Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS4446199 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 06/403,378
Publication dateMay 1, 1984
Filing dateJul 30, 1982
Priority dateJul 30, 1982
Fee statusLapsed
Publication number06403378, 403378, US 4446199 A, US 4446199A, US-A-4446199, US4446199 A, US4446199A
InventorsMichael A. Gedwill, Stanley R. Levine, Thomas K. Glasgow
Original AssigneeThe United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems
US 4446199 A
Abstract
A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(8)
We claim:
1. A coated article of manufacture comprising
a substrate selected from the group consisting of nickel-base alloys and cobalt-base alloys,
a cermet layer of an oxide dispersed metallic alloy having nominal composition in weight percents of about 11% to about 17% chromium, about 6% to about 10% aluminum, about 0.3% to about 0.5% yttrium, and the remainder nickel containing about 9% to about 40% yttrium oxide covering said substrate, said dispersed oxide comprising between about 10 and about 75 volume percent of said cermet layer, and
a protective coating of an alloy selected from the group consisting of nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base alloys covering said cermet layer.
2. A coated article of manufacture as claimed in claim wherein the thickness of the protective coating is about 50% to about 70% of the total thickness of the combined protective coating and cermet layer.
3. A coated article of manufacture comprising
a substrate having a nominal composition in weight percent of Ni-20Cr-1.4Fe-2Y2 O3,
a cermet layer of an oxide dispersed metallic alloy selected from the group consisting of nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base alloys and a refractory oxide covering said substrate, said dispersed oxide comprising between about 10 and about 75 volume percent of said cermet layer, and
a protective coating having a nominal composition in weight percent of Ni-18Cr-12A1-0.3Y covering said cermet layer, said protective coating having a thickness between about 50% and about 70% of the total thickness of the combined protective coating and cermet layer.
4. A coated article of manufacture as claimed in claim 3 wherein the cermet layer has a nominal composition in weight 25 percents of Ni-11 Cr-6 Al-0.3Y - 40 Y2 O3.
5. A coated article of manufacture as claimed in claim 3 wherein the cermet layer has a nominal composition in weight percents of Ni - 17 Cr-10 Al - 0.5Y - 9Y2 O3.
6. In a coated article of manufacture of the type wherein a substrate selected from the group consisting of nickel-base and cobalt-base alloys is protected by coating of an alloy selected from the group consisting of nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base alloys, the improvement comprising
a cermet layer of an oxide dispersed metallic alloy having a nominal composition in weight percents of about 11% to about 17% chromium, about 6% to about 10% aluminum, about 0.3% to about 0.5% yttrium, and the remainder nickel and a refractory oxide having a nominal composition in weight percent of about 9% to about 40% yttrium oxide between said substrate and said coating to inhibit interdiffusion between said substrate and said coating, said dispersed oxide comprising at least nine weight percent of said cermet layer.
7. A coated article of manufacture as claimed in claim 6 wherein the dispersed oxide comprises about 10 to about 75 volume percent of said cermet layer.
8. A coated article of manufacture as claimed in claim 6 wherein the thickness of the coating is about 50% to about 70% of the total thickness of the combined protective coating and cermet layer.
Description
DESCRIPTION ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION

The invention described herein was made by employees of the U.S. Government and may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor.

TECHNICAL FIELD

This invention relates to protective coating systems for metallic surfaces that are subjected to high temperature uses, such as the surfaces of turbine blades, vanes, and the like. The useful lives of current and new nickel and cobalt base superalloys in hot section air foils of advanced gas turbine engines are often limited by coating wearout. The new oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloys have the strength potential for thousands of hours of use at temperatures up to 1200 C. The major limiting factors are oxidation and hot corrosion.

Even though the endurance of these alloys has been improved by coating processes which utilize aluminide diffusion coatings and single-step overlay coatings, only interim short-term solutions to the problems have been obtained. The protection ability of these coatings rapidly degrades at temperatures contemplated for advanced jet engines primarily because of diffusional instability between the coating and an oxide dispersion strengthened substrate. It has been found that protective coatings of alloys containing aluminum over substrates of superalloys containing no aluminum were degraded because aluminum from the coatings diffused into the substrate.

BACKGROUND ART

Gupta et al. U.S. Pat. No. 4,145,481 discloses a process for producing elevated temperature corrosion resistant metal articles. This process employs an overlay of a ductile alloy of a composition normally resistant to corrosion at elevated temperatures and a corrosion-resistant outer layer of aluminide or metal. The article is then heat treated at high pressure to eliminate coating porosity.

Gupta et al. U.S. Pat. No. 4,198,442 is directed to a method for producing metal articles that are resistant to corrosion at elevated temperatures. The method utilizes a ductile inner layer of a cobalt, iron, or nickel alloy and an outer layer that is highly resistant to corrosion at elevated temperatures. The inner and outer layers form a composite coating.

In Hirsch et al. U.S. Pat. No. 4,101,713 a superalloy substrate is flame sprayed with powders of chromium and at least one element selected from iron, cobalt, and nickel to form a single layer coating. This coating may contain aluminum, carbon, yttrium, or the rare earth elements. In an alternate embodiment the coating powders include from about 0.5 to about 5 percent by volume of dispersed particles for dispersion strengthening.

Goward et al. U.S. Pat. No. 4,248,940 describes a thermal barrier coating system for nickel-and cobalt-base superalloys which comprises a zirconia-based ceramic that is applied over an alloy of chromium, aluminum, and yttrium with materials selected from a group including iron, cobalt, nickel, and nickel-cobalt. The ceramic material is a thermal barrier coating while the alloy is a bond coating. The materials of the bond coating and thermal barrier coating are graded from the surface of the superalloy substrate to the outer surface of the ceramic coating.

Gessinger U.S. Pat. No. 4,314,007 is concerned with producing a composite shaped article consisting of a reinforced core of a heat resistant oxide-dispersion hardened metal or alloy which is encapsulated within and bonded to a heat resistant metal or alloy cladding.

DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION

According to the present invention a substrate is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding.

The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and rapidly degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures. However, a top coating successfully applied in accordance with the present invention yields an excellent diffusionally stable, protective covering.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The details of the invention will be more fully described when taken with the accompanying drawings in which

FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view of an overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating system constructed in accordance with the present invention,

FIG. 2 is a graph of cyclic furnace oxidation of a coated superalloy,

FIG. 3 is a photomicrograph at 100 magnification of sprayed and heat treated coating system before furnace oxidation,

FIG. 4 is a photomicrograph at 100 magnification of the coating system shown in FIG. 3 after it has been cyclic furnace oxidized, and

FIG. 5 is a curve showing cyclic Mach 0.3 burner rig oxidation of coated and uncoated superalloys.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

Referring now to FIG. 1 there is shown a substrate 10 that is coated in accordance with the present invention. The substrate 10 is preferably of a nickel-or cobalt-base superalloy that is to be used in hot section air foils of gas turbine engines.

A base coating 12 is initially deposited on the substrate 10. The base coating 12 comprises an intermediate layer of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet) selected from the group consisting of nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base alloys and refractory oxide.

A top coating 14 is subsequently deposited on the base coating 12. The top coating 14 comprises an oxidation/hot-corrosion/erosion resistant alloy selected from the group consisting of nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base alloys.

The coated substrate is then heat treated to improve bonding. This heat treatment comprises heating the coated substrate at 1080 C. for four hours in an inert atmosphere.

For optimum protection the matrices of the top coating 14 and base coating 12 should have a stable, fine grain structure. Also the thickness of the top coating 14 should be in the range of 50% to 70% of the total thickness of the combined top coating 14 and base coating 12.

Both the base coating 12 and the top coating 14 are preferably applied by arc-plasma spraying the coating powders in ambient air at arc gas velocities in the range of subsonic to Mach 2.0. Alternately, the coatings 12 and 14 may be plasma sprayed in a chamber with either an inert gas or a vacuum environment. It is further contemplated that the coating powders may be arc-plasma sprayed in a reactive gas environment.

The cermet powders for the base coating are prepared using a mechanical alloying process. The volume percent of the dispersed oxide in the cermet coating is in the range of about 10% to about 75%. All other compositions are expressed in weight percents.

An oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy having a nominal composition of Ni-20 Cr-1.4 Fe-2Y2 O3 and known commercially as MA-754 was coated in accordance with the present invention. The coating system consisted of a base coating of Ni-11Cr-6Al-0.3Y-40Y2 O3 covered by a Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y top coating. This superalloy protected by the alloy plus cermet coating was subjected to a cyclic furnace oxidation test at 1150 C. The coating remained adherent throughout the test. The specific weight change in millograms per square centimeter plotted against exposure time in hours is illustrated by the line 20 in FIG. 2.

Two other coatings were applied and similarly tested. The first coating was aluminized electron-beam physical vapor-deposited Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.3Y. This coating remained adherent throughout the test. The results of this test are shown in line 22 of FIG. 2. Similarly, an electron-beam physical vapor deposited Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y coating was tested. The coating blistered during the test. The results of this coating test are shown in line 24 of FIG. 2.

The results illustrated in FIG. 2 show that the alloy plus cermet coating provides cyclic furnace oxidation protection for MA-754 of over 500 hours at 1150 C. compared to about 100 hours for the other two coatings. This is about a 5-fold improvement.

FIGS. 3 and 4 show typical cross-sectional microstructures before and after furnace oxidation. Both photomicrographs are of arc-plasma sprayed Ni -18 Cr-12Al-0.3Y plus Ni-11Cr-6Al-0.3 Y-40 Y2 O3 on a MA-754 substrate. The photomicrographs are at 100 magnification. A comparison of FIG. 3 which is after the substrate was sprayed and heat treated for four hours at 1080 C. in argon and FIG. 4 which is after the coated substrate was cyclically furnace oxidized for 500 hours at 1150 C. indicates that no serious coating degradation had occurred during the 500 hour oxidation test.

Several coatings on oxide dispersion strengthened superalloys were also evaluated in cyclic oxidation at 1150 C. in a Mach 0.3 burner rig which simulates a jet engine environment. The burner rig results plotted as weight change against exposure time for coated and uncoated oxide dispersion strengthened superalloys are shown in FIG. 5. The test results for an arc plasma sprayed Ni-18 Cr-12Al-0.3 Y plus Ni-17Cr-10 Al-0.5 Y- 9Y2 O3 coating on an MA-754 substrate are shown in line 30.

The test results of an arc plasma sprayed Ni-18 Cr-12 Al-O.3 Y coating on an MA-754 substrate are shown in line 32. The line 34 sets forth the results of an electron beam physical vapor deposited Ni-18 Cr-12A1-0.3 Y coating on MA-754. This coating blistered after a relatively short exposure time. Line 36 show the results of testing uncoated MA-754.

Line 38 illustrates the results of testing an uncoated substrate of commercially-known MA-755 E. This material has a nominal composition of Ni-15 Cr-4.5 Al-5.5 W-3.5 Mo-3Ti-2.5 Ta-1.1 Y2 O3. The same substrate coated with a commercial aluminized coating is shown in line 40.

It is evident the alloy plus cermet coating provided at least 250 hours of cyclic oxidation protection in the burner rig. Compared to one of the best commercial aluminide coatings, shown in line 40, the alloy plus cermet coating of line 30 showed about a 150-hour improvement. By increasing the oxide content above 9 weight percent in the cermet coatings, significant improvements are expected.

Although the preferred embodiment of the invention has been disclosed and described it will be appreciated that various modifications may be made to the coating system without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the subjoined claims. It should also be recognized that the invention can be used as the bond coating system in what is known as a thermal barrier coating.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3864093 *Nov 17, 1972Feb 4, 1975Union Carbide CorpHigh-temperature, wear-resistant coating
US3890456 *Aug 6, 1973Jun 17, 1975United Aircraft CorpProcess of coating a gas turbine engine alloy substrate
US4101713 *Jan 14, 1977Jul 18, 1978General Electric CompanyFlame spray oxidation and corrosion resistant superalloys
US4124737 *Dec 30, 1976Nov 7, 1978Union Carbide CorporationHigh temperature wear resistant coating composition
US4145481 *Aug 3, 1977Mar 20, 1979Howmet Turbine Components CorporationProcess for producing elevated temperature corrosion resistant metal articles
US4198442 *Oct 31, 1977Apr 15, 1980Howmet Turbine Components CorporationMethod for producing elevated temperature corrosion resistant articles
US4248940 *Jun 30, 1977Feb 3, 1981United Technologies CorporationThermal barrier coating for nickel and cobalt base super alloys
US4303737 *Jul 16, 1980Dec 1, 1981Rolls-Royce LimitedCoating material
US4314007 *Aug 6, 1979Feb 2, 1982Bbc Brown, Boveri & Company LimitedComposite shaped articles
US4330575 *Jan 26, 1981May 18, 1982Rolls-Royce LimitedCoating material
GB1352319A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4675204 *Jul 15, 1985Jun 23, 1987Bbc Aktiengesellschaft Brown, Boveri & CieMethod of applying a protective layer to an oxide dispersion hardened superalloy
US4832993 *Mar 9, 1988May 23, 1989AlsthomMethod of applying a protective coating to a titanium alloy blade, and a blade obtained thereby
US4904542 *Oct 11, 1988Feb 27, 1990Midwest Research Technologies, Inc.Multi-layer wear resistant coatings
US4943487 *Jul 18, 1988Jul 24, 1990Inco Alloys International, Inc.Corrosion resistant coating for oxide dispersion strengthened alloys
US4964564 *Aug 26, 1988Oct 23, 1990Neal Donald FRotating or moving metal components and methods of manufacturing such components
US5277936 *Nov 19, 1987Jan 11, 1994United Technologies CorporationOxide containing MCrAlY-type overlay coatings
US5316866 *Sep 9, 1991May 31, 1994General Electric CompanyStrengthened protective coatings for superalloys
US5507623 *Apr 4, 1994Apr 16, 1996Hitachi, Ltd.Alloy-coated gas turbine blade and manufacturing method thereof
US5712050 *Mar 28, 1995Jan 27, 1998General Electric CompanySuperalloy component with dispersion-containing protective coating
US5741556 *Apr 5, 1996Apr 21, 1998Praxair S.T. Technology, Inc.Process for producing an oxide dispersed MCrAlY-based coating
US5900326 *Dec 16, 1997May 4, 1999United Technologies CorporationSpallation/delamination resistant thermal barrier coated article
US6306515Aug 12, 1998Oct 23, 2001Siemens Westinghouse Power CorporationThermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers
US7758968 *Dec 1, 2004Jul 20, 2010Siemens AktiengesellschaftComponent with thermal barrier coating and erosion-resistant layer
US8215900Sep 4, 2008Jul 10, 2012Siemens Energy, Inc.Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins
US8555871 *Oct 13, 2010Oct 15, 2013Schott Solar AgRadiation-selective absorber coating and absorber tube with said radiation-selective absorber coating
US20110088687 *Oct 13, 2010Apr 21, 2011Thomas KuckelkornRadiation-selective absorber coating and absorber tube with said radiation-selective absorber coating
USRE34173 *Oct 31, 1990Feb 2, 1993Midwest Research Technologies, Inc.Multi-layer wear resistant coatings
EP0191618A1 *Feb 10, 1986Aug 20, 1986Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Mold for press-molding glass optical elements and a molding method using the same
EP0336612A1 *Mar 23, 1989Oct 11, 1989Inco Alloys International, Inc.Oxidation resistant alloy
EP0340791A2 *May 5, 1989Nov 8, 1989Hitachi, Ltd.Ceramics-coated heat resisting alloy member
EP0352557A1 *Jul 13, 1989Jan 31, 1990Inco Alloys International, Inc.Corrosion resistant coating for alloys
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/639, 428/678, 416/241.00R, 428/564
International ClassificationC23C28/02, B32B15/01, C23C4/02
Cooperative ClassificationB32B15/01, C23C28/02, Y10T428/1266, Y02T50/67, C23C4/02, Y10T428/12139, Y10T428/12931
European ClassificationC23C28/02, C23C4/02, B32B15/01
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jul 9, 1996FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 19960501
Apr 28, 1996LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Dec 5, 1995REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Sep 6, 1991FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Nov 2, 1987FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Aug 28, 1984CCCertificate of correction
Jul 30, 1982ASAssignment
Owner name: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AS REPRESENTED BY THE ADM
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:GEDWILL, MICHAEL A.;LEVINE, STANLEY R.;GLASGOW, THOMAS K.;REEL/FRAME:004028/0352
Effective date: 19820723