|Publication number||US4415790 A|
|Application number||US 06/347,710|
|Publication date||Nov 15, 1983|
|Filing date||Feb 11, 1982|
|Priority date||Feb 11, 1982|
|Publication number||06347710, 347710, US 4415790 A, US 4415790A, US-A-4415790, US4415790 A, US4415790A|
|Inventors||Bradford J. Diesch, Rex E. Fritts|
|Original Assignee||Raytheon Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (15), Classifications (15), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The process of cooking in a conventional gas or electric oven is relatively uncomplicated. Generally, temperature and time are the only two cooking parameters considered. Normally, the oven is preheated to a given temperature and the food is placed in the oven for a specified time period which is sometimes determined by the weight of the food. For example, it may be preferable to cook a turkey at 350° F. for 20 minutes per pound. Generally speaking, the heat at the surface of the food gradually travels inward by conduction raising the temperature of the interior and causing physical changes which are part of the cooking process. Because this cooking process is relatively slow and is always limited by the temperature of the oven so that there can be no thermal runaway, there is a reasonable tolerance in the selection of the cooking parameters. For example, a deviation of 10 minutes per hour or 25° F. in temperature may not have a significant impact on the palatability of the cooked food. This tolerance has contributed to a general confidence of most cooks of their ability to accurately select temperature and time, even in new situations. Another contributing factor is exposure in that most cooks grew up in homes where all of the cooking was done in conventional gas or electric ovens.
The microwave oven has evolved in the last two or three decades. Although consumer acceptance has greatly increased as has the percentage of households with microwave ovens, some consumers are still reluctant to buy or use microwave ovens because they don't have the general confidence in their ability to operate them; they feel intimidated by the sometimes complicated directions for using them. They no longer have the comfortable parameters of temperature and time to select.
The introduction or indoctrination into a relatively new cooking process is complicated by the rate at which foods cook. More specifically, because a microwave oven cooks so fast, an error of a few minutes in the selected cooking time can be a substantial percentage of the required cooking time and can result in a substantial difference in the doneness of the food. Furthermore, the temperature of the food body is not limited by the temperature of the oven; temperature runaway can occur. Accordingly, microwave oven manufacturers have expended considerable effort in research and development of apparatus and methods for simplifying the user task of determining the cooking parameters for microwave ovens. Simplified user operation would presumably expand the consumer marketplace.
One prior art approach is to provide a temperature probe which the user inserts in the food body. The oven is then permitted to remain on until the internal temperature rises to a selected value. This has been accomplished at a predetermined microwave power level set by the user. Once set, the microwave generating system operates at the chosen power level, which is reflective of a particular duty cycle for a magnetron, until the food is cooked or the power level is changed by the user. Setting the microwave power level requires a thorough knowledge of the characteristics of microwave cooking and the cooking abilities of the particular microwave oven used. There are many brands of microwave ovens with a multitude of maximum cooking powers, cooking characteristics and types of controls. All these add to the likelihood of a user error in selecting the proper power level.
The difficulty associated with the selection of the proper microwave power level is compounded by the nature of the food to be cooked and the cooking process itself. All foods are different, and they change as they cook. Different foods and different amounts of the same foods cook better at different power levels. Further, as the cooking process proceeds, the nature of the foods changes causing changes in the foods' ability to absorb the microwave energy. Hence, the optimum power level for starting the cooking process may not be the best for finishing it. Too high of a power level may overcook the food. Too low of one may undercook it or take an unnecessarily long period of time to cook the food satisfactorily.
Traditional radiant and circulated hot air ovens rely primarily on heat conduction from the surface of the food for cooking. Microwave ovens, on the other hand, generate microwave energy which penetrates the surface of the food a certain depth before being completely absorbed by the food. After that, however, even microwave ovens rely on heat conduction to cook the center of many thicker foods. In this instance in particular, there is a distinct possibility that the surface of the food may overcook before the center is cooked or the center may be left undercooked to preserve the appearance and quality of the surface of the food.
If the surface of the food, in the case of some foods, and the center of the food, in the case of other foods, could be held at a desired temperature, the cooking process could proceed while minimizing the possibility of overcooking or undercooking. The present invention accomplishes that while eliminating the possibility of user error in setting the power level by automatically reducing the microwave power level as the temperature of the food rises. At the same time, the power not consumed by the microwave generating system may be utilized by a radiant or forced hot air heater to increase the browning and crisping as the food reaches the desired degree of doneness.
The present invention is a microwave oven that automatically controls the duty cycle and hence the time average power level of the microwave generating system to quickly heat a food with microwave energy and then to reduce the average amount of microwave energy in response to a temperature rise in the food. Simultaneously, the energy diverted from the microwave generating system may be utilized by an electric heater to enhance the browning and crisping of the food. The oven includes an electrical circuit that converts a temperature differential signal into a signal for controlling the power level of the microwave generating system. The purpose is to decrease the microwave power level through the control system from substantially full power to a lesser amount of power thereby minimizing cooking time and precisely cooking the food product.
According to one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a control system for a microwave oven, including a microwave generating system, a switching means connected to the microwave generating system, a temperature sensing probe for sensing temperature of a food product being heated in the microwave oven, a wheatstone bridge for generating a temperature differential signal and having one leg of the wheatstone bridge connected to the temperature probe and an opposing leg connected to a temperature set resistor, a differential amplifier for amplifying the temperature differential signal and connected to the opposing legs of the wheatstone bridge, and an operational amplifier for integrating and generating a control signal through a latch and comparator. The control signal connects to the switching means of the microwave generating system to minimize cooking time and precisely cook the food product. The operational amplifier includes circuitry permitting it to positively and negatively integrate on a set wave form for controlling on/off time of the microwave generating system. Once the comparator reaches the set temperature, the comparator locks onto the upward portion of the set wave form and the latch resets on the downward portion of the set wave form. The circuit also includes an NPN transistor connected to an inverting input of the integrator circuitry for resetting the integrator of the set wave form. The reset signal is provided through a circuit connected to the base of the NPN transistor.
The percentage of cooking power may be varied as a function of the sensed probe temperature where the temperature is set by a standard resistance in the wheatstone bridge, the maximum temperature which the food will be allowed to reach. The maximum temperature excursion desired is such that the power varies from substantially 100% to 0% over the temperature as set by the set resistor in the wheatstone bridge where the set resistor may be a temperature dial on the front panel of the microwave oven. Equations implement a curve where the equilibrium temperature may be approximated as a point on the curve as a function of percentage power versus probe temperature over the set temperature in the wheatstone bridge.
One significant aspect and feature of the present invention is a control circuit which automatically controls the power setting of the microwave generating system from substantially full power down to an equilibrium percentage of power for an equilibrium temperature. As the desired, predetermined temperature is reached, the power level is decreased through the control system thereby optimizing the cooking time and precisely controlling the cooking of the food product.
Another significant aspect and feature of the present invention is a microwave oven control system electrical circuit which generates a temperature differential signal through a temperature probe connected in as one leg of a wheatstone bridge. The temperature differential signal is converted into a microwave generating system level signal for controlling the switching circuitry connected to the microwave generating system. The switching circuitry generates full microwave power to a decreasing amount once a predetermined equilibrium temperature is reached which may be determined by equations representing the curve of percentage microwave power versus temperature. The equations are a function of the percentage power versus the sensed probe temperature over the set temperature in two legs of the wheatstone bridge.
Another significant aspect and feature of the present invention is a control system which includes an electrical circuit having an up/down integrator in one circuit to positively and negatively integrate on a set wave form for actuating a comparator network with a latch. The system also operates with a signal for resetting the up/down integrator.
Having thus summarized the invention, it is one principal object hereof to provide a control system for a microwave oven or a microwave convection oven.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a control system having an electrical circuit in which an operator may preset the final temperature for a food product. The circuit energizes the microwave generating system at substantially full power and, as the predetermined temperature is approached, the power level is decreased so as not to overcook the food with the microwave energy. This provides for efficient use of microwave power by minimizing cooking time and thereby minimizing consumption of energy. At the same time, operator errors in setting the power level are eliminated.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a control system for a microwave convection oven where the on time of the microwave power source is decreased while the convection heater on time is substantially increased as a food product reaches a predetermined temperature as sensed by the temperature probe in the food product in the cavity of the microwave oven.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a control system which automatically decreases the microwave power level from 100% to 0%, all the while searching for the given food's equilibrium power level as approximated on the cooking curve. Consequently, it is not necessary to preset any power levels as in microwave ovens currently being sold in the marketplace. This provides for operator ease in operation of the microwave oven or microwave convection oven, whichever oven the operator uses.
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be more readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numerals designate like parts and wherein:
FIG. 1 illustrates an electrical circuit schematic diagram of a control system for a microwave oven; and
FIG. 2 illustrates a piecewise linear curve of cooking power versus sensed probe temperature over preset temperature.
FIG. 1 illustrates an electrical circuit schematic diagram of a control system 10 for a microwave generating system 11 for controlling microwave power. It shows a temperature probe resistor 20 which is incorporated into a temperature probe and positioned in a microwave oven cavity in any of a number of ways well known in the art. Resistor 20 is connected in a wheatstone bridge circuit 12. The wheatstone bridge circuit 12 includes fixed resistors 14 and 16, a set resistor 18 such as variable potentiometer and temperature probe resistor 20 in series with biasing resistor 19. Temperature probe resistor 20 is adapted for insertion into a food product as well known in the art. Voltage source V connects to the junction of resistors 14 and 16. Operational amplifier 22 connects to the opposing junctions of the wheatstone bridge 12 through resistors 24 and 28. Feedback resistor 30 is connected across the op amp 22 to form a differential amplifier 23. Resistors 24, 26, 28 and 30 establish an amplification factor through op amp 22. Resistors 32 and 34 connect to the output of the op amp 22 to form a voltage divider circuit. Capacitor 36 is connected to the output of the op amp 22 to act as a filter and remove any stray radio frequency current present in the control system 10.
Integrated circuit 38 with connected circuitry forms an up/down integrator 39. The up/down integration times of integrator 39 are set by the voltage at the non-inverting terminal of integrator IC 38. The output of the up/down integrator IC 38 connects to time 56. Timer 56 comprises a fixed period, variable duty cycle, square wave oscillator made up of an astable multivibrator built around "555" monlithic timer IC 54 with connections wired to pins 2 and 6. The remainder of the connections to IC 54 to complete timer 56 are well known in the art. One example is that shown and described in prior filed, commonly owned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 105,084 U.S. Pat. No. 4,332,992 which is hereby incorporated by reference. Other examples are shown in issued U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,121,079 and 4,242,554 which are also hereby incorporated by reference.
IC 38, which connects between resistor 32 and pins 2 and 6 of the 555 timer 56, together with capacitor 40 connected between the output and inverting input of IC 38 and with resistor 44 form the up/down integrator circuitry 39. Resistors 50 and 52 bias the base of transistor 42 which connects to pin 7 of the integrated circuit 54. The emitter of the transistor 42 connects to ground, and the collector of transistor 42 connects to the inverting input of integrator IC 38 through resistors 44 and 46. Resistor 48 connects between the V voltage source and the node of the resistors 44 and 46 for collector biasing and biasing of the inverting input of IC 38.
Transistor 42 forms a circuit between the timer integrated circuit 54 and the inverting input of the up/down integrator IC 38. The feedback signal through the transistor 42 of the closed loop feedback circuit provides for utilization of the IC 38 as an up/down integrator and controls the integration (positive or negative) depending upon the biasing of the base of the transistor 42. In this circuit, timer 56 acts as a comparator exhibiting hystersis with a latched output through transistor 42.
In operation, the food product is inserted into the cavity of the microwave oven for cooking in a microwave or a combination microwave and convection cooking mode. Resistor 18 is set with the aid of a scale, not shown, corresponding to degrees of temperature conveniently located on the front panel of the microwave oven in a manner well known in the art. The resistor 20 of the temperature probe is inserted into the food product in the cavity and appropriately connected to the control circuitry such as by plugging a probe plug on the other end of the temperature probe into a socket in the wall of the cavity as well known in the art.
If the resistor 20 is not at the same resistance as the set resistor 18 corresponding to the predetermined preset temperature, a voltage difference is created across the wheatstone bridge 12 in the normal manner. The voltage difference is amplified by the differential amplifier 23 since voltage on the non-inverting terminal is higher than the inverting terminal. This causes the output of the differential amplifier 23 to go positive by an amount proportional to the voltage difference generated by the bridge. This positive voltage output is divided by resistors 32 and 34, filtered by capacitor 36 and connected to the non-inverting input to IC 38.
Integrator 39 integrates on the signal appearing at the non-inverting input in a manner to be explained and, on reaching a voltage of two-thirds of the value of the voltage of pin 8 of timer 56, the output of pin 3 of timer 56 goes low, energizing the switching circuity 12 in a manner further explained in the patents and patent application already incorporated by reference. The switching circuitry, in turn, is connected to microwave generating system 11 in any number of ways well known in the art. At the same time, pin 7 of timer 56 goes to ground, turning off transistor 42. With transistor 42 turned off, voltage V is applied to the inverting terminal of IC 38 through resistors 44 and 48. This causes the integrator 39 to start to negatively integrate. When the voltage on pins 2 and 6 of the timer 54 reaches one-third of the value of the voltage on pin 8 of timer 56, the output of pin 3 goes high, and pin 7 goes to an open circuit.
By pin 7 giving an open circuit, it is effectively removed from the circuit. With the base transistor 42 no longer grounded, it begins to conduct through the current provided to its base from voltage source V through resistor 50. The base of transistor 42 is biased through resistors 50 and 52. The conduction of transistor 42 causes a voltage drop through resistors 48 and 46 to ground. The values of resistors 46, 48, 50 and 52 are selected such that transistor 42 continues to conduct and the positive voltage at the node between resistors 46 and 48 is dropped sufficiently so that, with the additional voltage drop through resistor 44, the voltage appearing at the inverting input of up/down integrator 39 is now less than that at the non-inverting input. Hence, the integrator will begin to integrate again, and the loop is complete.
The switching action of the transistor 42 controls the up/down integrating of the integrator 39. The cycling time of integrator 39 is determined by the voltage on the non-inverting terminal where the voltage is set by differential amplifier 23 which is the amplified voltage differential across the wheatstone bridge 12. The amplification factor of the differential amplifier 23 is high, such as one thousand. It is determined by resistors 24, 26, 28 and 30 by techniques well known in the art. Similarly, the capacitive value of integrating capacitor 39 controls the rate at which IC 38 integrates in a manner well known in the art.
The positive output voltage signal from differential amplifier 23 generally decreases with time. This is because as the object to be cooked is heated, it, in turn, heats temperature probe resistor 20. As it heats, resistive value of resistor 20 drops, causing a lesser voltage difference at the inputs to differential amplifier 23 to be amplified. Thus, the system reacts to heating in the food or other object to be heated by providing an input to the non-inverting input to up/down integrator 39 of lesser positive voltage. A lesser positive voltage at the non-inverting input means that it will take longer for integrator 39 to reach two-thirds of the value of the voltage of pin 8 of timer 56. The longer that takes, the longer pin 3 stays high and the microwave generating system 11 remains de-energized. Hence, over time, the microwave generating system 11 is energized less and less as the object to be heated reaches the desired temperature.
FIG. 2 illustrates a plot 60 of cooking power, "P," versus sensed probe temperature, "Tp," over preset temperature, "Ts," which is defined by equations 1-3 below. The percentage cooking power as a function of the sensed probe temperature over a preset temperature is approximated as a linear function with a decreasing ramp. With the percent power indicated on the vertical axis and the sensed probe temperature over a preset temperature set on the horizontal axis, the maximum temperature excursion, "Tme," can be determined as a function of the percent power varying from 100% to 0%. The horizontal straight line with a ramp can be described by the equation where ##EQU1##
The relationship of equations 1--3 describes the graphical representation of FIG. 2. Equation 1 represents the slope segment and equations 2 and 3 represent the substantially full power and zero power segments respectively. The representation of FIG. 2 is a straight line approximation of what in reality may more nearly approach a decreasing exponential curve. In other words, the function of the circuit of FIG. 1 is best illustrated by the three segment 62, 64 and 66--piecewise linear approximation of a decreasing exponential curve of FIG. 2. Because of the amplification factor of the IC differential amplifier 23, the curve which is approximated as a straight line has a very sharp slope. As the predetermined desired temperature is reached, the magnetron duty cycle is decreased. By cutting back on the power level, no manual setting of power is required, and the food is not overcooked. Also, the cooking time is shorter than with conventional microwave oven circuits in convection microwave ovens. For foods that require a reduced average power level, this invention determines the most efficient cooking curve and thus provides optimum cooking in the minimum time. The control circuit automatically starts out cooking the food product with substantially 100% power at line segment 62, then decreases the magnetron "on" time in line segment 64 as the desired temperature is reached until an equilibrium power level is achieved, as best illustrated at point 67. If the initial temperature of the food is higher than the desired temperature, the control circuit starts out at 0% power at line segment 66. As the food cools, the magnetron "on" time is increased until the desired temperature is reached at point 67.
Various modifications of the present invention can be made without departing from the apparent scope thereof. The circuit 10 of FIG. 1 can be easily implemented in any microwave or microwave convection oven. A suitable switch can be installed to switch between the circuitry 10 of FIG. 1 and microwave oven circuitry which may include power level settings. The power level setting circuits are not applicable with the circuit 10 of FIG. 1 and would have to be disabled in any number of conventional manners during utilization of the circuit of FIG. 1.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3678247 *||Apr 19, 1971||Jul 18, 1972||Beckman Instruments Inc||Temperature control circuit with zero average temperature offset error|
|US3918636 *||Jul 23, 1974||Nov 11, 1975||Us Environment||Dual temperature controller|
|US4002882 *||Mar 5, 1975||Jan 11, 1977||Mccutchen Charles W||Heating circuit|
|US4117307 *||Aug 24, 1976||Sep 26, 1978||Danfoss A/S||Control system for charging and discharging an electric storage heater|
|US4217477 *||Nov 30, 1977||Aug 12, 1980||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Food temperature control in a microwave oven|
|DE2706138A1 *||Feb 14, 1977||Aug 17, 1978||Rowenta Werke Gmbh||Elektrisch beheizter toaster bzw. grill o.dgl.|
|WO1979000562A1 *||Dec 8, 1978||Aug 23, 1979||Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd||High-frequency heater|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4576487 *||Jan 23, 1984||Mar 18, 1986||Independent Energy, Inc.||Thermally responsive electrical control device and monitoring circuit therefor|
|US4639611 *||Jan 9, 1985||Jan 27, 1987||Nordson Corporation||Bridge circuit system|
|US4878008 *||Apr 21, 1988||Oct 31, 1989||Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.||Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field generator|
|US4933614 *||Jan 11, 1989||Jun 12, 1990||Alps Electric Co., Ltd.||Motor drive control circuit|
|US5079500 *||Feb 12, 1991||Jan 7, 1992||Ferranti International Plc||Potentiometric circuit arrangement|
|US5360966 *||Jul 21, 1993||Nov 1, 1994||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Microwave oven with temperature fluctuation detection|
|US5552112 *||Jan 26, 1995||Sep 3, 1996||Quiclave, Llc||Method and system for sterilizing medical instruments|
|US5599499 *||Jun 5, 1995||Feb 4, 1997||Quiclave, L.L.C.||Method of microwave sterilizing a metallic surgical instrument while preventing arcing|
|US5607612 *||Oct 7, 1994||Mar 4, 1997||Quiclave, L.L.C.||Container for microwave treatment of surgical instrument with arcing prevention|
|US5615996 *||Sep 5, 1995||Apr 1, 1997||Nikkiso Co. Ltd.||Method for prediction of the performance of a centrifugal pump with a thrust balance mechanism|
|US5645748 *||Jun 7, 1995||Jul 8, 1997||Quiclave, L.L.C.||System for simultaneous microwave sterilization of multiple medical instruments|
|US5811769 *||Feb 2, 1996||Sep 22, 1998||Quiclave, L.L.C.||Container for containing a metal object while being subjected to microwave radiation|
|US5837977 *||Jul 7, 1997||Nov 17, 1998||Quiclave, L.L.C.||Microwave heating container with microwave reflective dummy load|
|US5858303 *||Jul 7, 1997||Jan 12, 1999||Quiclave, L. L. C.||Method and system for simultaneous microwave sterilization of multiple medical instruments|
|US6713731 *||Jul 24, 2001||Mar 30, 2004||Itt Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc.||Fast response, multiple-loop temperature regulator|
|U.S. Classification||219/712, 219/492, 374/149, 323/366, 219/715, 340/588, 374/103, 323/280, 219/499, 340/599|
|Cooperative Classification||H05B6/6452, H05B6/6482|
|European Classification||H05B6/64T2, H05B6/64S1C|
|Feb 11, 1982||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: AMANA REFRIGERATION, INC., AMANA, IA. A CORP. OF
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:DIESCH, BRADFORD J.;FRITTS, REX E.;REEL/FRAME:003992/0795
Effective date: 19820209
Owner name: AMANA REFRIGERATION, INC.,IOWA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:DIESCH, BRADFORD J.;FRITTS, REX E.;REEL/FRAME:003992/0795
Effective date: 19820209
|Dec 5, 1986||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Dec 28, 1990||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Jun 20, 1995||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Nov 12, 1995||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|