US 443451 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R.AM.HUNTER. ELECTRIC RAILWAY.
Patented Deo. 23, 1890.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
vRUDOLPH M. HUNTER, OE PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO TI'IE ELECTRIC CAR COMPANY OF AMERICA, OF SAME PLACE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 443,451, dated December 23, 1890.
Original application filed October 4. 1885l Serial No. 215,199. Divided and this application filed September l, 1890. Serial No. 363,638. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, RUDOLPH M. HUNTER, of the city and county of Philadelphia, and State of Pennsylvania, have invented an Improvement in Electric Railways, of which the following isa specification.
My invention has reference to electric railways and it consists in certain improvements, all of which are fully set forth in the following specification and shown in the accompanying drawings, which form part thereof.
This application (Case 164) is a division of my application, Serial No. 215,199, filed Octo-v ber 4, 1886.
My object is to provide a system of electric conductors which shall combine overhead and surface conductors, one being the positive and the other the negative. The overhead conductor is preferably the positive and the surface or underground conductor the negative. The surface or working conductor I prefer to make into sections arranged upon the road-surface and combined with an embedded supply-conductor and automatic switches which shall connect the said supply-conductor with the sections of working-conductor in connection with one of the collectors of the motor or car. By this means the negative working-conductor sections lnay be exposed on the surface of the roadway and have normally no injurious current passing through them, and, further, suoli method of normally cutting out the sections prevents undue leakage. It is to be understood that the surface sectional conductor may be the positive and the overhead or suspended conductor the negative, if desired, though the former arrangement is preferable. If desired in this last construction, the rails might be the return-conductor. The collector which travels on the suspended conductor is so constructed that it constantly grips the conductor with a steady pressure; but the instant an obstruction is reachedsuch, for instance, as the cable-support-the gripping action is automatically reduced to allow the wheels to separate sufficiently to pass over the said obstruction or enlargement. As soon as this is passed the normal grip is once more produced.
By my improvements herein set out I arrange one of the conductors at a sufficient In the drawings, Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional side elevation of an electric railway and an electrically-propelled car embodying my invention. Fig. 2 is a diagram illustrating the arrangement of circuits preferred. Fig. 3 is an elevation of the overhead collector. Fig. -I is a cross-section of the roadbed, showing the surface conductor; and Fig. 5 is an elevation showing the construction of the electric switch for the sectional surface working-conductor.
A are the rails.
B is the car-body.
Upon the rear axle C is secured a wormwheel K.
F is the electric motor, which is shown as supported under the front platform E. It is evident that the motor might be supported farther back under the car-body, if desiredfor instance, over the front axle.
The motor-shaft Gr extends rearward and is provided with a worm I, which meshes with the worm-wheel K on the rear axle.
L is a longitudinal bar connecting two frames Z, one on each axle, to hold them in pov sition, and to one of said frames is secured the collector-brush X, which makes contact with the surface conductor R. Any other form of collector may be used, if desired.
P is the overhead or suspended conductor, carried upon shoes p at intervals apart, and which slices are secured to or upon posts P or otherwise supported thereby. This conductor may connect directly with the generator Z or source of electric energy, or may be connected therewith through a supply-conductor h, connecting the distant end of conductor P with the generator, whereby the lineresistance through the motor and return may be equal for all positions of the motor on the line. The sectional surface conductor Rmay IOO be made continuous or in sections, the latter being preferred. In cross-section it is preferably T-shaped and embedded in concrete or other suitable hard insulating material A", contained in a trough A', arranged parallel with the track and, if desired, between the rails thereof. The particular location is immaterial. The trough A maybe made of wood or metal, and, if desired, may be dispensed with. ln place of using a separate conductor one of the rails may be used as a conductor. lf the conductor R is made in sections, a snpply-eonductor a must be u sed, eonnectin g with the generator and connected at intervals with said sections of surface workingconductor by branches s, which may contain suitable switches R to normally eut out said sections of working-conductor. 'lhe supply-conductor, if desired, may be embedded in the concrete and the switches be located in suitable boxes or cases A, arranged in the roadway. 'lhe conductor-sections R may be held down by bolts r, which pass through the concrete and fasten to the bottom of the trough, or they may be simply held in the concrete. 'l`he upper surface of the conductor is on a level with or a little above the concrete and is arranged with a concrete insulation on each Side.
The preferred construction of switches R is shown in Fig. 5, in which it will be seen that the worki11g-conductor R and supplycondnetor a are connected through a branch circuit s, including a high-resistance magnet S, having an armature S9', which operates a spring circuitbreaker s in said circuit s, whereby the high-resistance magnet may be cut in or out of circuit. S is a low-resistance magnet also acting upon armature Si; but this lov-resistance magnet is normally cut out of circuit. whemhowever, the armature S2 is attracted, it operates a spring circuitcloser si to close the circuit 5 around the high-resistance magnet and simultaneously breaks the circuit s. The spring-contacts s s2 are so arranged that one contact is made before the other is broken, and vice versa. Normally no current is passing tothe sections R; but as the ear runs upon a section the current will flow as indicated by arrows, Fig. 5, and the armature Sl will he attracted, which, on rising, closes the circuit through the low-resistance magnet and then cuts out the high-resistance magnet, and the current passes in great strength to the working-conductor. In the construction shown in Fig. l the circuit-breaker s is dispensed with.
The current is collected from the suspended conductor by a traveling trucl: or collector Q, pulled after the car by a conductor Q5. 'lhis truck or collector Q is illustrated in Fig. ,aud is shown as consisting` of two wheels Q', connected together by a frame Q?.
Q1 is a gripping-wheel arranged upon the under side of the conductorand journaled in the bell-crank Q3, which is in turn hinged or journaled to the frame Q`2 and drawn toward it by a spring q, so as to grip the conductor between the wheels Q and Q". The tugging conductoncable Q5 connects with the free end of the bell-crank Q3, and is so arranged that the line of tension or pull is preferably below the axle of the leading wheel Q. lly this means the grip on the conductor will be constant. At the point of support or union of two ends of conductor there will be an enlargement, and to pass these enlargements without materially changing the degree of tension upon the conductor the wheel Ql must be somewhat lowered. This is accomplished by the pull upon the conductor or cable Q5 by the car when the carriage Q is temporarily arrested bythe enlargements,whichincreased pull oscillates the bell-crank Q and lowers the gripping-roller Q". (See dotted lines,Fig. This enables the friction-contact to be constant or practically constant at all times, and provides automatic means to positively operate the collector-carriage to quickly pass over obstructions.
l is the motor-circuit on the ear, and extends from conductor or cable Qlof the overhead collector through the motor F to the lower collector X, and may include a currentregulator or resistance-changer t to regulate the speed of the motor.
The current-collector forms subject-matter of my application, of which this is a division.
While l prefer the construction herein shown, l do not limit myself to the details thereof, as they may be modified in various ways without departing from my invention.
llaving now described my invention, what l claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Iatent, is-
l. The combination of an overhead snspended working-conductor, a surface working-eonductor,a source of electricitycommon to both of said conductors, an electricallypropelled vehicle, an electric motor mechanically connected to rotate the axle, a circuit, including the motor, electrically connected with both of said conductors, and a currentregulator in the motor-circuit for controlling the current passing through the motor.
2. The combination of a suspended workin g-cond uctor, a surface working-conduetor, a supply-conductor arranged parallel with said working-condeeters, and electrical eonnections at intervals apart between said surface conductor and supply-conductor.
3. The combination of a suspended working-conductor, a surface working-conductor, a supply-conductor arranged parallel with said working-conductors, electrical connections at intervals apart between said surface conductor and supply-conductor, and switches in said connections.
Lt. The combination of a suspended working-conductor, a surface workingcondnctor made in sections, a supplyconductor arranged parallel with said working-conductors, electrical connections at intervals apart between said surface conducto and supply- IOO and insulated therefrom, in combination with an embedded supply-conductor and electric switches connecting the supply conductor with working-conductor, said switches consisting of a high-resistance magnet and a lowresistance magnet, the former being in circuit when no car is on the section which it controls and the latter temporarily in circuit or during the passage of a vehicle, and a switch actuated by the low-resistance magnet to cut the high-resistance magnet out of circuit.
6. In an electric railway, a bared working conductor made in sections and arranged parallel to the road-bed and insulated therefrom, in combination with an embedded supply-conductor and electric switches connecting the supply-conductor with the workingconductor, said switches consisting of a highresistance magnet and a low-resistance magnet, the former being in circuit when no car is on the section which it controls and the latter temporarily in circuit or during the passage of the car, and a switch actuated by the low-resistance magnet to cut the high-resistance magnet out of circuit.
7. The combination of a sectional workingcondnctor, a supply-conductor, normally-open branches connecting the supply-conductor with the sections of the working-conductor, and electric switches in said branches, consisting of a high-resistance magnet in a temporarily-closed shunt-circuit around the lowresistance magnet, a low-resistance magnet in the norm ally-open circuit, a circuit-closer controlled by the high-resistance magnet to close the circuit through the low-resistance magnet, and a circuit-breaker controlled by the low-resistance magnet to break the shnnt-circuit.
8. The combination of asectional workingconductor, a supply-cond uct-or, normally-open branches connecting the supply conductor with the sections of the Working-conductor, and electric switches in said branches, consisting of a high-resistance magnet in a temporarily-closed shunt-circuit around the lowresistance magnet, a low-resistance magnet in the normally-open circuit, a circuit-closer controlled by the high-resistance magnet to close the circuit through the lowresistance magnet, and a circuit-breaker controlled by the low-resistance magnet to break the shunt-circuit, the said circuit breaker and closer being so constructed that both do not act at the same instant, whereby both magnets are in circuit for an interval of time.
9. In an electric railway, the combination of a longitudinal bed of insulating material arranged parallel to the road-bed and open ing tothe surface of the 4roadway, a bared working-conductor supported upon said insulating-bed and exposed on the surface, a supply-conductor embedded in said insulating material, and electrical connections between said supply and working conductors.
10. In an electric railway, the combination of a longitudinal bed of insulating material arranged parallel to the road-bed and opening to the surface of the roadway, a bared working-conductor supported upon said insulating bed, anchor-bolts extending through said insulating bed and connected to the working-conductor, a supply-conductor embedded in said insulating material, and electrical connections between said supply and working conductors.
1l. In an electric railway, the combination of a longitudinal bed of insulating material arranged parallel to the roadbed and opening to the surface of the roadway, a wooden trough inclosingl said insulating material on its sides and bottom, a bared working-conductor supported upon said insulating-bed, anchor-bolts extending through said insulating-bed and connected at the bottom to the trough and at the top to-the working-conductor, a supply-conductor embedded in said insulating material, and electrical connections between said supply and working conductors.
12. In an electric railway, the combination of a longitudinal bed of insulating material arranged parallel to the road-bed and open* ing to the surface of the roadway, a bared working sectional conductor supported upon the upper surface of said insulating-bed, a supply-conductor embedded in said insulating material, and electrical connections between said supply and working conductors, consisting of branch conductors extending outside of said insulating-bed and provided with switches.
13. In an electric railway, two conductors, one of which is suspended, in combination with a generator having one pole coupled with the suspended conductor, a supply-conductor coupled with the other pole of the generator, and electrical connections between the supply-conductor and the other of said conductors.
14. In an electric railway, two working-conductors, one of which is suspended, in combination with a generator having one pole coupled with the suspended conductor, asupply-conductor coupled with the other pole of the generator, electrical connections between the supply-conductor and the other of said working-eonductors, and electrical switches in said connections for Varying the resistance therein to the passage of electric current.
In testimony of which invention I have hereunto set my hand.
R. M. HUNTER.
ERNEST HOWARD HUNTER, A. J. DUNN.