 00                00110000     BAR      00110011 01                10000101      00110011 10                00000100      00110011 11                0000110052         00110100 00                00010010     PA      00110100 01                11000000      00110100 10                00000100      00110100 11                0000110053         00110101 00                00110010     PAR      00110101 01                00111111      00110101 10                00000010      00110101 11                1000000054         00110110 00                00000110     LB      00110110 01                00011101      00110110 10                00000100      00110110 11                1000000055         00110111 00                00110000     BARN      00110111 01                10100011      00110111 10                00010100      00110111 11                1000000056         00111000 00                11111111     --      00111000 01                00000000      00111000 10                00000000      00111000 11                0000000057         00111001 00                00011110     KG      00111001 01                11000000      00111001 10                00000100      00111001 11                1000000058         00111010 00                00011111     STO      00111010 01                10111011      00111010 10                00010100      00111010 11                0000000159         00111011 00                00000011     C      00111011 01                11000000      00111011 10                00001010      00111011 11                1000000060         00111100 00                11111111     --      00111100 01                00000000      00111100 10                00000000      00111100 11                0000000061         00111101 00                11011000     OHM      00111101 01                11000000      00111101 10                00010101      00111101 11                0001000162         00111110 00                00011111     STON      00111110 01                00100110      00111110 10                00000100      00111110 11                1000000063         00111111 00                00010001     RD      00111111 01                11000000      00111111 10                00010100      00111111 11                0000101164         01000000 00                10000011     TONF      01000000 01                00110011      01000000 10                00010011      01000000 11                0000101165         01000001 00                11010001     RAD      01000001 01                11000000      01000001 10                00001000      01000001 11                1000000066         01000010 00                01001011     CRAN      01000010 01                00011111      01000010 10                00010110      01000010 11                1000000067         01000011 00                11010011     CAL      01000011 01                00100100      01000011 10                00010101      01000011 11                0000101168         01000100 00                00000001     FOOT      01000100 01                00011110      01000100 10                00000010      01000100 11                1000000069         01000101 00                11111111     --      01000101 01                00000000      01000101 10                00000000      01000101 11                0000000070         01000110 00                11111111     --      01000110 01                00000000      01000110 10                00000000      01000110 11                0000000071         01000111 00                00111010     ACRE      01000111 01                00110001      01000111 10                00010100      01000111 11                1000000072         01001000 00                01111110     MHG      01001000 01                00111000      01001000 10                00000100      01001000 11                0000110073         01001001 00                11111111     --      01001001 01                00000000      01001001 10                00000000      01001001 11                0000000074         01001010 00                00000010     W      01001010 01                11000000      01001010 10                00010101      01001010 11                0000111175         01001011 00                00001110     LY      01001011 01                00111110      01001011 10                00000001      01001011 11                1000000076         01001100 00                00000000     V      01001100 01                11000000      01001100 10                00010101      01001100 11                0001000077         01001101 00                01110001     FATH      01001101 01                00100011      01001101 10                00000010      01001101 11                1000000078         01001110 00                11111111     --      01001110 01                00000000      01001110 10                00000000      01001110 11                0000000079         01001111 00                00000001     ROOD      01001111 01                00101100      01001111 01                00010100      01001111 11                1000000080         01010000 00                11111111     --      01010000 01                00000000      01010000 10                00000000      01010000 11                0000000081         01010001 00                11001010     PRM      01010001 01                10111000      01010001 10                10000000      01010001 11                1000000082         01010010 00                00000110     MI      01010010 01                00101111      01010010 10                00000010      01010010 11                1000000083         01010011 01                01100011     GILL      01010011 01                00010101      01010011 10                00010110      01010011 11                1000000084         01010100 00                11111111     --      01010100 01                00000000      01010100 10                00000000      01010100 11                0000000085         01010101 00                00000001     EV      01010101 01                00001010      01010101 10                00010101      01010101 11                0000101186         01010110 00                10000110     MIN      01010110 01                00101010      01010110 10                00000001      01010110 11                1000000087         01010111 00                11111111     --      01010111 01                00000000      01010111 10                00000000      01010111 11                0000000088         01011000 00                00001011     GY      01011000 01                11000000      01011000 10                00010100      01011000 11                0000101189         01011001 00                11011100     NTMI      01011001 01                00000111      01011001 10                00000010      01011001 11                1000000090         01011010 00                01101110     DEG      01011010 01                00011001      01011010 10                00001000      01011010 11                1000000091         01011011 00                10010111     HAND      01011011 01                00100010      01011011 10                00000010      01011011 11                1000000092         01011100 00                00000100     U      01011100 01                00001001      01011100 10                00000100      01011100 11                1000000093         01011101 00                11111111     --      01011101 01                00000000      01011101 10                00000000      01011101 11                0000000094         01011110 00                10111110     LGY      01011110 01                00110100      01011110 10                00000100      01011110 11                0000101195         01011111 00                00101110     DRAM      01011111 01                00010100      01011111 10                00000100      01011111 11                1000000096         01100000 00                00000100     UN      01100000 01                11000000      01100000 10                10000000      01100000 11                1000000097         01100001 00                01100010     AUT      01100001 01                00111101      01100001 10                00000010      01100001 11                1000000098         01100010 00                11111111     --      01100010 01                00000000      01100010 10                00000000      01100010 11                0000000099         01100011 00                00001010     QR      01100011 01                00100111      01100011 10                00000100      01100011 11                10000000100        01100100 00                11111111     --      01100100 01                00000000      01100100 10                00000000      01100100 11                00000000101        01100101 00                00011010     QT      01100101 01                00000011      01100101 10                00010110      01100101 11                10000000102        01100110 00                11000000     BBL      01100110 01                00100000      01100110 10                00010110      01100110 11                10000000103        01100111 00                00100110     LBF      01100111 01                00100101      01100111 10                00010011      01100111 11                00001011104        01101000 00                11111111     --      01101000 01                00000000      01101000 10                00000000      01101000 11                00000000105        01101001 00                11111111     --      01101001 01                00000000      01101001 10                00000000      01101001 11                00000000106        01101010 00                01001111     SEP      01101010 01                00111001      01101010 10                00000001      01101010 11                10000000107        01101011 00                11111111     --      01101011 01                00000000      01101011 10                00000000      01101011 11                00000000108        01101100 00                00100111     SIE      01101100 01                11000000      01101100 10                00010001      01101100 11                00010101109        01101101 00                10000010     PINT      01101101 01                00000010      01101101 10                10010110      01101101 11                10000000110        01101110 00                10000010     POI      01101110 01                10111110      01101110 10                00000100      01101110 11                00001001111        01101111 00                00000011     CI      01101111 01                00111100      01101111 10                80000000      01101111 11                00000001112        01110000 00                11111111     --      01110000 01                00000000      01110000 10                00000000      01110000 11                00000000113        01110001 00                00001000     OZ      01110001 01                00010111      01110001 10                00000100      01110001 11                10000000114        01110010 00                00000110     DI      01110010 01                00110101      01110010 10                00000001      01110010 11                10000000115        01110011 00                01101111     SEC      01110011 01                00001100      01110011 10                00000001      01110011 11                10000000116        01110100 00                11111111     --      01110100 01                00000000      01110100 10                00000000      01110100 11                00000000117        01110101 00                01101000     OZTR      01110101 01                00010110      01110101 10                00000100      01110101 11                10000000118        01110110 00                11010010     PDL      01110110 01                00100001      01110110 10                00010011      01110110 11                00001011119        01110111 00                11111111     --      01110111 01                00000000      01110111 10                00000000      01110111 11                00000000120        01111000 00                11111111     --      01111000 01                00000000      01111000 10                00000000      01111000 11                00000000121        01111001 00                00010011     CD      01111001 01                11000000      01111001 10                00000110      01111001 11                10000000122        01111010 00                00000010     WB      01111010 01                11000000      01111010 10                00010101      01111010 11                00001101123        01111011 00                11111111     --      01111011 01                00000000      01111011 10                00000000      01111011 11                00000000124        01111100 00                11111111     --      01111100 01                00000000      01111100 10                00000000      01111100 11                00000000125        01111101 00                11111111     --      01111101 01                00000000      01111101 10                00000000      01111101 11                00000000126        01111110 00                11111111     --      01111110 01                00000000      01111110 10                00000000      01111110 11                00000000127        01111111 00                01110010     PWT      01111111 01                00010011      01111111 10                00000010      01111111 11                10000000128        10000000 00                00001111     HZ      10000000 01                11000000      10000000 10                10000000      10000000 11                00000001129        10000001 00                11111111     --      10000001 01                00000000      10000001 10                00000000      10000001 11                00000000130        10000010 00                11010010     PPM      10000010 01                10111001      10000010 10                10000000      10000010 11                10000000131        10000011 00                00010101     YD      10000011 01                00011011      10000011 10                00000010      10000011 11                10000000132        10000100 00                11111111     --      10000100 01                00000000      10000100 10                00000000      10000100 11                00000000133        10000101 00                11111111     --      10000101 01                00000000      10000101 10                00000000      10000101 11                00000000134        10000110 00                11111111     --      10000110 01                00000000      10000110 10                00000000      10000110 11                00000000135        10000111 00                10001110     DYN      10000111 01                10111010      10000111 10                00010011      10000111 11                00001011136        10001000 00                01110011     CWT      10001000 01                00101001      10001000 10                00000100      10001000 11                10000000137        10001001 00                11111111     --      10001001 01                00000000      10001001 10                00000000      10001001 11                00000000138        10001010 00                01100100     INCH      10001010 01                00011000      10001010 11                10000000139        10001011 00                11111111     --      10001011 01                00000000      10001011 11                00000000140        10001100 00                00000000     BU      10001100 01                00000101      10001100 10                00010110      10001100 11                10000000141        10001101 00                11111111     --      10001101 01                00000000      10001101 10                00000000      10001101 11                00000000142        10001110 00                11111111     --      10001110 01                00000000      10001110 10                00000000      10001110 11                00000000143        10001111 00                10011000     BTU      10001111 01                00101110      10001111 10                00010101      10001111 11                00001011144        10010000 00                11111111     --      10010000 01                00000000      10010000 10                00000000      10010000 11                00000000145        10010001 00                11111111     --      10010001 01                00000000      10010001 10                00000000      10010001 11                00000000146        10010010 00                00010000     BQ      10010010 01                11000000      10010010 10                10000000      10010010 11                00000001147        10010011 00                01010111     HPW      10010011 01                00000110      10010011 10                00010100      10010011 11                00001101148        10010100 00                11111111     --      10010100 01                00000000      10010100 10                00000000      10010100 11                00000000149        10010101 00                11111111     --      10010101 01                00000000      10010101 10                00000000      10010101 11                00000000150        10010110 00                11111111     --      10010110 01                00000000      10010110 10                00000000      10010110 11                00000000151        10010111 00                11110110     MWS      10010111 01                00110010      10010111 10                00000100      10010111 11                00001100152        10011000 00                111111111    --      10011000 01                00000000      10011000 10                00000000      10011000 11                00000000153        10011001 00                11111111     --      10011001 01                00000000      10011001 10                00000000      10011001 11                00000000154        10011010 00                11111111     --      10011010 01                00000000      10011010 10                00000000      10011010 11                00000000155        10011011 00                00001010     PZ      10011011 01                10111101      10011011 10                10000000      10011011 11                10000000156        10011100 00                01101010     PECK      10011100 01                00010010      10011100 10                00010110      10011100 11                10000000157        10011101 00                11111111     --      10011101 01                00000000      10011101 10                00000000      10011101 11                00000000158        10011110 00                11111111     --      10011110 01                00000000      10011110 11                00000000159        10011111 00                11111111     --      10011111 01                00000000      10011111 10                00000000      10011111 11                00000000160        10100000 00                11111111     --      10100000 01                00000000      10100000 10                00000000      10100000 11                00000000161        10100001 00                11111111     --      10100001 01                00000000      10100001 10                00000000      10100001 11                00000000162        10100010 00                11111111     --      10100010 01                00000000      10100010 10                00000000      10100010 11                00000000163        10100011 00                11111111     --      10100011 01                00000000      10100011 11                00000000164        10100100 00                10010111     SLUG      10100100 01                00101000      10100100 10                00000100      10100100 11                10000000165        10100101 00                11111111     --      10100101 01                00000000      10100101 10                00000000      10100101 11                00000000166        10100110 00                11111111     --      10100110 01                00000000      10100110 10                00000000      10100110 11                00000000167        10100111 00                11111111     --      10100111 01                00000000      10100111 10                00000000      10100111 11                00000000168        10101000 00                00101000     OZFL      10101000 01                00000001      10101000 10                00010110      10101000 11                10000000______________________________________

              TABLE 8______________________________________Read-only memory for prefixesordinalnumber   address      contents     remark______________________________________0        0000000 0    11111111     --    0000000 1    000000001        0000001 0    11111111     --    0000001 1    000000002        0000010 0    00000010     A    0000010 1    101011013        0000011 0    11111111     --    0000011 1    000000004        0000100 0    00000100     N    0000100 1    101101105        0000101 0    00010011     TA    0000101 1    100011006        0000110 0    11111111     --    0000110 1    000000007        0000111 0    11111111     --    0000111 1    000000008        0001000 0    11111111     --    0001000 1    000000009        0001001 0    11111111     --    0001001 1    0000000010       0001010 0    11111111     --    0001010 1    0000000011       0001011 1    11111111     --    0001011 1    0000000012       0001100 0    11111111     --    0001100 1    0000000013       0001101 0    11111111     --    0001101 1    0000000014       0001110 0    00001001     EX    0001110 1    1001001015       0001111 0    11111111     --    0001111 1    0000000016       0010000 0    11111111     --    0010000 1    0000000017       0010001 0    11111111     --    0010001 1    0000000018       0010010 0    11111111     --    0010010 1    0000000019       0010011 0    00000011     G    0010011 1    1000100120       0010100 0    11111111     --    0010100 1    0000000021       0010101 0    11111111     --    0010101 1    0000000022       0010110 0    11111111     --    0010110 1    0000000023       0010111 0    00000111     H    0010111 1    1000001024       0011000 0    11111111     --    0011000 1    0000000025       0011001 0    11111111     --    0011001 1    0000000026       0011010 0    11111111     --    0011010 1    0000000027       0011011 0    11111111     --    0011011 1    0000000028       0011100 0    11111111     --    0011100 1    0000000029       0011101 0    11111111     --    0011101 1    0000000030       0011110 0    00000110     M    0011110 1    1011110031       0011111 1    11111111     --    0011111 1    0000000032       0100000 0    00010110     MA    0100000 1    1000011033       0100001 0    11111111     --    0100001 1    0000000034       0100010 0    11111111     --    0100010 1    0000000035       0100011 0    11111111     --    0100011 1    0000000036       0100100 0    11111111     --    0100101 1    0000000037       0100101 0    11111111     --    0100101 1    0000000038       0100110 0    00000110     K    0100110 1    0100001139       0100111 0    11111111     --    0100111 1    0000000040       0101000 0    11111111     --    0101000 1    0000000041       0101001 0    11111111     --    0101001 1    0000000042       0101010 0    11111111     --    0101010 1    0000000043       0101011 0    11111111     --    0101011 1    0000000044       0101100 0    11111111     --    0101100 1    0000000045       0101101 0    11111111     --    0101101 1    0000000046       0101110 0    11111111     --    0101110 1    0000000047       0101111 0    11111111     --    0101111 1    0000000048       0110000 0    11111111     --    0110000 1    0000000049       0110001 0    00000001     F    0110001 1    1011000050       0110010 0    11111111     --    0110010 1    0000000051       0110011 0    11111111     --    0110011 1    0000000052       0110100 0    11111111     --    0110100 1    0000000053       0110101 0    00011010     PT    0110101 1    1000111154       0110110 0    11111111     --    0110110 1    0000000055       0110111 0    11111111     --    0110111 1    0000000056       0111000 0    11111111     --    0111000 1    0000000057       0111001 0    11111111     --    0111001 1    0000000058       0111010 0    11111111     --    0111010 1    0000000059       0111011 0    00000011     C    0111011 1    1011110160       0111100 0    11111111     --    0111100 1    0000000061       0111101 0    11111111     --    0111101 1    0000000062       0111110 0    00000110     D    0111110 1    1011111063       0111111 0    11111111    0111111 1    0000000064       1000000 0    00010110     DA    1000000 1    1000000165       1000001 0    11111111     --    1000001 1    0000000066       1000010 0    11111111     --    1000010 1    0000000067       1000011 0    11111111     --    1000011 1    0000000068       1000100 0    11111111     --    1000100 1    0000000069       1000101 0    11111111     --    1000101 1    0000000070       1000110 0    11111111     --    1000110 1    0000000071       1000111 0    11111111     --    1000111 1    0000000072       1001000 0    11111111     --    1001000 1    0000000073       1001001 0    11111111     --    1001001 1    0000000074       1001010 0    11111111     --    1001010 1    0000000075       1001011 0    11111111     --    1001011 1    0000000076       1001100 0    11111111     --    1001100 1    0000000077       1001101 0    11111111     --    1001101 1    0000000078       1001110 0    11111111     --    1001110 0    0000000079       1001111 0    11111111     --    1001111 1    0000000080       1010000 0    11111111     --    1010000 1    0000000081       1010001 0    11111111     --    1010001 1    0000000082       1010010 0    11111111     --    1010010 1    0000000083       1010011 0    11111111     --    1010011 1    0000000084       1010100 0    11111111     --    1010100 1    0000000085       1010101 0    11111111     --    1010101 1    0000000086       1010110 0    11111111     --    1010110 1    0000000087       1010111 0    11111111     --    1010111 1    0000000088       1011000 0    00010010     PK    1011000 1    1011001189       1011001 0    11111111     --    1011001 1    0000000090       1011010 0    11111111     --    1011010 1    0000000091       1011011 0    11111111     --    1011011 1    0000000092       1011100 0    11111111     --    1011100 1    0000000093       1011101 0    11111111     --    1011101 1    0000000094       1011110 0    11111111     --    1011110 1    0000000095       1011111 0    11111111     --    1011111 1    0000000096       1100000 0    11111111     --    1100000 1    0000000097       1100001 0    11111111     --    1100001 1    0000000098       1100010 0    11111111     --    1100010 1    0000000099       1100011 0    00001101     MY    1100011 1    10111001______________________________________

              TABLE 9______________________________________Read-only memory for numeric valuesordinalnumber address      contents   remark______________________________________0      0 000000 000 0001  0 000000 001 0000  0 000000 010 0000  0 000000 011 0000  0 000000 100 0000  0 000000 101 0000  0 000000 110 0000  0 000000 111 00001      0 000001 000 0101       OZFL (US)  0 000001 001 0011  0 000001 010 0111  0 000001 011 0101  0 000001 100 1001  0 000001 101 0010  0 000001 110 0101  0 000001 111 11112      0 000010 000 0001       PINT (US)  0 000010 001 0001  0 000010 010 0110  0 000010 011 0001  0 000010 100 0101  0 000010 101 0101  0 000010 110 0110  0 000010 111 11113      0 000011 000 0010       QT (US)  0 000011 001 0010  0 000011 010 0001  0 000011 011 0000  0 000011 100 0001  0 000011 101 0001  0 000011 110 0111  0 000011 111 11114      0 000100 000 0001       GALL (US)  0 000100 001 0100  0 000100 010 0101  0 000100 011 1000  0 000100 100 0111  0 000100 101 0011  0 000100 110 0111  0 000100 111 11115      0 000101 000 0001       BU (US)  0 000101 001 1001  0 000101 010 0011  0 000101 011 0010  0 000101 100 0101  0 000101 101 0011  0 000101 110 1000  0 000101 111 11116      0 000110 000 1001       HPW (metric)  0 000110 001 1001  0 000110 010 0100  0 000110 011 0101  0 000110 100 0011  0 000110 101 0111  0 000110 110 1100  0 000110 111 11117      0 000111 000 0000       NTMI (metric)  0 000111 001 0000  0 000111 010 0010  0 000111 011 0101  0 000111 100 1000  0 000111 101 0001  0 000111 110 1101  0 000111 111 11118      0 001000 000 0001  0 001000 001 0000  0 001000 010 0000  0 001000 011 0000  0 001000 100 0000  0 001000 101 0000  0 001000 110 0000  0 001000 111 00009      0 001001 000 0111       U  0 001001 001 0101  0 001001 010 0000  0 001001 011 0110  0 001001 100 0110  0 001001 101 0001  0 001001 110 1111  0 001001 111 110110     0 001010 000 1001       EV  0 001010 001 0001  0 001010 010 0010  0 001010 011 0000  0 001010 100 0110  0 001010 101 0001  0 001010 110 0111  0 001010 111 111011     0 001011 000 0110       XE  0 001011 001 0000  0 001011 010 0010  0 001011 011 0000  0 001011 100 0000  0 001011 101 0001  0 001011 110 1101  0 001011 111 111012     0 001100 000 0100       SEC  0 001100 001 0001  0 001100 010 1000  0 001100 011 0100  0 001100 100 1000  0 001100 101 0100  0 001100 110 0100  0 001100 111 111113     0 001101 000 1001       GR  0 001101 001 1000  0 001101 010 1001  0 001101 011 0111  0 001101 100 0100  0 001101 101 0110  0 001101 110 0101  0 001101 111 111114     0 001110 000 1000       MNT  0 001110 001 1000  0 001110 010 1000  0 001110 011 0000  0 001110 100 1001  0 001110 101 0010  0 001110 110 0110  0 001110 111 111115     0 001111 000 0000       ROE  0 001111 001 0000  0 001111 010 0000  0 001111 011 1000  0 001111 100 0101  0 001111 101 0010  0 001111 110 0110  0 001111 111 111116     0 010000 000 0000       KAR  0 010000 001 0000  0 010000 010 0000  0 010000 011 0000  0 010000 100 0000  0 010000 101 0010  0 010000 110 0110  0 010000 111 111117     0 010001 000 0101       P  0 010001 001 0110  0 010001 010 0110  0 010001 011 0001  0 010001 100 1000  0 010001 101 1001  0 010001 110 0111  0 010001 111 111118     0 010010 000 0111       PECK  0 010010 001 0111  0 010010 010 1001  0 010010 011 0000  0 010010 100 1000  0 010010 101 1000  0 010010 110 0111  0 010010 111 111119     0 010011 000 0111       PWT  0 010011 001 0001  0 010011 010 0101  0 010011 011 0101  0 010011 100 0101  0 010011 101 0001  0 010011 110 0111  0 010011 111 111120     0 010100 000 0000       DRAM  0 010100 001 0000  0 010100 010 0010  0 010100 011 0111  0 010100 100 0111  0 010100 101 0001  0 010100 110 0111  0 010100 111 111121     0 010101 000 0100       GILL  0 010101 001 1001  0 010101 010 0010  0 010101 011 1000  0 010101 100 0001  0 010101 101 0001  0 010101 110 0111  0 010101 111 111122     0 010110 000 0101       OZTR  0 010110 001 0011  0 010110 010 0000  0 010110 011 0001  0 010110 100 0001  0 010110 101 0011  0 010110 110 1000  0 010110 111 111123     0 010111 000 0101       OZ  0 010111 001 1001  0 010111 010 0100  0 010111 011 0011  0 010111 100 1000  0 010111 101 0010  0 010111 110 1000  0 010111 111 111124     0 011000 000 0000       INCH  0 011000 001 0000  0 011000 010 0000  0 011000 011 0100  0 011000 100 0101  0 011000 101 0010  0 011000 110 1000  0 011000 111 111125     0 011001 000 0011       DEG  0 011001 001 0011  0 011001 010 0101  0 011001 011 0100  0 011001 100 0111  0 011001 101 0001  0 011001 110 1000  0 011001 111 111126     0 011010 000 0000       GON  0 011010 001 1000  0 011010 010 0000  0 011010 011 0111  0 011010 100 0101  0 011010 101 0001  0 011010 110 1000  0 011010 111 111127     0 011011 000 0000       YD  0 011011 001 0000  0 011011 010 0100  0 011011 011 0100  0 011011 100 0001  0 011011 101 1001  0 011011 110 1001  0 011011 111 111128     0 011100 000 0100       KNT  0 011100 001 0100  0 011100 010 0100  0 011100 011 0100  0 011100 100 0001  0 011100 101 0101  0 011100 110 1001  0 011100 111 111129     0 011101 000 0010       LB  0 011101 001 1001  0 011101 010 0101  0 011101 011 0011  0 011101 100 0101  0 011101 101 0100  0 011101 110 1001  0 011101 111 111130     0 011110 000 0000       FOOT  0 011110 001 0000  0 011110 010 1000  0 011110 011 0100  0 011110 100 0000  0 011110 101 0011  0 011110 110 1001  0 011110 111 111131     0 011111 000 0000       CRAN  0 011111 001 0000  0 011111 010 0101  0 011111 011 0000  0 011111 100 0111  0 011111 101 0001  0 011111 110 1001  0 011111 111 111132     0 100000 000 0111       BBL  0 100000 001 1000  0 100000 010 1001  0 100000 011 1000  0 100000 100 0101  0 100000 101 0001  0 100000 110 1001  0 100000 111 111133     0 100001 000 0101       PDL  0 100001 001 0101  0 100001 010 0010  0 100001 011 1000  0 100001 100 0011  0 100001 101 0001  0 100001 110 1001  0 100001 111 111134     0 100010 000 0000       HAND  0 100010 001 0000  0 100010 010 0110  0 100010 011 0001  0 100010 100 0000  0 100010 101 0001  0 100010 110 1001  0 100010 111 111135     0 100011 000 0000       FATH  0 100011 001 1000  0 100011 010 1000  0 100011 011 0010  0 100011 100 1000  0 100011 101 0001  0 100011 110 1010  0 100011 111 111136     0 100100 000 0000       CAL  0 100100 001 1000  0 100100 010 0110  0 100100 011 1000  0 100100 100 0001  0 100100 101 0100  0 100100 110 1010  0 100100 111 111137     0 100101 000 0010       LBF  0 100101 001 0010  0 100101 010 1000  0 100101 011 0100  0 100101 100 0100  0 100101 101 0100  0 100101 110 1010  0 100101 111 111138     0 100110 000 0000       STON  0 100110 001 0000  0 100110 010 0000  0 100110 011 0101  0 100110 100 0011  0 100110 101 0110  0 100110 110 1010  0 100110 111 111139     0 100111 000 0000       QR  0 100111 001 0000  0 100111 010 0000  0 100111 011 0111  0 100111 100 0010  0 100111 101 0001  0 100111 110 1011  0 100111 111 111140     0 101000 000 1001       SLUG  0 101000 001 0011  0 101000 010 1001  0 101000 011 0101  0 101000 100 0100  0 101000 101 0001  0 101000 110 1011  0 101000 111 111141     0 101001 000 0100       CWT  0 101001 001 0010  0 101001 010 0000  0 101001 011 1000  0 101001 100 0000  0 101001 101 0101  0 101001 110 1011  0 101001 111 111142     0 101010 000 0000       MIN  0 101010 001 0000  0 101010 010 0000  0 101010 011 0000  0 101010 100 0000  0 101010 101 0110  0 101010 110 1011  0 101010 111 111143     0 101011 000 0010       TORR  0 101011 001 0010  0 101011 010 0011  0 101011 011 0011  0 101011 100 0011  0 101011 101 0001  0 101011 110 1100  0 101011 111 111144     0 101100 000 0001       ROOD  0 101100 001 0111  0 101100 010 0001  0 101100 011 0001  0 101100 100 0000  0 101100 101 0001  0 101100 110 1101  0 101100 111 111145     0 101101 000 0101       TON  0 101101 001 0000  0 101101 010 0110  0 101101 011 0001  0 101101 100 0000  0 101101 101 0001  0 101101 110 1101  0 101101 111 111146     0 101110 000 0110       BTU  0 101110 001 0000  0 101110 010 0101  0 101110 011 0101  0 101110 100 0000  0 101110 101 0001  0 101110 110 1101  0 101110 111 111147     0 101111 000 0100       MI  0 101111 001 0011  0 101111 010 1001  0 101111 011 0000  0 101111 100 0110  0 101111 101 0001  0 101111 110 1101  0 101111 111 111148     0 110000 000 0000       HR  0 110000 001 0000  0110000 010  0000  0 110000 011 0000  0 110000 100 0110  0 110000 101 0011  0 110000 110 1101  0 110000 111 111149     0 110001 000 0110       ACRE  0 110001 001 1000  0 110001 010 0110  0 110001 011 0100  0 110001 100 0000  0 110001 101 0100  0 110001 110 1101  0 110001 111 111150     0 110010 000 0101       MWS  0 110010 001 0110  0 110010 010 0110  0 110010 011 0000  0 110010 100 1000  0 110010 101 1001  0 110010 110 1101  0 110010 111 111151     0 110011 000 0000       TONF  0 110011 001 0000  0 110011 010 0100  0 110011 011 0110  0 110011 100 1001  0 110011 101 1001  0 110011 110 1101  0 110011 111 111152     0 110100 000 0000       LGY  0 110100 001 0000  0 110100 010 0000  0 110100 011 1001  0 110100 100 0001  0 110100 101 0100  0 110100 110 1110  0 110100 111 111153     0 110101 000 0000       DI  0 110101 001 0000  0 110101 010 0000  0 110101 011 0100  0 110101 100 0110  0 110101 101 1000  0 110101 110 1110  0 110101 111 111154     0 110110 000 0101       ATT  0 110110 001 0110  0 110110 010 0110  0 110110 011 0000  0 110110 100 1000  0 110110 101 1001  0 110110 110 1110  0 110110 111 111155     0 110111 000 0101       ATM  0 110111 001 0010  0 110111 010 0011  0 110111 011 0001  0 110111 100 0000  0 110111 101 0001  0 110111 110 0000  0 110111 111 000056     0 111000 000 0010       NHG  0 111000 001 0010  0 111000 010 0011  0 111000 011 0011  0 111000 100 0011  0 111000 101 0001  0 111000 110 0000  0 111000 111 000057     0 111001 000 0000       SEP  0 111001 010 1000  0 111001 011 0100  0 111001 100 0000  0 111001 101 0110  0 111001 110 0000  0 111001 111 000058     0 111010 000 0000       MEN  0 111010 001 0000  0 111010 010 1000  0 111010 011 0010  0 111010 100 0110  0 111010 101 0010  0 111010 110 0001  0 111010 111 000059     0 111011 000 0000       ANN  0 111011 001 0110  0 111011 010 0011  0 111011 011 0101  0 111011 100 0001  0 111011 101 0011  0 111011 110 0010  0 111011 111 000060     0 111100 000 0000       CI  0 111100 001 0000  0 111100 010 0000  0 111100 011 0000  0 111100 100 0111  0 111100 101 0011  0 111100 110 0101  0 111100 111 000061     0 111101 000 1000       AUT  0 111101 001 1001  0 111101 010 0101  0 111101 011 1001  0 111101 100 0100  0 111101 101 0001  0 111101 110 0110  0 111101 111 000062     0 111110 000 0101       LY  0 111110 001 0101  0 111110 010 0000  0 111110 011 0010  0 111110 100 0100  0 111110 101 1001  0 111110 110 1010  0 111110 111 000063     0 111111 000 0100       PAR  0 111111 001 0111  0 111111 010 0011  0 111111 011 1000  0 111111 100 0000  0 111111 101 0011  0 111111 110 1011  0 111111 111 000064     1 000000 000 0001  1 000000 001 0000  1 000000 010 0000  1 000000 011 0000  1 000000 100 0000  1 000000 101 0000  1 000000 110 0000  1 000000 111 000065     1 000001 000 0001       OZFL (UK)  1 000001 001 0011  1 000001 010 0001  1 000001 011 0100  1 000001 100 1000  1 000001 101 0010  1 000001 110 0101  1 000001 111 111166     1 000010 000 0000       PINT (UK)  1 000010 001 0000  1 000010 010 0011  1 000010 011 1000  1 000010 100 0110  1 000010 101 0101  1 000010 110 0110  1 000010 111 111167     1 000011 000 0000       QT (UK)  1 000011 001 0000  1 000011 010 0111  1 000011 011 0011  1 000011 100 0001  1 000011 101 0001  1 000011 110 0110  1 000011 111 111168     1 000100 000 1001       GALL (UK)  1 000100 001 0000  1 000100 010 0110  1 000100 011 0100  1 000100 100 0101  1 000100 101 0100  1 000100 110 0111  1 000100 111 111169     1 000101 000 0000       BU (UK)  1 000101 001 0000  1 000101 010 0111  1 000101 011 0011  1 000101 100 0110  1 000101 101 0011  1 000101 110 1000  1 000101 111 111170     1 000110 000 0000       HPW (UK)  1 000110 001 0000  1 000110 010 0111  1 000110 011 0101  1 000110 100 0100  1 000110 101 0111  1 000110 110 1100  1 000110 111 111171     1 000111 000 1000       NTMI (UK)  1 000111 001 0001  1 000111 010 0011  1 000111 011 0101  1 000111 100 1000  1 000111 101 0001  1 000111 110 1101  1 000111 111 1111______________________________________

              TABLE 10______________________________________Read-only memory for groupsof exponents to base unitsordinalnumber   address     contents    remark______________________________________0        00000 000   1000        CD.SR    00000 001   1000    00000 010   1000    00000 011   1000    00000 100   1000    00000 101   0001    00000 110   0001    00000 111   10001        00001 000   0001        S    00001 001   1000    00001 010   1000    00001 011   1000    00001 100   1000    00001 101   1000    00001 110   1000    00001 111   10002        00010 000   1000        M    00010 001   0001    00010 010   1000    00010 011   1000    00010 100   1000    00010 101   1000    00010 110   1000    00010 111   10003        00011 000   1000    00011 001   1000    00011 010   0001    00011 011   1000    00011 100   1000    00011 101   1000    00011 110   1000    00011 111   10004        00100 000   1000        KG    00100 001   1000    00100 010   1000    00100 011   0001    00100 100   1000    00100 101   1000    00100 110   1000    00100 111   10005        00101 000   1000        K    00101 001   1000    00101 010   1000    00101 011   1000    00101 100   0001    00101 101   1000    00101 110   1000    00101 111   10006        00110 000   1000        CD    00110 001   1000    00110 010   1000    00110 011   1000    00110 100   1000    00110 101   0001    00110 110   1000    00110 111   10007        00111 000   1000        SR    00111 001   1000    00111 010   1000    00111 011   1000    00111 100   1000    00111 101   1000    00111 110   0001    00111 111   10008        01000 000   1000        RAD    01000 001   1000    01000 010   1000    01000 011   1000    01000 100   1000    01000 101   1000    01000 110   1000    01000 111   00019        01001 000   0001        S.M    01001 001   0001    01001 010   1000    01001 011   1000    01001 100   1000    01001 101   1000    01001 110   1000    01001 111   100010       01010 000   0001        S.A    01010 001   1000    01010 010   0001    01010 011   1000    01010 100   1000    01010 101   1000    01010 110   1000    01010 111   100011       01011 000   0010        S2    01011 001   1000    01011 010   1000    01011 011   1000    01011 100   1000    01011 101   1000    01011 110   1000    01011 111   100012       01100 000   0010        S2.M    01100 001   0001    01100 010   1000    01100 011   1000    01100 100   1000    01100 101   1000    01100 110   1000    01100 111   100013       01101 000   0010        S2.A    01101 001   1000    01101 010   0001    01101 011   1000    01101 100   1000    01101 101   1000    01101 110   1000    01101 111   100014       01110 000   0010        S2.A2    01110 001   1000    01110 010   0010    01110 011   1000    01110 100   1000    01110 101   1000    01110 110   1000    01110 111   100015       01111 000   0011        S3    01111 001   1000    01111 010   1000    01111 011   1000    01111 100   1000    01111 101   1000    01111 110   1000    01111 111   100016       10000 000   0011        S3.A    10000 001   1000    10000 010   0001    10000 011   1000    10000 100   1000    10000 101   1000    10000 110   1000    10000 111   100017       10001 000   0011        S3.A2    10001 001   1000    10001 010   0010    10001 011   1000    10001 100   1000    10001 101   1000    10001 110   1000    10001 111   100018       10010 000   0100        S4.A2    10010 001   1000    10010 010   0010    10010 011   1000    10010 100   1000    10010 101   1000    10010 110   1000    10010 111   100019       10011 000   1000        M.KG    10011 001   0001    10011 010   1000    10011 011   0001    10011 100   1000    10011 101   1000    10011 110   1000    10011 111   100020       10100 000   1000        M2    10100 001   0010    10100 010   1000    10100 011   1000    10100 100   1000    10100 101   1000    10100 110   1000    10100 111   100021       10101 000   1000        M2.KG    10101 001   0010    10101 010   1000    10101 011   0001    10101 100   1000    10101 101   1000    10101 110   1000    10101 111   100022       10110 000   1000        M3    10110 001   0011    10110 010   1000    10110 011   1000    10110 100   1000    10110 101   1000    10110 110   1000    10110 111   1000______________________________________

              TABLE 11______________________________________Read-only memory for reference unitsordinalnumber   address     contents     remark______________________________________0        0000 00     10010        WB    0000 01     00010    0000 10     10001    0000 11     000011        0001 00     10011        V    0001 01     00010    0001 10     10001    0001 11     000012        0010 00     10010        H    0010 01     00010    0010 10     10010    0010 11     000013        0011 00     11100        OHM    0011 01     00010    0011 10     11101    0011 11     000014        0100 00     00011        SIE    0100 01     11101    0100 10     00010    0100 11     111105        0101 00     00100        F    0101 01     10010    0101 10     00010    0101 11     100016        0110 00     10010        T    0110 01     00000    0110 10     10001    0110 11     000017        0111 00     10010        N    0111 01     00001    0111 10     00000    0111 11     000018        1000 00     10010        PA    1000 01     10001    1000 10     00000    1000 11     000019        1001 00     10010        J    1001 01     00010    1001 10     00000    1001 11     0000110       1010 00     10011        W    1010 01     00010    1010 10     00000    1010 11     0000111       1011 00     10010        GY    1011 01     10001    1011 10     00000    1011 11     0000012       1100 00     00001        C    1100 01     00001    1100 10     00000    1100 11     0000013       1101 00     10010        LX    1101 01     00001    1101 10     00001    1101 11     0000014       1110 00     00001        LM    1110 01     00001    1110 10     00000    1110 11     00000______________________________________
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4553219 *Sep 28, 1982Nov 12, 1985Brother Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaTypewriter having calculating capability
US4689753 *Jun 12, 1985Aug 25, 1987Cameron David LCalculator for chemical stoichiometry
US4744044 *Jun 20, 1986May 10, 1988Electronic Teacher's Aids, Inc.Hand-held calculator for dimensional calculations
US4860233 *Oct 22, 1985Aug 22, 1989Pitchford Leonard JDedicated foot/inch calculator
US4881189 *Jul 15, 1986Nov 14, 1989Proctor Don RComputer analytical program process
US5101368 *Jun 20, 1988Mar 31, 1992Seymour KaplanConversion calculator
US5216627 *Jan 25, 1991Jun 1, 1993Hewlett-Packard CompanyMethod and apparatus for computing with terms having units
US6269345 *Dec 2, 1997Jul 31, 2001Jacques RiboudTransfer system and method for transferring amounts in different local currencies between a plurality of local banking organization
US6598186 *Mar 31, 2000Jul 22, 2003Curl CorporationSystem and method for compile-time checking of units
US8516376 *May 27, 2010Aug 20, 2013International Business Machines CorporationIdentification system for network data processing systems
US20110296311 *May 27, 2010Dec 1, 2011International Business Machines CorporationIdentification System for Network Data Processing Systems
WO1993017382A1 *Feb 20, 1992Sep 2, 1993Seymour KaplanConversion calculator
Classifications
U.S. Classification341/75, 341/94, 708/206
International ClassificationG06F3/02, G06F15/00, H03M7/00, G06F15/02
Cooperative ClassificationG06F3/0202, G06F15/0258
European ClassificationG06F3/02A, G06F15/02S1
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Nov 16, 1981ASAssignment
Owner name: VEB APPLIKATIONSZENTRUM ELEKTRONIK BERLIN, MAINZER
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:SPITZNER, ALEXANDER;REEL/FRAME:003927/0347
Effective date: 19811019
Owner name: VEB APPLIKATIONSZENTRUM ELEKTRONIK BERLIN, DEMOCR
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SPITZNER, ALEXANDER;REEL/FRAME:003927/0347