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Publication numberUS4376511 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 06/249,897
Publication dateMar 15, 1983
Filing dateApr 1, 1981
Priority dateApr 1, 1981
Fee statusLapsed
Publication number06249897, 249897, US 4376511 A, US 4376511A, US-A-4376511, US4376511 A, US4376511A
InventorsPaul R. Franklin, Jr.
Original AssigneeFranklin Jr Paul R
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
CO2 Snow forming copper line
US 4376511 A
Abstract
An apparatus is provided for forming CO2 snow and includes a CO2 line having an outlet end and an inlet end adapted for communication with a source of liquid CO2 under pressure. A snow forming head is provided and comprises a generally horizontal elongated laterally and downwardly opening channel member and a CO2 discharge conduit is disposed in and extends along the channel member. The conduit includes opposite side small diameter outlet openings formed therein and spaced longitudinally therealong opening outwardly toward and spaced inward of the opposing sides of the channel member. One end of the conduit is closed and the outlet end of the CO2 line is sealingly communicated with the other end of the conduit. At least the portion of the conduit having the small diameter outlet openings formed therein is of a greater internal cross-sectional area than the CO2 line whereby movement of liquid CO2 under pressure from the line into the greater internal cross-sectional area of the conduit will affect at least initial expansion of the CO2 and subsequent discharge of the latter from the outer ends of the small diameter outlet openings will affect further expansion of the CO2 resulting in a greater production of CO2 snow from a given volume of liquid CO2 from the aforementioned source.
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Claims(7)
What is claimed as new is as follows:
1. An apparatus for forming CO2 snow, said apparatus including a CO2 line having an outlet end and an inlet end adapted for communication with a source of liquid CO2 under pressure, a snow forming head, said head comprising a generally horizontal elongated laterally and downwardly opening channel member, a CO2 discharge conduit disposed in and extending along said channel member, said conduit including opposite side small diameter outlet openings formed therein and spaced longitudinally therealong opening outwardly toward and spaced inward of the opposing sides of said channel member, one end of said conduit being closed and the other end of said conduit having said outlet end sealingly communicated therewith, at least the portion of said conduit having said small diameter outlet openings formed therein being of greater internal cross-sectional area than said CO2 line, whereby the movement of liquid CO2 under pressure from said line into said greater internal cross-sectional area of said conduit will effect at least initial expansion of said liquid CO2 and movement of CO2 outwardly of the outer ends of said small diameter outlet openings will effect further expansion of the CO2 and result in a greater production of CO2 snow from a given volume of liquid CO2 supplied from said source.
2. The combination of claim 1 wherein said channel member includes a pair of parallel side flanges interconnected by an upper generally horizontal bight portion extending between the upper marginal edge portions of said side flanges.
3. The combination of claim 2 wherein said side flanges are of a vertical height equal to at least twice the diameter of said conduit.
4. The combination of claim 1 wherein said conduit is constructed of copper.
5. The combination of claim 4 wherein said channel member includes a pair of parallel side flanges interconnected by an upper generally horizontal bight portion extending between the upper marginal edge portions of said side flanges.
6. The combination of claim 5 wherein said side flanges are of a vertical height equal to at least twice the diameter of said conduit.
7. The combination of claim 1 wherein said other end of said conduit is of substantially the same inside cross-sectional area as the inside cross-sectional area of said CO2 line.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Liquid CO2 is utilized to form CO2 snow for the purpose of pre-chilling insulated containers in which perishables to be stored or shipped at reduced temperatures may be received. In this manner, such insulated containers may be stored or shipped over reasonably long periods of time while the contents of the containers are held at reduced temperatures independent of attendant mechanical refrigeration equipment.

At present, CO2 snow is formed as a result of liquid CO2 under pressure being supplied to the interior of a generally bell-shaped head or nozzle and discharged through small lateral ports from a position disposed centrally within the head toward the internal surfaces thereof. The sudden reduction of pressure of the liquid CO2 results in CO2 snow being formed and being discharged from the open outer end of the bell-shaped head. These bell-shaped nozzles or heads are capable of producing one pound of CO2 snow for each 2-1/4 to 2-1/2 pounds of liquid CO2 supplied to the head. It may thus be seen that the weight of CO2 snow produced is considerably less than half of the weight of the liquid CO2 required to produce the snow.

Accordingly, a need exists for a CO2 snow producing nozzle or head which will be effective to produce a greater volume of CO2 snow per unit of liquid CO2 utilized to produce the CO2 snow.

Examples of various forms of CO2 snow forming heads and other similar structures including some of the general structural and operational features of the instant invention are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,978,187, 3,109,296, 3,815,377, 3,861,168, 3,922,878, 3,932,155 and 4,111,362.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The CO2 snow forming apparatus of the instant invention utilizes merely a channel-shaped shroud containing a conduit extending longitudinally thereof and received wholly within the channel defined by the channel-shaped shroud. One end of the conduit is closed and the other end of the conduit is communicated with a suitable source of liquid CO2 under pressure. The portion of the conduit disposed within the channel is provided with laterally outwardly opening and longitudinally spaced opposite side small diameter outlet openings directed toward the opposing inner sides of the channel and, most importantly, the effective internal cross-sectional area of the portion of the conduit having the small diameter lateral outlet openings formed therein is approximately twice the effective internal cross-sectional area of the input end portion of the conduit with which the associated supply of liquid CO2 under pressure is communicated.

By this type of construction, the liquid CO2 supplied to the snow forming head is reduced in pressure as it passes from the small inside diameter delivery line into the larger internal cross-sectional area portion of the conduit immediately prior to being finally expanded upon passing outward through the lateral outlet openings formed in and spaced longitudinally along the opposite sides of the conduit portion of the snow forming head. By effecting a two-stage reduction of pressure of the CO2 supplied to the CO2 snow forming head, it has been found that the production of CO2 snow is increased to approximately one pound of CO2 snow for each pound and three-quarters to two pounds of liquid CO2 supplied to the snow forming head. Of course, this results in an increase of CO2 snow of up to approximately 45%.

The main object of this invention is to provide a CO2 snow forming head which will be capable of increased CO2 production from a given amount of liquid CO2.

Yet another object of this invention is to provide a CO2 snow forming head which may be readily and inexpensively included within the CO2 snow receiving compartments of various different forms of insulated storage and shipping containers.

Still another important object of this invention is to provide a CO2 snow forming head which may be readily manufactured from readily available components.

A final object of this invention to be specifically enumerated herein is to provide a CO2 snow forming head in accordance with the preceding objects and which will conform to conventional forms of manufacture, be of simple construction and easy to use, so as to provide a device that will be economically feasible, long lasting and relatively trouble-free in operation.

These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the CO2 snow forming head of the instant invention in operative association with a source of liquid CO2 under pressure;

FIG. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal, vertical sectional view taken substantially upon a plane passing along the longitudinal center line of the head; and

FIG. 3 is a transverse vertical sectional view taken substantially upon the plane indicated by the section line 3--3 of FIG. 2 and illustrating the manner in which the CO2 snow formed within the head may readily drop into a receptacle therefor.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Referring now more specifically to the drawings, the numeral 10 generally designates a receptacle portion for receiving CO2 snow and is contained within an insulated container 12. In order to fill the CO2 snow receptacle portion 10, a CO2 snow forming head referred to in general by the reference numeral 14 is mounted within the container 12 above the receptacle portion 10.

The head 14 comprises an elongated channel member 16 having substantially vertical opposite side flanges 18 and 20 interconnected by an upper bight portion 22 extending between the upper marginal edges of the side flanges 18 and 20.

The channel member 16 thus defines a downwardly opening channel area 24 and an elongated conduit 26 is mounted within the channel member 16 in slightly spaced relation relative to the bight portion 22 and with the conduit 26 extending longitudinally of the channel member 16. The opposite longitudinal side wall portions of the conduit 26 includes longitudinally spaced small diameter outlet openings 28 formed therein which oppose and open toward the inner surfaces of the corresponding side flanges 18 and 20.

One end 30 of the conduit 26 is closed by a plug 32 mounted within the corresponding end of the channel member 16 and the other end of the conduit 30 includes a diametrically reduced inlet end portion 34 with which the discharge end 36 of a CO2 supply line 38 is sealingly communicated by a coupling 40. The inlet end 42 of the supply line 38 is communicated with a source 44 of liquid CO2 under pressure and the supply line 38 may include any suitable form of valve 46 for controlling the flow of liquid CO2 therethrough.

The supply line 38 and inlet end portion 34 of the conduit 26 are approximately 3/8" in inside diameter and the conduit 26 is approximately 7/8" in inside diameter. Accordingly, the effective internal cross-sectional area of the conduit 26 is approximately double the effective inside cross-sectional area of the supply line 38. In this manner, as CO2 from the source 44 passes through the supply line and into the conduit 26, the liquid CO2 will be initially expanded as it moves from the inlet end portion of the conduit 26 into the larger cross-sectional area portion of the conduit 26 in which the outlet openings 28 are formed. Thereafter, the CO2 passes outwardly of the outlet openings 28 and is finally expanded and directed toward the inner surfaces of the side flanges 18 and 20 whereupon CO2 snow is formed within the channel member 16 and drops down into the receptacle portion 10.

By initially expanding the CO2 supplied to the conduit 26 at the inlet end of the conduit 26 and thereafter further expanding the CO2 as it is discharged from the outlet openings 28, a greater amount of CO2 snow is formed and received within the receptacle portion 10. As hereinbefore set forth, conventional CO2 forming heads or nozzles are capable of producing approximately one pound of CO2 snow for each 2-1/4 to 2-1/2 pounds of liquid CO2 supplied to the snow forming head. However, with the snow forming head of the instant invention, one pound of CO2 snow may be formed for each 1-3/4 to two pounds of liquid CO2 provided.

The vertical height of the flanges 18 and 20 is equal to at least twice the diameter of the conduit 26, the conduit 26 is constructed of copper and the inlet end portion 34 is of substantially the same inside cross-sectional area as the inside cross-sectional area of the supply line 38.

The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2978187 *Jan 23, 1959Apr 4, 1961Chemetron CorpCarbon dioxide fire extinguishing nozzle
US3932155 *Nov 13, 1974Jan 13, 1976Airco, Inc.Method for producing carbon dioxide snow
US4194689 *Sep 19, 1978Mar 25, 1980Ash Robert MMethod and apparatus for making snow
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4462423 *Feb 8, 1983Jul 31, 1984Franklin Jr Paul RCO2 Snow forming header
US4593536 *Jun 21, 1985Jun 10, 1986Burlington Northern Railroad CompanyCarbon dioxide refrigeration system
US4704876 *Aug 12, 1986Nov 10, 1987Hill Ralph PCryogenic refrigeration system
US4911362 *Feb 28, 1989Mar 27, 1990David DelichMethod and apparatus for making carbon dioxide snow
US4912782 *Oct 17, 1988Apr 3, 1990Kallista, Inc.Fluid spout providing lamelliform outflow
US5152155 *Apr 5, 1990Oct 6, 1992Shea Ronald DCarbon dioxide refrigerating system
US5323622 *Apr 21, 1993Jun 28, 1994Cryo-Trans, Inc.Multi-temperature cryogenic refrigeration system
US5398522 *Apr 28, 1994Mar 21, 1995Franklin, Jr.; Paul R.Double end servicing freight container CO2 snow forming header
US5415009 *Feb 3, 1994May 16, 1995Cryo-Trans, Inc.Cryogenic refrigeration system with insulated floor
US5511379 *Aug 4, 1994Apr 30, 1996Carboxyque FrancaiseProcess for the preservation of products at low temperature in an insulated chamber, installation for practicing the process, insulated chamber and container for such a chamber
US5566553 *Feb 1, 1996Oct 22, 1996Carboxyque FrancaiseProcess for the preservation of products at low temperature in an insulated chamber, installation for practicing the process, insulated chamber and container for such a chamber
US5868003 *Jul 14, 1997Feb 9, 1999Praxair Technology, Inc.Apparatus for producing fine snow particles from a flow liquid carbon dioxide
US6151913 *Apr 23, 1999Nov 28, 2000Praxair Technology, Inc.Method and apparatus for agglomerating fine snow particles
US7137568 *Jun 2, 2005Nov 21, 2006Lacrosse William RApparatus and method for flow diverter
US8809368Oct 28, 2008Aug 19, 2014Kansas State University Research FoundationCompounds affecting gap junction activity
US20080282712 *May 22, 2006Nov 20, 2008Franklin Paul RMethod and apparatus for lowering the temperature of a mixture of water ice and CO2 snow
US20090143425 *Oct 28, 2008Jun 4, 2009Kansas State University Research FoundationCompounds affecting gap junction activity
EP0631096A1 *Jun 22, 1994Dec 28, 1994Carboxyque FrancaiseLow temperature conservation process for products in an insulated enclosure, apparatus for carrying out the process, insulated enclosure and container for such an enclosure
EP0942244A1 *Mar 9, 1999Sep 15, 1999OlivoJet breaker for cryogenic compartment of isothermal container
Classifications
U.S. Classification239/14.2, 239/499, 239/520
International ClassificationF25D3/12
Cooperative ClassificationF25D3/12
European ClassificationF25D3/12
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jul 24, 1986FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Oct 16, 1990REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Dec 26, 1990FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Dec 26, 1990SULPSurcharge for late payment
Oct 18, 1994REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Mar 12, 1995LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
May 23, 1995FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 19950315