|Publication number||US4422060 A|
|Application number||US 06/339,653|
|Publication date||Dec 20, 1983|
|Filing date||Jan 15, 1982|
|Priority date||Aug 21, 1981|
|Publication number||06339653, 339653, US 4422060 A, US 4422060A, US-A-4422060, US4422060 A, US4422060A|
|Inventors||Norio Matsumoto, Teruo Umehara|
|Original Assignee||Hitachi Metals, Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (95), Classifications (13), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
A>C and D>C (i)
A>C and D>C (i)
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to an actuator having a reciprocatable moving means, suitable for use particularly but not exclusively in a device for locking and unlocking automobile doors through the manipulation of a switch. Still more particularly, the invention is concerned with an actuator of magnet moving type.
2. Description of the Prior Art
Door locking devices adapted to lock and unlock automobile doors by means of an electric switch have been already installed on high grade automobiles. Various types of locking devices of the kind described have been proposed hitherto. A typical example of this device is disclosed in "Automotive Engineer's Handbook" (ed. by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan).
This device has a rod attached to the shaft of an actuator and fixed to a hook provided in each door. The hook is adapted to be brought into and out of engagement with a hinge provided in the body of the automobile in accordance with the reciprocative movement of the shaft, thereby to lock and unlock the door.
A torsion bar and a spiral spring are attached to the hook so that there is one peak point where the shaft encounters the maximum load in its single stroke from the locking state to the unlocking state or vice versa. Once the shaft is moved to one of the full lock or full unlock states beyond the above-mentioned peak, it cannot be returned to the other state naturally.
Thus, the torsion bar and the spiral spring in combination provide a fail-safe system in the door locking mechanism. Usually, the distance of movement of the shaft until the shaft gets over the peak point, i.e. the distance between the end of each stroke and the peak point in the same stroke is about 2˜4 mm which is less than a half of the stroke length.
In order that the shaft is moved beyond the peak point, the maximum thrust generated by the actuator has to be about 24.5 N or greater. It is also necessary that the maximum stroke has to be produced in the initial period of the movement of the shaft. Namely, it is necessary that the actuator has such stroke-thrust characteristics that the thrust takes the maximum value in the initial period of the stroke and the level of the thrust is gradually decreased as the travel of the shaft is increased.
There are various types of mechanism for actuating the shaft reciprocatingly. For instance, the aforementioned "Automotive Engineer's Handbook" shows a solenoid type actuator at FIG. 2-398, Section 16.2, Chapter 2. This solenoid type actuator, however, has the following disadvantages although it exhibits a good respondence. This actuator is usually composed of a movable member or a plunger, two separate solenoid coils spaced in the axial direction and surrounding the plunger concentrically, and a yoke apparatus accommodating the coils. These two coils are adapted to be energized alternately so that the plunger is moved in one and the other direction by the electromagnetic attracting force acting between the plunger and the coils. Thus, in the conventional solenoid type actuator, it is necessary to use two solenoid coils although only one of them is used in each stroke. In addition, each coil is required to produce a magnetomotive force large enough to actuate the plunger. This means that each coil has to have a large size. In addition, in this type of actuator, the thrust is increased as the travel of the plunger is increased and the plunger has to be stopped forcibly at the end of its stroke, so that a large impact is produced accompanying with a large noise. In order to absorb this noise, a noise absorbing member is attached to each end surface of the yoke member and/or each end surface of the plunger. In consequence, the stroke length for the production of the thrust is increased resulting in a reduced level of the thrust. The volume and weight of the actuator are also increased undesirably.
Solenoid type actuator having a moving magnet has been put into practical use already. For instance, the specification of U.S. Pat. No. 3,149,255 (Trench et al.) shows at FIG. 9 an electromagnetic motor having a similar construction to the actuator of the present invention. This electromagnetic motor, however, is intended specifically for use as swing motors for air pumps or for use as vibrators or the like apparatus adapted to be driven by commercial A.C. power, and is not to intended for the operation with D.C. power which is used for driving the actuator for an automobile door locking device. In addition, in this electromagnetic motor, the magnetic piece of the movable member is disposed in axial alignment with the magnetic gap formed between the movable member and the yoke apparatus, in order to make an efficient use of the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet.
Japanese Utility Model Laid-open No. 54317/1979 discloses an actuator having a reciprocatable movable member. This actuator also is intended for use in pumps, vibration machines or the like apparatus driven by A.C. power, and is adapted to produce a substantially constant thrust over its entire stroke.
As has been stated, the actuators proposed and used hitherto are still unsatisfactory as the actuator for an automobile door locking device.
Accordingly, an object of the invention is to provide an actuator having such stroke-thrust characteristics that the thrust takes the maximum level at the initial period of the operation and the level of the thrust is gradually decreased as the travel of the movable member is increased.
Another object of the invention is to provide an actuator having reduced size and weight.
These and other objects, features and advantages of the invention will become clear from the following description of the preferred embodiment taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of an actuator for a door locking device, constructed in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary enlarged sectional view of an essential part of the actuator shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3A is a graph showing desirable thrust-stroke characteristics of a spiral spring in an actuator for a door locking device;
FIG. 3B is a graph showing thrust-stroke characteristics of the actuator shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3C is a graph showing thrust-stroke characteristics of a typical conventional solenoid type actuator;
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of an actuator for a door locking device, constructed in accordance with another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of an actuator for a door locking device, constructed in accordance with still another embodiment of the invention; and
FIGS. 6A and 6B are sectional views of the modifications of the movable member incorporated in the actuator in accordance with the invention.
Referring to FIG. 1, an actuator generally designated at a reference numeral 1 has a yoke apparatus 3 and a moving means 5. The yoke apparatus 3 includes a hollow cylindrical yoke member 31 made from a soft magnetic material, an annular center yoke 32 also made from a soft magnetic material and projecting radially inwardly from the inner peripheral surface of the yoke member 31 at a substantially mid portion of the yoke member 31 and a pair of end yoke means having ring-shaped end walls 33a and 33b made of a soft magnetic material and attached to both ends of the yoke member 31, and end yokes 37a and 37b made of a soft magnetic material and welded to the end walls 33a and 33b, the end yokes 37a and 37b opposing to the center yoke 32 in the axial direction so as to form magnetic gaps 35a, 35b therebetween.
A pair of annular solenoid coils 7a and 7b are accommodated by respective coil bobbins 71a and 71b which serve as insulators. These two annular solenoid coils are disposed in a corresponding one of two halves of the space in the yoke apparatus divided into the two halves by the center yoke 32.
These two coils 7a and 7b are electrically connected to each other in parallel or series in such a manner that the same polarity appears at the ends of these coils opposing each other.
The moving means 5 disposed in the space defined by the yoke apparatus 3 includes a shaft 51, a ring-shaped permanent magnet 53 attached on the central portion of the shaft 51 and axially magnetized as illustrated, and magnetic members 55a and 55b secured on the shaft 51 and attached to both ends of the permanent magnet 53. In addition, as will be clearly understood from FIG. 3, the magnetic members 55a and 55b have cylindrical portions 551a and 551b and tapered portions 553a and 553b, respectively. The end yokes 37a and 37b are so shaped as to be able to receive the tapered portions 553a and 553b of the magnetic members 55a and 55b. The shaft 51 is supported for reciprocative movement by bearings 39a and 39b provided on the end yokes 37a and 37b, respectively, so that the moving means 5 can freely reciprocate in the aforementioned space.
The moving means 5 is further provided with noise absorbing members 57a and 57b made from a plastic or an elastic material secured to the end surfaces of the magnetic members 55a and 55b, and an annular protect belt 59 made of a plastic or a non-magnetic metal such as aluminum, fitted around the permanent magnet 53.
Modifications of the moving means 5 will be explained with specific reference to FIGS. 6A and 6B. Referring first to FIG. 6A, the moving means 5a has the ring-shaped permanent magnet 53 retained substantially on the mid portion of the shaft 51, and magnetic members 55a and 55b make contact at their one ends with respective end surfaces of the permanent magnet 53. The other end portions of the magnetic members are fixed to the shaft 51 by caulking. In the moving means 5b shown in FIG. 6B, an annular spacer 52 made of an elastic material such as rubber or the like is interposed between the inner peripheral surface of the ring-shaped permanent magnet 53 and the outer peripheral surface of the shaft 51. Other portions are materially identical to those shown in FIG. 5A. In this case, by selecting the outside diameter of the spacer 52 to be slightly greater than the inside diameter of the ring-shaped magnet 53, it is possible to absorb to some extent a possible fluctuation of the inside diameter of the permanent magnet 53, so that it is possible to easily and correctly mount the permanent magnet 53 on the shaft 51 concentrically therewith, without using any specific complicated jig. This in turn prevents the permanent magnet from projecting radially outwardly from the outer peripheral surfaces of the magnetic members 55a and 55b.
The operation of the actuator having the described construction will be explained hereinafter with reference to FIG. 2.
The solenoid coils 7a, 7b are energized through terminals (not shown) by D.C. power in such a manner that the same polarity appears in the adjacent ends of these coils. Namely, the direct current is supplied such that an S pole appears at the portion 32c of the center yoke 32, while N poles appear on the portions 37'a and 37'b of the end yokes 37a and 37b facing the center yoke 32. The magnetic flux from the N pole of the permanent magnet 53 of the moving means 5 reaches the S pole of the permanent magnet 53 through the magnetic member 55a, magnetic gap 35a, solenoid coil 7a, center yoke 32, solenoid coil 7b, magnetic gap 35b and the magnetic member 55b. Thus, the magnetic flux define a closed magnetic circuit MC. In consequence, a magnetic repulsive force acts between the magnetic member 55a and the portion 37'a, while a magnetic attracting force acts between the magnetic member 55b and the portion 37'b, so that the moving means 5 is moved in the direction indicated by a full-line arrow X in the FIG. 2.
When the polarity of the supply of the direct current to the solenoid coils 7a, 7b is reversed, the magnetic relation between the portions 37'a, 37'b and the magnetic members 55a, 55b is also reversed, so that the moving means 5 is moved in the direction indicated by a chain-line arrow Y.
The thrust acting on the moving means 5 is, needless to say, proportional to the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet 53 and also to the direct current I supplied to the solenoid coils 7a, 7b, and has a dependency on the variation of the permeance P of the closed magnetic circuit MC. Namely, the thrust is changeable depending on the relative positionings of the magnetic members 55a, 55b, portions 37'a, 37'b, opposing portion 32c of the center yoke and the permanent magnet 53. Thus, the maximum thrust is obtained at a position of the moving means where the absolute value of the variate ΔP of the permeance P of the closed magnetic circuit takes the maximum value.
In order to obtain the maximum thrust, i.e. the maximum variant ΔP, at the initial period of the stroking, it is necessary that the above-mentioned constituents of the actuator are constructed and arranged to meet the following conditions (i) and (ii) simultaneously:
D>C and A>C (i)
where, as will be seen from FIG. 2, A represents the axial distance between the opposing surfaces of the portions 37'a and 37'b opposing to the center yoke 32, B represents the axial length of the portion 32c of the center yoke 32 opposing to the moving means 5, C represents the axial distance between the inner ends of the magnetic members at the outer peripheral surface of the moving means 5, D represents the axial distance between the outer ends, i.e. the ends adjacent to the axial ends of the actuator, of the magnetic members 55a and 55b of the moving means 5, and lg represents the length of the radial gap between the opposing portion 32c of the center yoke 32 and the outer peripheral surface of the moving means 5.
In order that the maximum thrust is obtained in the initial period of movement, e.g. within the range of 0 to 5 mm, it is also necessary that the following condition (iii) is met;
where, L represents the entire stroke length of the moving means 5.
It is possible to obtain the thrust-stroke characteristics as shown in FIG. 3B by constructing the actuator such that the conditions (i), (ii) and (iii) are satisfied simultaneously.
In contrast, the conventional solenoid type actuator inevitably exhibits the thrust-stroke characteristics as shown in FIG. 3C.
In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the axial end portions of the magnetic members 55a and 55b are tapered at a taper angle θ such that the diameters are gradually decreased toward the axially outer sides. By varying the taper angle θ, it is possible to further improve the thrust-stroke characteristics shown in FIG. 3B.
More specifically, imagine here three positions of the moving means 5 where the edges of the magnetic members 55a and 55b oppose the edges of the yoke apparatus: namely a first position where the line I aligns with the edge (a), a second position where the line II aligns with the edge (b) and a third position where the line II aligns with the edge (c). Representing the thrust exerted at these three positions by Fa, Fb and Fc, respectively, it is desirable that the following condition is met in order to further improve the characteristics shown in FIG. 3B.
As stated before, the magnitude of the thrust depends on the absolute value of the variate ΔP of the permeance P of the closed magnetic circuit. From this fact, it is derived that a greater thrust is obtained in the portion where the length of the gap constituting the magnetic circuit is small than in the portion where the length of the gap is large.
Referring again to FIG. 2, the gap length lg in the first position is smaller than the gap length l'g in the third position. This means that the condition Fa>Fc is met. In the second position, the tapered portion of the magnetic member 55b is accommodated almost fully by the end yoke 37b, so that the variate ΔP of the permeance P of the magnetic circuit MC is decreased. Therefore, in the second position, the thrust is smaller than that produced in the first position, although the gap lengths are equal. The condition of Fc>Fb, therefore, is met also.
Experiments by the inventors shows that the condition of Fa≧Fc≧Fb is satisfied when the taper angle θ is selected to fall between 5° and 25°. If the taper angle θ is greater than 25°, the magnetic gap length lg is much greater than lg (lg≦l'g), so that the thrust Fa becomes much larger than the thrust Fc (Fc<<Fa) while the thrust Fb becomes substantially equal to the thrust Fc (Fc≈Fb).
To the contrary, when the taper angle θ is selected to be smaller than 5°, a relation lg≃l'g exists between the gap lengths lg and l'g, so that the thrusts Fa and Fc are substantially equal (Fa≈Fc), while the thrust Fb is substantially null (Fa≈0).
In the actuator heretofore described, permanent magnet 53 of the moving means 5 is de-magnetized by the de-magnetizing force generated by the solenoid coils 7a, 7b. It is, therefore, desirable to minimize the de-magnetizing force, in order to obtain the desired thrust with given volume and weight of the actuator. From this point of view, it is advisable to use, as the permanent magnet 53, a rare earth magnet having a B HC value of 78.0..0. Oe or greater, preferably an RC05 rare earth magnet. These rare earth magnets exhibit higher maximum energy product and higher residual flux density than other magnets, so that it is possible to reduce the volume and weight of the actuator for obtaining an equal thrust.
An actuator constructed in accordance with another embodiment of the invention will be explained hereinunder with reference to FIG. 4 in which the same reference numerals are used to denote the same parts or members as those in the embodiment shown in FIG. 1. This embodiment is distinguished from the first embodiment by the construction of the end yokes 37a and 37b and the magnetic members 55a and 55b of the moving means 5. Namely, in this embodiment, the magnetic members 55a and 55b have a bottom-equipped hollow cylindrical form and have no tapered portion. The end yokes 37a and 37b, therefore, have uniform wall thickness. The coil bobbins 71a and 71b are provided with annular inward projections 73a and 73b made from the same electrically insulating material as the bobbins. These projections 73a and 73b project into the magnetic gaps 35a and 35b.
In the assembling of the actuator, the end portion 34 of the hollow cylindrical yoke member 31 is bend inwardly and caulked. In this embodiment, however, the strain caused by the caulking is effectively born by the projections 73a, 73b so that the distortion of the magnetic gaps 35a, 35b is effectively avoided.
In the embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the end walls 33a and 33b and the end yokes 37a and 37b are fabricated separately and then are united by screwing or the like measure to form the end yoke means. This, however, is not essential and the end walls and the end yokes may be integrated by welding as in the case of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1.
The first and second embodiments described heretofore are not exclusive and the invention can be carried out also in the following form.
FIG. 5 shows an actuator constructed in accordance with a third embodiment of the invention in which, in contrast to the first embodiment having two bearings supporting the moving means 5, an annular bush 54 made of a self-lubricating metal is fitted around the moving means 5. The sliding surface of the bush 54 makes a sliding contact with the inner peripheral surface of the yoke apparatus 3. In this embodiment, the bearings for supporting the moving means 5 can be eliminated and the shaft 51 is required to project only from one end of the moving means 5.
In the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 5, an opening is formed in the end wall opposite to the projecting end of the shaft 51, so that the air is introduced to prevent excessive temperature rise of various parts of the actuator.
In this embodiment, the noise absorbing members 57a and 57b are attached not to the moving means but to the surfaces of the end walls 33a and 33b adjacent to the moving means.
As has been described, the present invention provides an actuator having the thrust-stroke characteristics suitable for actuating door locking devices for automobiles. In this actuator, the reciprocating motion of the moving means is caused by a simultaneous energization of two solenoid coils, so that the volume and weight of the actuator as a whole are remarkably reduced as compared with the conventional actuator in which the reciprocating motion of the moving means is caused by energizing two solenoid coils alternately. In addition, since the thrust acting on the moving means at the end of each stroke is reduced sufficiently, the level of the noise is lowered considerably to further enhance the utility of the actuator of the invention.
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|WO1994023435A1 *||Mar 30, 1994||Oct 13, 1994||Schrott, Harald||Bistable electromagnet, in particular magnetic valve|
|WO2009109444A1 *||Feb 11, 2009||Sep 11, 2009||Zf Friedrichshafen Ag||Electromagnetic actuating mechanism|
|WO2010067110A1||Dec 8, 2009||Jun 17, 2010||Camcon Limited||Multistable electromagnetic actuators|
|U.S. Classification||335/256, 335/266, 335/234|
|International Classification||E05B47/00, H01F7/13, H01F7/122, H01F7/16|
|Cooperative Classification||H01F7/1615, H01F7/13, H01F2007/1692, H01F2007/163|
|European Classification||H01F7/16A1, H01F7/13|
|Jan 15, 1982||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HITACHI METALS. LTD, 1-2, 2-CHOME, MARUNOUCHI, CHI
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:MATSUMOTO, NORIO;UMEHARA, TERUO;REEL/FRAME:003977/0251
Effective date: 19810923
|Jun 10, 1987||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|May 6, 1991||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Jun 5, 1995||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12