|Publication number||US432260 A|
|Publication date||Jul 15, 1890|
|Filing date||Jan 16, 1890|
|Publication number||US 432260 A, US 432260A, US-A-432260, US432260 A, US432260A|
|Inventors||George B. Brayton|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (2), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
(No Model.) 4'S11eets-Sheet 1. G. B. BRAYTON.
No. 432,260. Patented July 15, 1890.
4 sheets-sheen 2.
G. B. BRAYTO-N. -HYDROGARBON ENGINE.y No. 432,260. Patented July l5, 1890.
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- jy a0-wy (No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 3. G. B. BRAYTON'. HYDROGARBON ENGINE.
No. 432,260. Patented July 15, 1890.
jzy'la 4 .Tu e e h. s .e e h s 4 E.. NN YE AN RM R BA .w Bm GY n d. d o M o m No. 432,260. Patented July 15, 1890.
TH: Noms vsvens co vnnrlrumo., WASHING UNITED STATESA PATENT OFFICE.
GEORGE B. BRAYTON, OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS.
r$313CFICATION forming part of Letters Fatent No. 432,260, dated July 15, 1890.
Application filed January 16, 1890. Serial No. 337,141. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Beit known that I, GEORGE B. BRAY'roN, a citizen of the United States, residing at Boston, in the county of Suffolk and State of Massachusetts, have invented anew and useful Improvement in Hydrocarbon-Engines, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to that class of engines which derive their power from the expansion produced by the combustion of sprayed or atomized hydrocarbon in the cylinder.
The objects of this invention are to insure an abundant supply of air to support combustion in the cylinder with the least expenditure of power; also, to provide means whereby the liquid fuel is delivered into the combustion -chamber in a finely-divided state most favorable to quick combustion; also, to provide 4novel means for regulatingthe speed of the engine by automatically varying the amount of liquid fuel which is fed to the combustion-chamber; also, to construct an incandescent burner which will instantly ignite the combustible mixture which is injected into the combustion-chamberg also, to improve the engine in various other respects, as will be hereinafter more fully described, and pointed out in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings, consisting of four sheets, Figure l is a longitudinal sectional elevation of my improved engine. Fig. 2 is a top plan View of the same. Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional elevation of the cylinder, combustion-chamber, burner, and valve mechanism, on an enlarged scale. Fig. 4- is a side elevation of the gate whereby access .maybe had to the interior of the cylinder for lighting the burner. Fig. 5 is a horizontal section in line :n Fig. 3, showingfthe spraying device on an enlarged scale. Fig. 6 is a vertical section of the burner', on an enlarged scale, in line y y, Fig. 3. Fig. 7 is a sectional elevation of the governor which controls the oil-pump, on an enlarged scale. Fi 8 is a hori .Zontal section of the lower portion of the governor and ot' the oil-pump. Fig. 9 is a vertical cross-section of the oil-pump in line to w, Fig. 7. Fig. l0 is a sectional elevation of the safety-valve whereby an excessive pressure of air is relieved. Fig. ll is a side elevation of the vstandard supporting the crank-shaft' and gearing for operating the oil-pump and valves. Fig. l2 is a rear elevation ot' the same. Fig. 13 is a horizontal section of said standard in line .a z, Fig. ll. Fig. 14 is a side elevation of the standard with gearing removed. Fig. l5 is a vertical section showing a modiiied construction of the spray-nozzle. Fig. 16 is a horizontal section `of the same, on an enlarged scale, in line a: Fig. l5.
Like letters of reference refer to like parts in the several figures.
Arepresentsahollow rectangularbase, upon the front end of which is mounted a vertical cylinder B, provided with a piston b. The cylinder B is provided at its upper end with a jacketed head C, while its lower end is open and communicates with the interior of the hollow base. The upper end of the cylinder B extends about one-half of its diameter above the range of the upward stroke of the piston l), thereby forming a compression and combustion chamber B inv which the explosive material is ignited. The piston b is of the cup-shaped pattern and provided centrally with an automatic self-opening valve b,which is closed when the piston is forced downwardly by the expansion of the gases in the combustion-chamber, but opens inwardly at every alternate downward stroke of the piston for the admission ot' air, which is compressed on the upward vstroke of the piston, and supplies the necessary oxygen preparatory to another explosioin The valve b consist-s of a disk, which closes an annularserics of openings L2, formed in a plate h3, which is screwed into the piston-head. This valve is normally held on its seat by a spring 1),surrounding the valve-stem if and bearing with its ends against the plate if, and a collar b, attached to the lower end of the valve-stein.
D represents a walking-beam arranged inside ofY the hollow base and mounted on a rock-shaft d. This beam is connectedat its front end with the piston ZJ by means of a connecting-rod d. y
D represents a crank-shaft journaled in standards (12tlg, secu red to the upper rear end ot' the base. The crank-shaft is provided on one side with a balance-wheel D2, and is connected with the rear end of the beam D by a' connecting-rod d4, passing through an opening di in the base. This opening also serves ICO to admit air inte the base for supplying the combustion-cliamber with oxygen.
E represents a cylindrical valve-casing fitted snugly in a eorrespondingly-shaped opening in the cylinder-head (l. This easing contains the valve for controlling the eil and air passage which 'supplies the combustible fluid to the combustion-chamber l5', and also contains the exhaust valve controlling the exhaust-ports through which the products of combustion are discharged. 4
e represents the supply-pipe i'er the cempressed air, and c is the oil-supplypipe, both ot' which enter thehead e2 of the valve-casing at its side and communicate with a central receiving-chamber e3, formed in the head of the valve-casing, the oil-pipe being arranged near the bottom of the receiving-chamber and the air-pipe near the top thereof. The receiving-chamber e3 is closed at its upper end by a head c4, provided with astuiling-box, and communicates at its bottom with a passage c5, formed in a stem c, depending centrally from the head e2.
f represents the eil and air induction valve arranged in the receiving-chamber c3 and seated in the tapering bottom et' the latter, so as to close the passage ci. The valve f is held on its seat by a spring f', surrounding the upwardly-extendingvalve-rod f2 and bearing with its ends against the induction-valve and the head @4. rllhe valve-rod passes upwardly through the stuffing-bex of the head e, and is provided at its upper end with a thumbnut f3, which bears on the upper side et a rock-lever F, pivoted te the standard f4. The induction-valve l is raised from its seat at regular intervals by this lever, te allow the eil and compressed air to pass from the receiving-chamber into the passage et".
e7 represents a tube secured te the lower end of the hollow stein e" and termin g an extension of the passage The lower end of the tube c7 is provided with a detlecting-cup es, which is arranged slightly below the open end of the tube and provided between the latter and its upturned marginal iiange with a cover c, of nely-perforated sheet metal or wire-gauze. The cup receives the oil and air from the passage e5 and tube e7 and detlects the mixture upwardly, while the gauze cover divides the mixture. into a finely-divided spray, which is the most favorable condition for instantaneous ignition an d combustion.
G represents a burner secured to the side of the cylinder and arranged in the combustion-chamber directly in the path of the upwardly-sprayed oil, se as to ignite the same instantly.
el@ represents a concave disk about hall' the diameter ot the cylinder' and secured te the tube e7 at its point et junction with the hollow stem er. This disk, which becomes intensely heated by the combustion of the successive charges in the ceinbnstien-chamber, intercepts any particles et' the upwardlysprayed fuel which may escape ignitiemand instantly converts them into vaporand causes them to be consumed with the rest of the charge.
ll represents the circular exhaust-valve, provided with an upwardly-extending sleeve 7L, which surrounds the valve-stem e and is capable of vertical movement thereon. The peripheral face of the exhaust-valve tapers upwardly and iits a correspondiugly-shaped seat 7L', formed at the lower end of the valvecasing. The interior cavity of this valvecasing, whose lower end is closed by the exhaust-valve, forms an exhaust-chamber 712.
h3 represents an exhaust-passage surrounding the valve-casing on the inside of the water-jacket of the cylinder-head, and h are ports formed in the sides of the valve-casing, so as to establish communication between the exhaust-chamber and the exhaust-passage.
The cylinder B and its head C are bethprovided with water-jackets c c,to avoid excessive heating. The cylindrical body of the valve-casing extends through the waterjaeket of the cylinder-head, and is secured thereon by bolts e.
h5 represents twerods whereby the exhaust- Yalve is actuated, and which pass vertically through openings in the head of the valvecasing and engage with their lower hooked ends in an annular groove 7L, formed in the sleeve 7L. The rods h5 are connected at their upper ends by a bar 7i?, which bears against the lower side of the rock-lever F, and by which the rods are lowered and the exhaustvalve is opened. The latter is held on its seat by means of springs h3, which surround the rods r" and bear with their ends against the cross-bar 7H and the head of the valvecasing. The exhaust-valve is opened periodically by the descent of the lever F, and allows the products of combustion after each explosion to be discharged inte the exhaustchamber, thence into the exhaust-passage through the ports h1, and thence into an exhaust-pipe 7i.
The induction-valve and exhaust-valve are actuated alternately by the rock-lever F. In the position shown in Fig. 3 the leverF is in its normal position, in which position both the induction and exhaust valves are closed. For the purpose of admitting the liquid fuel te the combustion-chamber, the rock-lever is quickly raised above its normal position and returned to the same. This movement of the rock-lever opens the induction-valve momentarily and causes a quantity et' liquid fuel to be delivered into the combustion-chamher by a gust of compressed air. Ferthe purpose ot' exhausting the products of combustion, the rock-lever is lowered beyond its normal position, whereby the exhaust-valve is opened.
The burner G for igniting the charges of sprayed fuel is arranged horizontally in the combustion-chamber and secured to the cylinder by means ot' a tube g, which supplies oil and air to the burner. The tube y is screwed into the end of a plug g', which is ICO IIC
g4 by a perforated disk g5, which is held in place by screwing both parts of the shell together. The rear portion of the burner-shell vis provided with a screw-threaded socket,
which is screwed upon the end of the oil-supply tube g and communicates by an aperture (16 with the tube g. The rear chamber is ,closely packed with asbestus or other noncombustible material, which absorbs the oil. The front chamber g3 is open and contains the incandescent medium g?, preferably platinum wire, which is coiled and arranged loosely, so as to fill the front chamber g3, the coiled platinum being retained therein by an` inwardly-projecting annular flange g3. The plug g is provided with an axial passage g9 in line with the tube r, and projects a short distance beyond the side of the cylinderjacket.
I represents an oil-fountain,\vhich contains the oil by which the burner G is fed.
t' represents a wick of any suitable absorbent material secured with one end to the enlarged outer portion of the passage Q9, which opens into the upper portion of the oil-cup.
c" represents a branch passage formed in the plug g parallel with the main passage g. This branch passage is elbow-shaped, and opens at its outer end into the upper portion of the oil-cup, while its inner end opens into the main passage on the inner side of the enlargement of the latter, in which the wick is arranged.
'i2 represents a needle-valve arranged in the branch passage fi', and by which the amount of air necessary to maintain a yflame in the burner can be regulated.
i3 represents an air-supply pipe, which connects with the lower end of the oil-fountain, and is provided with a cock t4, by which the air-supply is regulated.
t5 represents a vertical tube secured centrally in the oil-cup and extending above the surface of the oil in the same. The tube is open at its upper end, and provided near the vbottom of the oil-cup with openings t, which allow the surrounding oilto enter the tube.
i represents a jet-pipe secured to the cock rland arranged within the tube t, thereby forming a contracted extension of the airsupply pipe The j et-pipe extends a short distance above the oil-openings t in the outer y tube The compressed air issuing from the jet-pipe causes the oil in the surrounding tube to be carried upwardly and to be discharged from the upper end of the tube in the form a spray.
The wick in the plug g is arranged to hang over the upper end of the spray-tube, and the effect of the air-current is to cause a constant spurting of the oil against the bottom of the' It is immaterial whether the cup is. full of oil or not, as the` surplus oil which is not absorbed by the wick drops back intothe'body of the oil and enters the openings in the spraytube, thereby maintaining a continuous circulation of oil through the injector and oilcup. The particles of oil absorbed by the wick are deposited in the main passage leading to the burner, ,while the air issuing from the spray-tube enters first the branch passage and then the main passage, and carries the oil deposited therein forward to the burner, where it is absorbed bythe asbestus packing of the burner.
The platinum in the front chamber, when heated, transmits its heat through the perforated disk to the asbestus and vaporizes the oil which is absorbed by the asbestusin the rear chamber. The air which passes through the burner conveys this vapor through the platinum, where the vapor becomes ignited and forms a dame, which issues from the front chamber of the burner into the combustionchamber. rlhe air passing through the burner supplies this 'flame with oxygen, and the constant supply of air and oil to the burner maintains the flame constantly.
The upper portion I of the chamber I, in which the wick is arranged, is preferably contracted to limit the lateral movement of the wick as it is tossed about bythe jet of oil and air and prevent it from escaping the spray of oil. Oil is supplied to the fountain, when necessary, through an opening which is closed by a thumb-screw is.
f J represents a small condensing air-pump which supplies airuuder pressure for atomizing the liquid-fuelcharges and forcing them into the combustionchamber. This airpump also supplies the jet of air for feeding the oil-wick in the fountain and the necessary oxygen for sustaining combustion in the burner. This air-pump is arranged upon the base between `the cylinder and the crankshaft, and has its delivery-pipe j connected with the air-pipe e, for atomizing the liquid fuel, and with the air-pipe 3 of the oil-fountain. The air-pump cylinder` is provided 'with a piston j', which is reciprocated 'from the walking-beam D by a ypitman and provided with an air-inlet valve. The surplus air compressed by the air-pum p is discharged into a storage-reservoirj, preferably located in the base of the engine and connected with the delivery-pipe j of the air-pump by a branch pi pejl.
7'5 represents a safety-valve, which is eonnected with the air-pipes and prevents the air-pressure from becoming excessive. It consists, preferably,vof a puppet-valve arranged in a casingj6 and held in its. seat by a bowspring f, engaging with its free ends under an annular liange j, and bearing on the valve by means of an adj Listing-screw jg, which enables the pressure to be regulated.
K represents the oil-pump which injects 1 the chargesof oil consumed inV the combustion-chamber. The oil-pu mp is provided with the usual Aplunger K and slide-valve K2, which insures a positive supply of oil to the receiving-chamber e3. The latter is connected with the valve-chamber of the pump by the supply-pipe e'. The oil-pump is secured to a standard L, which also serves to support the governor for regulating the supply of oil. The valve and plunger of the oil-pump are actuated by eccentrics m m', mounted on the inner end of a short shaft M, journaled in the standard Z2 of the crank-shaft and connected with the plunger and valve by rods Z Z. The rod Z', actuating the slide-valve, is rigidly connected with its eccentric; but the rod Z, which actuates the plunger K', is jointed and capable of being automatically lengthcned or shortened in order to vary the stroke of the plunger in accordance with the supply of oil demanded for maintaining a uniform speed. 'lhe inner end of the plunger-rodZ is arranged between the jaws of the bifurcated outer end of the plunger K', and held loosely therein by a transverse pinK, which engages in a longitudinal slot K4 in the rod Z, so as to permit a limited longitudinal movement of the rod Z on the pin.
Z2 represents a wedge interposed between the bifurcated end of the plunger and the rear end of the rod Z. This wedge is raised and lowered by the centrifugal governor L2, the balls of which actuate a vertical rod Z3, engaging with its lower end with a rock-lever Z4, pivoted to the side of the standard L. The outer end of the rock-lever Z4 is connected with the wedge Z2 by a link Z5. The governor is provided with a pulley Z, which is driven from the crank-shaft by a belt Z7. Vhen the speed of the engine is below the normal, the spindle of the governor will be raised by the spring Z8, which causes the wedge to be depressed and to take up the lost motion between the plunger and the plunger-rod. This prevents the rod from moving lengthwise on the pin and enables the plunger to eifect a complete stroke. When the speed of the engine increases above the normal, the wedge is raised by the action of the governor-balls and permits the connecting-rod Z to move lengthwise on the pin to a greater or less extent without actuating the plunger, thereby reducing the amount of oil supplied to the eombustion-ehamber. The amount of lost motion is regulated at all times by the rise or fall of the wedge Z2, thereby regulating the amount of liquid fuel necessary to maintain a uniform speed of the engine.
Z" represents a pipe which supplies oil to the pump K from anysuitable source, and connects with the inlet-port of the pump, comm unieating with the slide-valve chamber. The cylinderof thepu mp is alternately placed in communication with the inlet-port and the valve-chamber by the slide-valve in a wellknown manner. Then the cylinder is placed in communication with the valve-chamber, the plunger forces a jet of oil. through the pipe e, leading from the valve-chamber to the receiving-chamber e3.
The shaft M of the oil-pump is arranged in a sleeve M', provided on its outer end with a gear-wheel m2, which meshes with a gearwheel m, mounted on the end of the crankshaft.
m1 represents a crank secured to the outer end ofthe shaft M, and provided in its end with a spring-bolt m5, which engages in a recess fm, formed in the adjacent gear-wheel m2, thereby locking the shaft M and sleeve M together and compelling them to rotate in unison. The crank m can be disengaged from the gear-Wheel m2 by giving the handle m7 of the crank a quick rotary movement, which releases the spring-bolt from the recess m, owing to its tapering end, and allows the oil-pump to be operated by hand, independent of the remaining parts of the engine, in order to inject the first charge of oil into the receiving-chamber for starting the engine. The gear-wheel m3 is half the size of the geatwheel m2, so that the latter will make half the number of revolutions of the former, and consequently actuate the oil-pump so as to inject a charge of oil into the receiving-chamber e at every alternate revolution of the crankshaft.
N represents a short rock-shaft journaled in the standard Z2 of the crank-shaft, and provided on its front end with an elbow-lever n and on its rear end with a depending arm 'a'. The depending arm connects with the rock-lever F by an intermediate bell-crank n2, supported on the governor-standard L and connected, respectively, with the rock -lever and depending arln bya vertical rod n3 and a horizontal rod n4.
The gear-wheel m2 is provided on its inner side with ahorizontal pin a5, which is adapted to strike the lower arm n of the elbow-lever and depress the same at every revolution. Zhen the arm n. is depressed, it moves the depending arm outwardly and raises the rocklever F above its normal position by means of the intermediate bell-crank n2 and connecting-rods, and thereby opens the inductionvalve.
O represents a cam mounted on the sleeve M between the standard (Z2 and gear-wheel m2. This cam is provided with a short proj ection 0 and a long projection o2, which e11- gage alternately with the upper arm o3 of the elbow-lever and force the same outwardly. NVhen the projections o o2 engage against the roller o4 on the end of the arm o3 and force the latter outwardly, the depending arm n is moved inwardly. This movement of the latter depresses the rock-lever F below its normal position by means of the intermediate bell-crank and opens the exhaust-valve. The rock-lever F is alternately moved above and below its normal position by the horizontal pin and cam, which oseillate the elbowlever connected with the rock-lever by the intermediate devices and alternately open and IGI) IIO
combustion-chamber. 1 The expansion resulting from the combustion forces the piston downwardly. Then the return upward stroke of the piston begins, the long projection o2 of the cam strikes the elbow-lever and opens the.
exhaust-valve and holds it open during the entire Vupward stroke of the piston, whereby the products of combustion are allowed to be discharged from the cylinder.
P represents a portrformed in the side of the cylinder diametricallyopposite the burner, L
through which access is afforded for lighting the burner when it is desired to start the engine. The port is formed of a cylindrical bushing, which extends through the waterjacket to the cylinder. The bushing is screwthreaded at its inner end and engages with a screw-thread inthe cylinder, while its outer.
end is provided with a ange p, which bears against the water-jacket.
p represents a gate adapted to slide over the port P, so as to open or close the same. The gate is of circular form and seated loosely in a socket p2, formed in a hand-lever p3. The hand-lever is pivoted on one side of the port to an extensionY p4 onthe iiange p by a nut and bolt, which also permit the gate to be tightened.
, p5 is a stop secured to the lower side of the flange p, which limits the downward-movement of the gate.
p represents a glass disk secured in a central opening p' of the gate by means of a hollow screw-thimbleps. This glass disk enables the ashes to be distinctly seen in the combustion-chamber, and also permits the condition of the incandescent burner to be deter# mined.
The burner G is lighted by a torch of asbestus soaked with oil or alcohol, and which is introduced throughthe port P and held under the burner until the coil of platinumV has become thoroughly heated. The gate is then closed and a preliminary charge of oil isl injected into the combustion-chamber for the purpose of propelling the engine through the iirst cycle. supplied by disengaging the crank m4 from the adjacent gear-wheel 'nt2 and rotating the same by hand, whereby the first charge of oil necessary is supplied for injection `into the combustion chamber.
This preliminary supply of oil'is The first downward and upward ymovement of the piston must beeffected by turning the fly-wheel by hand in4 order to compress the first charge of air in` the combustion-chamber, or compressed air for starting may be supplied from a reservoir. After the engine has b een started, the operation through one .cycle is as follows: Then the spray of oil has been injected into the charge of compressed air contained in the combustion chamber and the combustible mixture has been ignited, the expansion in the combustion -chamber forces f the piston downwardly. During its returning upward stroke the exhaust-valve opens and allows the gases resulting. from the combustion to ,escape. As the piston propelled by the momentum of the balance-wheel again descends during the next non-tiring stroke,the central airinlet valve ofthe piston opens automatically Aand allows the fresh air to enter the cylinder.
During the first part of the return upward stroke after the non-firing downward stroke the exhaust-valve is again opened, so that any partlof the gaseous products of combustion which remains in the upper part of the cylinder is discharged fromthe top ofthe cylinder with the excess of air. The exhaust-valve is then closed and the fresh air confined in the cylinder is compressed by the piston while it completes the last half of its upward stroke. At the same instant that the piston terminates its upward stroke the induction-valve is quickly opened and closed, whereby the compressed air contained in the receivingchamber in the head of the valve-chamber drives the charge of oil out of the receivingchamber and down the central passage into the cup atv the lower end thereof and upwardly through the perforated plate, covering said cup in a finely-divided spray into the combustion-chamber, where it is instantly ignited and exploded. This is done so quickly and etfectually that the ignition and full expansion are effected at the very commencement of the downstroke. The charges of oil may be delivered to the receiving-chamber at any convenient time during the period in which the induction-valve remains closed, `so that when the latter is opened and closed by a quick movement the force of the blast vor gust of compressed air drives the oil all out of the chamber and into the combustion-chamber in a finely-divided spray most suitable for instantaneous combustion. The` piston alternately reciprocates with a tiring and non- The incandescent burner in the combustion-chamber is burning at all times; but no explosion can take place yuntil the charge of atomized fuel is driven into the combustion-chamber. By injecting the oil charges in an atomized condition into a body of compressed air inthis manner an excess of oxygen is present above what is necessary to burn the entire oil charge, whichninsures complete combustion. f Much ad vantage is gained by arranging the oil-discharge nozzle IOO IIO
in the center of. the cylinder, as it affords a yprotectionfrom the coolingeffect of the side admission of fresh air in the piston the fresh cool air, owing to its greater specific gravity, remains at the bottom of the cylinder immediately over the pistou, while the hot gaseous products of combustion remain in the upper portion of the cylinder and iu the combustion-chamber and are first to be discharged on opening the exhaust-valve. A further advantage is gained by arranging the air-inlet valve in the piston, as it opens readily iuwardly during the non-tiri ug down ward stroke of the piston and offers little resistance to the latter, thereby supplying a sullicient quantity of fresh air with the least expenditure of power. The automatic air-valve also opens when there is a partial vacuum in the combustionchalnber, so as to relieve the pistou from any baclcpressure due to a light charge of sprayed oil. The central arrangement of the exhaust valve affords a free escape for the products of combustion, which is important, as au admixture of the same with the air would materially impair the energy of the engine by reason of au imperfect combustion. Any leakage of gases through and around the pis ton escapes into the base of the engine, and a decided advantage is gained in ventilation by drawing the fresh-air supply for the com bustion-chamber from the base of the engine, thereby avoiding any unpleasant odors resulting from leakage. By constructing the incandescent burner of platinum and asbestus or other substance capable of being highly heated it will wear a long time without iujury from the iniiammable charges.
The products of combustion generated by the burner are very small in volume, so that they have no appreciable effect upon the force of t-he expanding charges, and as no ignitiou can take place until the charge of atomized oil enters the combustion-chamber, there is no necessity for withdrawing the burner from the combustion-chambcr after ignition, as is usualin explosive-gas engines, and thus much complication is avoided.
In the modified construction vof the spraynozzle represented iu Figs. l5 and 16 the nozzle is composed of a steel cylinder q, provided with radial perforations, and secu red to the lower end of the hollow depending stem e7. The interior of the cylinder is lined with finely-perforated sheet metal r. The perforations in the outer cylinder are con1paratively large, while those of the lining are very fine and divide the oil more minutely as it is forced through the same by the blast of air. By this means the finely-perforated sheet metal is protected from the combustion in the combustion-chamber by the enveloping thick-steel cylinder, while the latter serves as a firm support for the sheet metal. This spray-nozzle delivers the oil radially into the combustionchamber all around the nozzle in jets of very tine spray. Each of the large openings in the enveloping cylinder emits a separate jet composed of numerous line jets, and, the several jets being separated by airspaces, a very effective combustion is obtained.
l do not wish to claim anything in this application which is claimed in my pending ap` plieatiou, Serial No. 333,816, filed December 14, 1889.
l. The combination, with the engine-cylinder, its pistou, andan air-inlet through which air is admitted to the cylinder, of an oil-receiving chamber having au outlet into the engine -cylinder, a conduit through which compressed air is admitted to said chamber, a conduit through which oil is admitted to said chamber, and a dischargevalve applied to said chamber, whereby the charge of oil is blown out of said chamber and delivered into the cylinder by the compressed air upon opening the valve, substantially as set forth.
2. The combination, with the en'ginecylinder having an air-inlet aud valve, and a pistou which moves forward while said inlet is open and rearward after it is closed for compressing the admitted air, of a spray-pipe arranged within the cylinder, au oil-receiving chamber communicating with said spray-pipe,
an oil-pump which feeds oil to said chamber, a conduit through which compressed air is supplied to said chamber, and a valve which is opened for permitting the compressed air to drive the oil from said chamber through the spray-pipe into the cylinder, substantially as set forth.
The con'ibiuation, with the engine-cylinder, `its pistou, and au air-inlet and valve which is opened during the forward stroke of the piston for admitting the air and closed during the return-stroke for compressing the air, of a burner arranged within the cylinder, an oil-receiving chamber provided with a discharge-valve aud with a spray-pipe terminating near the burner, an air-compressor communicating with said chamber, an oil-pump connected with said chamber, and an alitomatie regulator whereby variable charges of oil are fed to said chamber, substantially as set forth.
it. The combination, with the engine-cylinder, its pistou, and an air-inlet and valve, of a burner arranged within the cylinder, a chamber having a spray-pipe terminating near the burner, au oil-pum p and au air-pump feeding oil and compressed air to said chamber, and a valve whereby the discharge of oil from said chamber is controlled, substantially as Set forth.
5. The combination, with the engine-cylinder, its piston, and the air-inlet and valve, which is open during the forward stroke of the pistou for admitting the air and closed during the return-stroke for compressing the air, of a burner arranged within the combustion -chamber of the cylinder, a receivingchamber provided with a spray-nozzle within the combustiou-chambcr, and oil and air conduits through which oil and air are supplied to said chamber, substantially as set forth.
7. The combination, with the engine-cylin-V der provided at one end with an oil-receivingchamber and a spray-pipe extending from said chamber into the cylinder, of an exhaust--v passage through which said spray-pipe extends, and an exhaust-valve which is seated in said passage and which surrounds said spraypipe, substantially as set forth.
S. The combination, with the engine-cylinder provided at one end with an oil-receiving chamber and having a spray-pipe extending into the cylinder, of an exhaust-passage in which said spray-pipe is arranged, an exhaustvalve surrounding said spray-pipe and seated in said passage, a discharge-valve arranged in the oil-receiving chamber, and an actuating-lever connected with both valves, substantially as set forth.
9. The combination, with the engine-cylinder and the burner arranged therein, of an oil-supply pipe extending into the cylinder and provided on one side of the burner with a spray-nozzle and on the opposite side of said burner with a vaporizing-shield, substantially as set forth.
10. The combination, with the hollow base provided with an unobstructed opening,
through which the external air can freely enter said base, of an en gine-cylinder connected with its open end to said base, a piston provided with an air-inlet and valve, through which air is taken from the hollow base into the cylinder, an oil-supply conduit and Valve arranged at the upper end of the cylinder, and a burner arranged within the cylinder, whereby the open base is ventilated into the engine-cylinder, substantially as set forth.
11. The combination, with the en gine-cylinder provided with a fuel-supply valve and an exhaust-valve, of an actuating-lever connected with both valves and a rotating cam and pin, whereby said lever is moved three times in succession for every two revolutions of the engine-shaft, the first movement opening the exhaust-valve partly and discharging the surplus air, the next movement opening the fuel-supply valve, and the last movement opening the exhaust-valve for discharging the products of combustion, substantially as set forth.
12. A burner composed of a shell provided with an oil and air supply, an absorbent packing arranged in said shell, a perforated plate for holding said packing in place, and an incandescent medium for preserving the flame, substantially as .set forth.
13. The combination, with the burner and the passage through which oil is supplied thereto, of a wick arranged in said passage and an air-jet device, whereby a spray of oil is delivered on said wick, substantially -as set forth.
14. The combination, with the burner and its upper` end with said passage, a Wick arranged at the upper end of said reservoir and entering said passage, a branch passage whereby air is conducted from the upper portion of said reservoir past the wick into the passage leading to the burner, and a blastpipe arranged in the lower portion of the reservoir and provided with inlets for the oil, substantially as set forth.
Witness my hand this lst day of January, 1890.
GEORGE B. BRAYTON. Vitnesses:
CHAs. C.,KURTZ, ALBERT G. HALL.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4693224 *||Aug 3, 1984||Sep 15, 1987||Orbital Engine Company Proprietary Limited||Fuel injection method and apparatus|
|WO1985000854A1 *||Aug 3, 1984||Feb 28, 1985||Orbital Engine Company Proprietary Limited||Fuel injection method and apparatus|