Improvement in magnetic printing-telegraphs
US 4464 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
4Sheets-Sheet'i. R. E. HOUSE I Printing Telegraph No. 4,464. Patented April 18; 1846.
Governor R. E. HOUSE.
No. 4,464. v Patented April l8,1846.
4 Sheets-Sheet '4 Sheets-Sheet 4. R. E. HOUSE.
Patented April .18, 1846.
v UNITED STATES,
ROYAL E. ouse, or NEW YORK, N.
IMPROVEMENT IN MAGNETIC PRINTI NG-TELEGRAPHS.
Specificationforming part of Letters Patent No. 4,464, dated April 18, 1846.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it'kn'own that I, ROYAL E. HOUSE, of the city of New York, in the United States of America, haveinvented newand useful machinery for transmitting intelligence between distant places and permanently recording the 'satne'in letters or other: signs by an application of the power of electricity or galvanism,
and which Idesire to secure by Letters Pat-.
saidmachine consists of two parts: first, of that part which is to hestationed at the place from which intelligence is to be transmittetl,'and which, for convenience of distinction, I denominate the composing-machine;
second, of that part which is to be stationed at the place to whiclrintelligcnce is to be communicated, and which, for the same reason, I
' denominate the printing-machine. These two parts are to be connected by electric or galvanic conductors, which conductors are to connect with any known generator of electric ty or galvanism, and form a circuit through or along which, when connected, a current of electricity or galvanism will pass. These two parts of said machinery are chiefly propelled by the power of weights, the elect-ric'oi 'galvanicforce being applied and used only to regulate the motion of the printing-machine. by means hereinafter described, and which requires much less power than is necessary to propel the machinery, and thus both the ad vantage of the instantaneous action of the electric or galvanicforce and the greater power of the weights ,are ,combined in the -accom plishment of the/ work for which the machinery is intended. n
I shall first explain .the composing-machine, and, in order that the same may be better understood, I shall describe it in connection with the drawings which are hereunto annexed, and which form a part of this specification; and, in
order to prevent, the necessity of otherwisespecifying the size and proportionsof the different parts of said-machinery, I-have caused the said drawings to he made was togive the sizes and proportions, the drawings on Sheet I being one-third of the size of the working machine, except Figures. 11, 12, and T3, which three figures and the drawings on Sheet [I are the full size of the working machine.
The composing-machine, as before stated, is
to be stationed at the place from whichthe intelligence or message is to be communicated,
and is to be worked or operated upon by the person desiring to transmit such intelligence or message. its obj ect-is to break or close the circuit of conductors, and to continue the same either broken or closed, at the option'of the operator, and in suchmanner as tozcauso any given letter to be printed bythe printingma metal or wood, metal being preferable. The
precise form'of the'frame is not-material, it being only necessary to have it so made asto be suitable to sustain the difi'e-rcnt parts of the machinery inthe positions and connections as I shall hereinafter describe. This part ofyn y machine is'represented by-Figs. 1 and-2 of Sheet I ofthedrawings. Fig. 1 vexhibitsthe plan, and Fig. 2 the side elevation, in giving Said composing-machine has twenty-eight v aparticular description of the parts of which I will commence with the power by which the machinery'is propelled, following it throughits diiferent connections, and pointing out the object and construction of said parts.
This composing-maclnne 1s propelled bye weight attached to the cord-b, passing over the fixed pulley a and winding round the barrel c. This barrel is hung on an axle, which has at one end the cog-wheel d, the barrel lieing connected with the axle and cog-wheel by a ratchet arranged in the ordinary and wellknown manner of similar fixtures in other machinery for winding up a weight. The cogwheel (1 works into the pinion c. The cog; wheel f carries. the .pinion g.- The cog-wheel It takes into a pinion on the shaft t, which carround the same. in Fig. 2' of Sheet I and Fig. 9-of- Sheet II of ries the governor. The upper end of the axle.
to which is attached the cog-wheel it passes through a cross-piece of the frame in which it runs. On the upper end is fixed the bevel friction-wheel-j. This wheel acts upon and carries a similar wheel, k, attached to the end of the key-shaft, and inrthis way motion is communicated to said key-shaft. of the end of said shaft rests upon said friction-wheel, so as to cause friction sufficient to cause it to revolve. Said shaft extends length wise through the frame, and may run in any convenient bearings fixed in the endsof said frame. In this shaft are fixed twenty-eight pins,.extending out from the surface of the shaft about a quarter of an inch, and being placed in a helical row extending thewhole length of said shaft, and the row passing once These pins are represented circuit of conductors, 4 and I have therefore called it the circuit-wheel. Fig. 9 of Sheet II of the drawings is a side elevation of said keyshaft and circuit-wheel. This is a' double wheel-that is, the inside of the wheel is about three-quarters of an inch less in diameter than the outside. On'the periphery of the outside or larger part of this wheel are cut fourteen cogs, forming between them fourteen spaces. The periphery of the inside or smaller portion of this wheel is smooth. This wheel is connected with the circuit of electric or galvanic conductors, and forms a part of the same, as follows: m and n in Fig. 1 of Sheet I of the drawings are ends of wire or metallic rods forming a part of said circuit, which conmeets the composing and printing machines, an d also connects one with the positive and the other with the negative pole of abattery'or,
other suitable and known generatorof electricity or galvanism. These wires or rodsm and n are inserted in the metallic binding-screws o and p, which are fixed into and pass through the frame, so as to have a small projectionon the inside. To these projections are attached two metallic springs, q and 1*, one end of the spring -q bearing upon the smooth portion-of the periphery of the circuit-wheel and one end of the spring a bearing upon the cogs cut upon the periphery of the outer portionof the said wheel. This wheel is designed to turn toward the spring q and from the spring 1', so that it may meet with no obstruction from the endof the spring r making fast to the said cogs. As the said circuit-wheelrevolves thespringrwill slide over the ends of the'cogs, and also pass over The weightand is used for breaking and closing the I or throughthe spaces between them, and thus the circuit of conductors will be broken by the spring 1' passing over or through a space and in contact with the .smoothportion of the periphery of. said wheel. Each one of these cogs .and spaces corresponds with one of the pins in the key-shaft and with one of the finger-keys.
The cogs and spaces are therefore represented ,inthe drawings by the same characters. as are the said finger-keys and pins. Fig-10 of Sheet II of the drawings exhibits an endelevation of said circuit-wheel and key-shaft.
The position of the finger-keys in the frame is shown ,by Fig. 2 of Sheet Iof the drawings. The keys are hung-upon a small rod, which passes through them atone end, and on which they may play up and down. These keys may" be made of any convenient material, but I cum struct them of wood with ivory tops, and on the under side of them there is a metallic spring, with a catch or cog to make fast to thepi'nsin the key-shaft. Fig.8 of Sheet II of the draw-' ings represents a side elevation of one of these keys. The spring is to raise the key after it has been presseddown by the finger.
V The use of the governor above mentioned is to equalize the motion of the machinery, preventing its running with too great velocity, and also to continue the motion of the other parts of the composing-machine when the key. a
shaft hasbee'n stopped by the pressing down of one of the finger-keys, so that/said shaft willresume its motion more readily on being liberated by the raising of the key. Thisgovernor is caused to revolve by means of the cogwheel h, as above described,"and when the keyshaft is stopped the'governor, by.t'he momentum which "it has acquired,.conti'nues-to run .and to carry the machinery by causing the friction-wheel j to slide round under the frictionwheel k,- so that whenth'efinger-key is permitted to rise and the catch or cog on the under side of it slips off from-the pin in the shaft, the other machinery being still in motion, the shaft will resume its motion more readily than 'it otherwise would. I will now explainthe connected operation of this part of my machine.
I have before stated that each key has a'pi n in the key-shaft and eithera space or aeogon the circuit-wheel with which it corresponds andto which itbelongs. I have also stated that this part of said magnetic letter-printing telegraph is to-be stationed at the place from which intelligence is to be communicated, and
it is to be used for breaking and closing'the circuit of conductors, and continuing the same either broken or closed the necessary time for any given letter or the dot to be printed'or the blank-space to be formed by the said printing part of the machinery to'bevstationed at the 'place to whichcommunication is to be made.
The manner of producing this effect is' as follows First, it may be observed, from what has been stated, that when'the key-shaft, and consequently the circuit-wheel, are put into motion by the agency of the weight attached to the cord 1), as described, the circuit of conductors will be broken and closed in rapid successionthat is, it will be broken whenever the spring 2' passes through a space between the cogs and closed whenever it slides over the end of a cog. \Vhile this process continues by the uninterrupted revolution of said shaft and wheel no printing will be done, for reasons hereinafter explained, and the effect thus far will be only to adjust the type wheel in the printing part of the machinery and to bringit into theproperposition for the printing to take place, as will be hereinafter described. When, however, a letter or other character is to be printed, it. is necessary that the motion of said shaft and circuit-wheel should be'arrestcd, al.- iowin g said circuit to remain either broken or closed till the desired letter is printed, and this is done by merely pressing down a finger-key. For example, ifdesirable to print, say, the letter A, the finger-keyAmustbe pressed down. This catches the pin A in the shaft, arresting the motion of the shaft and ofthecircuit-wheel at the same time that the spring 1' will be on the cog A, and the circuit of the conductors will thus beclosed, and, being closed, acurrent of electricity or galvanismwill pass through the circuit, causing the letter A to be printed at the place to which the message is to be com; municated. If desirable to print the letter B,
' then the fingei key 3 should be pressed down, i
which, catching the pin B, will stop the mo 'tion of the shaft and wheel while thespring r is in the space E of said circuit-wheel,and the circuit of conductors being thus broken, the
current of electricity or galvanism willceasc, causing the letter B to be printed. In like manner any other letter or the dot or the blank space maybe formed by merely pressing down the key marked with such lettcr,'dot, or left blank, a like effect being produced upon the pri ntin machine by either breakin g or closing the circuit, all of which will be understood by the examination of the parts hereinafter explained and described.
. I will now proceed to describe that part ofthe said magnetic letter-printing telegraph to be stationed at the place towhich intelligence is to be transmitted, and which,for convenience of distinction,I have denominated the printin g-machine.
A irontelevation of said printingmachine is exhibited by Fig. 30f Sheet I of the drawings, and which, for further convenience of distinction, I subdivide into parts'l and 2, as indicated in the'drawings; Fig. 4 of said sheet ex hibits an end elevation of par-t1 detached from part 2. This machine consists of the basis or bottom D, made of wood of any convenient thickness, and supported by legs a a, of any convenient length. Upon this basis, on each side of the working machinery, is to be erected a. metallic framework or case, suitable for bearings for. the different axles to run in and to sustain the machinery. This frame-work has front elevation of this escapement is shown by I Fig. 7 of Sheet II of the drawings. This escape'ment is carried or caused to'vibrate as I shall now describe, the machinery in part 2,
Fig. 3 of Sheet I of the drawings, being employed for this purpose.
6 is a connecting-rod, with one end con nccted to one arm of the escapement by means of a pin, on which-it may-easily work,'.thc othcrend thereof being loosely attached to an eccentric upon the shaft a of said part. 2 of Fig. 3. Fig. 50f Sheet III of the. drawings presents a full-sizedpla-n oflsaid shaft and eccentric with the connecting-rod attached, and also of the two arms 0 and b, one end of each of which is attached to the'shaft near said eccentric, the other or outer ends of said arms being bent at right angles, as shown by the drawings. These arms may be made of small wire.
d is an arm attached to and extending out from an axle hung in the frame. Fig. 4 of the lastnnentioned sheet of the drawings exhibits a full-sized plan of this arm and axle, and Fig.
3 is a full-sized elevation of the same.
f and g are small pins or detcntsinscrted in the arm (I. The pin g is intended to catch the bent ends of the armsc and b as the shaft into which said arms are fixed revolves. The pin fplays in a slot orhole formed in the end of the rod h.
i are helical cords ofinsulated wire, wound inthe usual manner and to considerable thickness, and so as to form a small orifice or hole at or near thecenter of the mass of said coils sufficient to admit therein a small magnet. These coils of wire are arranged in pairs. Fig.2 of said Sheet III of the drawings exhibits a'full-sized end elevation of one pair of said coils of wire with a magnet placed in them.
j is apermanent movable magnet, made of a small steel rod bent in two places at right angles, or it may bebent. in the form of a horseshoe-magnet, with the two legs or ends straight and passing loosely into the opening or holes formed, as aforesaid, in the said coils of wire, as shown in part 20f said Fig. 3 of Sheet I, and as also shown by Fig. 1 of Sheet III of the drawings; but I do not wish to be understood as confining myself to any particular number or size of said magnets or said coils. The n umber and size indicated by the drawings have been used for practical purposes; but other numbers and other sizes may be used.
h is a small'mctallic bar or rod attached to and connecting the tops of' said magnets by joints, and with the end is firmly attached to to revolve by the power of the ,weight.
l the frame. The part of this rod near the end may easily play up and down.
l is a weight attached to a cord which winds round a drum or barrel hung upon an axle, and arranged with a ratchet-wheel in the ordinary and well-known manner for conveniently winding up the weight when the same shall have run down. The eogwheel m is upon the same axle upon which the drum is hung. and works into a pinion, and carries the wheel and axle 'n. The cog-w e1 41. works into a pinion and carries the wi .1 and axle o. The'cogwheel 0 works into the pinion 'r on one end of said shaft a, as shown by Fig. 5, Sheet III, before described, and thus said shaft ais caused Sait wheels and pinions are to be so adapted in size as to give suflicient velocityto the shaft, Fig. 1 of Sheet III being one-third of the size, which will answer augood purpose.
I will next explain the operation of the machinery thus described, the. object of which is 'to give the proper motion to the escapement, as above stated. Thisis as follows: The weight Z, by means ofthe series of wheels and pinions connected as'above described, gives motion to the shaft a, on which. is fixed the eccentric to which the connecting-rod e is attached,
'as abm edescribed; and if the motion of said shaft were not interrupted it would revolve with great rapidity as long as said weight should be kept wound up; and inasmuch as the connecting-rode is attached to the eccen- I tric placed upon said shaft, said connectingrod will be once projected forward'and once drawn back at each revolution of said shaft.
This motion of the'connectin escapement to vibrate. v
The manner of regulating the motion of the shaft a by an application of theelectric or gals vanic force and by breaking and closing the circuit is as follows: 'p'and q are continuations of the wire formingthe coils before described. One is the positive and the other the negative pole forming part of the circuit. When the circuit is closed and a current of electricity or g-rod causes the.
galvanism passes through or along said-wire, "the small magnets (which easily play up and down in the holes left in ornear the center ofsaid coils) are drawn down, together-with the rod h, to which they are attached, and when the circuit is broken and the current of electricity or galvanisln ceases to pass, the rod h,
which is worked in the formof a spring at one .end, as described, rises by force of this spring, carrying with it said magnets, and thus this red will play up and down as often as the circuit of conductors is broken and closed, or as often as a current of electricity passes and ceases to pass along or through the wire forming said coils. When said rod is drawn down it carries with it the end of the arm d by means of the pin f in said arm,which passes through said rod is elevated it also carries the end of said arm with it. served, changes the position of the pin g, causing it to rise and fall as said magnets and said The cogs orbent ends of the arm a and b each in turn come in contact with the pin g at every revolution of the shaft a. The arm cis longer than the arm I), so that the bent end of the arm e-will' come into contact with the ping when the magnets are drawn down, and the pin 9 is therefore at its greatest distance from the shaft 0; or fromfthe center of motion of the arms 0 and g. The arm b must'be of such length that its, bent'end will catch to the pin 9 when the mag nets and rod It are raised, and the pin g is therefore nearest to the shaft a or to'thecenter of motion of the said arms can'd b. The bent ends of said arms strike said pin in a horizontal position, the side of the bent end of the so that one is parallel to the other, and so that the pin may easily slip below orbe-raised fore, the magnets are drawn down, carrying with them the rod hand the endof the arm,
the short arm b,'with which it was in contact,
trio perform half of one revolution, and the bent end of the long arm 0 will then make fast to the pin 9 and stop the motion ot' -the shaft,
rod h, and the end of the arm 01 are elevated, and said-pin y will be-raised, and, liberatingthe bent end of the long arm 0, the shaft on and the eccentric to-whichsaidconnecting rod is attached will again revolve half round, projecting said connecting-rod forward, and
e by-the, weight I, as hereinbefore described, is regulated by an application-of the power of electricity or galvanism.
The arrangement and machinery above described will be sufiieient and operate-success posing-machine .and printing-machine be very great. When this distance is very great it may befonnd necessary to addthe power of aless-extended and separate current of elec- \.tricity or galvanism to increase, the electric or galvanic force acting upon said magnets. This may be done by having an additional apparatus to operate in connection with that above resented in connection with part 2, already described. magnets connected by a rod at the top, similar to those already described in part 2.
s is the rod connecting themagnets, one end of which is to be connected with the Wireforming a part of an electric or galvaniccircu t; The poles of this additional apparatus or; said the slot or hole in the end ofsaid rod, and when part 3 are u and t, and these poles should be This motion,'it will be ob-' rod and the end of said arm rise and fall,
arm' coming in contact with the side of the pin,"
above the bent ends ofsaid arms.- When, therethe pin is carried down, and the bent end of is thereby liberated, and the shaft and eccenconnecting-rod 6 will be drawn back, and the which will remain so until the magnetsthe thus the motion given to the connecting-rodfully unless'the distance between the comdescribed, and which is shown by part 3 of- Fig. 1 of Sheet III-of the drawings, being rep- This consists-of a set of coils and I I! I I connected in the circuit extending to and connecting with the composing-machine, and when used in connection with part aforesaid may, for distinction, be denominated the first circult, and the circuit in which part 2 is con nected, for the same reason, may be'called the second circuit. When these two parts are used together the poles of the second circuit will be q and v. The second circuit may extend only a short distance from the printingmachine and be broken and closed by the first circuit-that is, the breaking and closing the first circuit also breaks and closes the second circuit, as follows: When the first circuit is closed and the magnets in this circuit and'the rod s connecting them are drawn down, the end of said rod 8 comes in contact with the wire or pole =1) and closes the second circuit. -When the first circuit is broken the rod 8, forming a spring at one end, will rise, thereby breaking the second circuit, 1
, The rod 8 should bea good conductorof electricity, and thus when the first circuit is closed the second is closed also, and when the first circuit is broken the second is broken also, and therefore breaking and closing the first circuit by. means of the composingmachine before described is, in eftect,breaking' and closing both circuits, and as a very smallforce is necessary tobreak and'close the second circuit,'the firstcircuit will afi'ord. sufficient electric force to break and close the second at great distances, in the'manner described, and if the distance should be so great as to require it there may be duplicates of part3 at intermediate places. The poles c and q of thesecond circuit may be connected with a battery or other known generator of electricity or gal 'vanism placed at a short distance therefrom,
and in the same or an adjoining room in which the printing inachine is placed, if desired, and in this way the disadvantage of the loss of the electric or galvanic. force from the distance between the composing and the printing machines is obviated, and the power of a battery or other generator of electricity or galvanism placed at a short distance from the mag- .nets in the second circuit is brought to bear thereon.
In the foregoing description of my said magnetic letter-printing telegraph I have spoken of circuits of electric or galvanic conductors.
By this I intend to be understood as meaning" any well-known arrangement or means of cansing a current of electricity or galvanism to pass through or along a conductor orconductors extending from the composing-to the printing machine and through or along said coilsof wire and rod 8, as described.
Having now explained the means and manner of giving motion tothe escapement,l will proceed with further explanation of part 1 of the printing-machine.
' A is a wheelfixed to an axle hung in the frame parallel to the shaft f, which wheel may I be about six inches in diameter and one-eighth of an inch thick. .On the periphery of this wheel are twenty-eight pro'tnb'onmces, formedl by scallops in the said periphery, as shown by;
the dra'wings,.Fig. 1 of Sheet llrepresenting" a side elevation of 'saidwheel and its axle, and
Fig. 2 of the same sheet a cut-section of the and the remaining one represents a blank,be-
ing a little shorter than the others. These letters, dot, and blank correspond respectively with the letters, dot, and blank on the fingerkeys above described. This wheel Icall the typewheel. I
Fixed in one side of the type-wheel (andfor. convenience of distinction,say, the front side) are fourteen small metallic pins, which project about one-quarter, of an inch from the periphery of the wheel.
The arms of the escapement above described extend alongthe front of the type-wheel, so that the catches in said arms make fast to these pins, the escapement being so adjusted at the same time, but so that when one pin is liberated from the catch in one arm by a vi bration of the escapement another will be caught in the catch of the other arm thereof. The escapement being caused to vibrate by the-motion ofthe connecting-rod e to which it is attached, as above described, and the type 7 wheel being caused to revolve by a separate and distinct power, as will be hereinafter de scribed; the result is that the pins are caught alternately by the arms of the escapement, and
the motion of thetype-wheel is thus interrupted and regulated.
The type-wheel is caused to revolve by the power of the weight attached to the cord 9 passing through thebasisD and winding round the barrel h, fixed upon an axle hung in the frame, andhaving a ratchet with the necessary fixtures arranged in the ordinary and well} known way for winding up the weight, and also a cog-wheel which works into the pinion i, with-a cognvheel atthe opposite end of the axle of said pinion which works. into the pin'- ion j and revolves the type-wheel.
I havenow described how the type-wheel is caused to revolve and the mannerin which its motion is interrupted and regulated by the escapement; and in order to better understand the object, application, and effect of the other parts of the printing-machine, it maybe of use to notice here what would be themotion of the partsalready described if put into operation without any additions being made thereto.
' if the weight attached 'to'the cord g, causing the type-wheel to revolve, be wound up and thecircuit of conductors be broken and closed in rapid succession by the revolution of the key-shaft and circuit-wheel, the arms of theescapernent will vibrate, and the type-wheel will revolvejby a regular hitching motion as fast as permitted by the vibrations of the escapemept, and the escapement will play with sufficient velocity to give the type-wheel about sixty revolutions in a minute. If in the meantime the key-shaft be stopped, causing the cireuit to remain broken or closed, the type-wheel would be held in one position by the escapement, and the whole operation would cease until the key-shaft hadagaiu resumed its process of breaking and closing the circuit. It is therefore obvious that other fixtures are neccssary to cause the machine to print, and these are as follows: a
B is a cylinder or drum, which I call the paper-cylinder. The axle upon'which this cylinder is placed is hung in two small metallic posts or arms aboutthree inches in length, the lower ends of-these posts or arms being firmly attached to an axle hung in the frame, and with which they vibrate, carrying said cylinder to and from the type-wheel.
m m are small metallic rods connecting by a joint with the upper ends of the posts I I, These rods are more distinctly exhibited by Figs. 5 and 7 of Sheet I of the drawings, being the plan and elevation of said rods and the parts to which they are connected, theangles being formed in the rods to accommodate the space between them to the length and movement of the paper-cylinder. 'The axle of the cylinder is to run in the tops of the posts, an is held down by the pressure of the spring 0 0. The ends of these connecting-rods m m are com nected to eccentrics on the shaft n by loose bands passing round said eccentrics, so that when the shaft a revolves, as I. shall herein after describe, the connecting-rods m m, and consequently the paper-cylinder B, are proiected forward and drawn back by said eccentries, the paper-cylinder being hung on the posts or arms to which the rods are attached, and said posts or arms turning on the axle 'to which they are attached, as before described.
The paper .on which the letter is .to be print:- ed may be wound round the cylinder B. This paper-cylinder must be hung at such a distance from the type-wheel that each revolution of the eccentric-sh aft 02 will bring the paper woundv round the paper-cylinder in contact with one of thetypc. Also, ,to cause the paper-cylinder to revolve so as ti; move each letter forward that another may e printed by the side of it, there are two catches, q and p, Iliigs= 3, 5, 6, and 7 of Sheet Iof the drawings, which extend the length of the cylinder and work, in the notches formed in the edge of oneend of the said paper-cylinder, said edge extending a little above the paper and answering the purpose of aratchet-wh'eel.
The catch q is attached to the side of the frame by the pins or screws at q q, forming:
an axis on which it turns. 7
Under the catches are springs by which they are sustained and kept. in the notches. The catch 1) is permanently attached to the posts or arms on which the paper-cylinder is hung,
so that it moves with the paper-cylinder in its cylinder axle,
motion to and from the type-wheel. The catch 12 also works in the-notches in the end of the a cylinder. The efl'ect of these catches in cansin g the c'ylinder'to revolve is as follows: When the cylinder is moved back from the typewheel the catch q takes into the said notches and turns the cylinder far enough to move the last'letter printed-out of the way of the next to beprinted, and-as the catch 1) retains its position it prevents the cylinder from turning back, and thus the cylinder is turned forward sufficiently far for the letters to clear each other each time that it is projected forward by the eccentric-shaft n, as before described.
A screwis. out 'upon one end of the paperandv also in. the groove on the end of the post in which it'runs, by means of which the cylinder will be moved endwis'e as it revolves, and the letters will thereby be printed in a helix round the cylinder. When it has thus moved the length of it, it is to be lifted out of the grooves in the posts and set back, so as to commence the printing again at the other end of the cylinder; or the papereylinder may be arranged with the ends of its axleplain, so as not to move endwise, in which case the paper round the eylindermust run on as the cylinder revolves, and in. such case, as the cylinder would not move endwise, and as less space would therefore be necessary for the cylinder between the con necting-rods m at, said rods may be made without the angles. Figs. 9and 10 of Sheet I show anarrangement of this kind. V
The material most convenient to be used for the printing, instead of ink, is plumbago, with which the type may be supplied by thesmall wheel or roller r, hung in the frame over the type-wheel. The roller 0' is sd'hung that it will revolve by the friction ofthe surfaceof the roller coming into contact with the type. The plumbago may be pulverized and placed in a groove cut in the periphery of said roller and covered by a suitable substance. Woolen cloth answers a good purpose. Theplumbago will work through the cloth sufiiciently to supply the type coming into contact with the.
I will now explain the manner in.which the shaft n, having the eccentrics to which the rods m mare attached, is caused to revolve, then,
also, how its revolutions are regulated. The power causing the revolutions of said shaft is a weight attached to the end of the cord k, which cord is wound round a barrel'or drum, having a ratchet-wheel and cog-wheel arranged for the convenience of winding up the weight by means of a crank,"similarly to the likefixtures connected with the weight attached to the cord 9, as above described. Fi 4 of Sheet ILexhibits a cut-section of each of these barrels,,ratchet-wheels, cog-wheels, and
the axles 'on whichthey are hung. The cogwheel attached to the axle of the barrel 8 works in and carries the pinion and axle t.. The cogwheel on the opposite end of this axle works into a pinion attached to the said shaft n, andthus the shaft n is caused to revolve by said series of wheels and pinious, which should be so adaptedas to gain velocity. It, now, no
' regulator or obstruction were interposed, the
wheel at each revolution; but in order to printany given letter it is necessary that the shaft'nshould only revolve when the type of the letter desired to be printed is brought opposite the paper-cylinder by the typ e-wheelthat is, it should revolve only when the type-wheel has been stopped by pressing down one of the finger-keys marked with the given character, as
above described. To accomplish this I use the following contrivance:
' ;u is a lever'with the larger end attached to the frame by an axle, forming a fulcrum, on which it works, the other being the small bent end of the lever playing up and down by the side of the periphery of the type-wheel, and on the s de of the type-wheel opposite tothat on which the escapement before described works. said lever works, and about half an inch from the periphery of saidwheel, are inserted twenty-eight small round metallic pins. These pins correspond in number with the protuberances on the wheel, and are placed on radial lines drawn from the center of said wheel to the types. The position of these pins is represented by the small quadrants and circles in Fig. 1 of Sheet II of the drawings. It must be under-stood, however, that these round pins are on the side of the wheel opposite to that which is represented by said last-mentioned figure, the quadrants on the side of the wheel exhibited representing the pins and the form of the same, upon which the escapement works, as before described. a and b of Fig. 2, Sheet II, show the form of one of the escapement-pins and one of the round pins detached from the wheel. The small end of said lever has a straight surface of about three-eighths of an inch in length, so as to rest on said round pins.
This small end of the lever is bent in the manner shown by the figure, so that it may fall,
when required, between said pins.
The construction and operation of the hy-" draulic regulator I shall hereinafter explain.
In the side of said lever is fixed the pin 1;,
about, one-quarter of an inch in length.
Firmly fixed upon the shaft a, above described, is'a thin metallic wheel, E, of an ce- In the side of the type-wheel on which centric form, and shown by Figs-11 and 12, Sheet 1 of the drawings. The pin a in the lever is designed to slide on the periphery of thiswheel as the wheel revolves, for the purpose of changing the position of the lever to. The wide part of this wheel-that is, the part of the circumference farthest from the center of its m'otion--is made thicker than theother part of the wheel-say three-eighths of an inch thick. In this thick part of said wheel are formed' two catches or shoulders, w and as, which successively take; the pin 22 as it slides upon the periphery of the wheel, thereby stopping the motion of the wheel. These catches or shoulders are about half an inch apart, being rather farther from the center of motion of the wheel than 112, so that when the wheel revolves the pin 11 will first take into. the catch or shoulder w, and on being liberated from thatwill next take into the shoulder as. The shoulder w isso formed that the pin 0 is to be liberated from it by being raised; butthe shoulder a: consists of a small projection of the thick part of the wheel, having a space worked out under it, so that when the pin 17 takes into it it can only be liberated by falling below and passing out on the under side of ,the catch or shoulder.
. The wheel and the'lever'u, with the pin 1)., will then operate together thus: Asthe wheel.
E revolves with the shaft on which it is fixed,
the pin o supposingit to start from that part of the wheel nearest 'to the center of motion) will slide round upon the periphery of the wheel, the lever being gradually raised thereby until the pin 12 comes in contact with the 1w, and this will be done by the first round pin in the typewheelwhich may pass the end of. the lever, the round pins in the type-wheel striking the end of the lever at 3 as thetypewheel revolves, throwing the pin '12 out of the shoulder 20. On this being done the said eccentric wheel and shaft will revolve the distance between the two shoulders w and m, and the pin 11 will .then take into the shoulder-m and the motion of the wheel and shaft "will again be'stopped. As'above stated, thetpin can only be extricated from the shoulder at by falling below itand passing out on the under side; but this it cannot do while the type-wheel is in motion, for as the lever is prevented from falling suddenly by the hydraulic regulator,
' the lever gradually falls between two of the said round pins. The pin e. at the same time falls, below the shoulder a: and upon the circumferencc'of the eccentric wheel nearest its center of motion, and thewheel and shaft'n revolves and the pin 1: again takes into the Fig. 13 of Sheet] of the drawings exhibits" a cut-section of the hydraulic regulator used to regulate the motion of the lever to, above described. It consists of the exterior glass vessel, a, which should be made water-tight,
and when in operation nearly filled with \Vil-- ter or other suitable liquid. Within this glass vessel, and fixed to the bottom thereof, is an low; but it is better to have it hollow in order apparatus constructed to act on the principle of the forcing-pump, and is to be entirely im-f mersed in the water contained by the glass vessel. It consists of the small cylindrical vesselb b, with holes in the sides, through which water may pass. At the top it has thesmall projection c '0, with a screw cut in its'outer edge, and on which is screwed water-tight the upper part of the apparatus d cl.
' e is a metallic guide extending across the upper end of the cylinder b b. Inthis guide works the: spindle of a spindle-valve, which.
valve is circular andfits air-tight on the shoulder 0 c.
g is a hollow piston or plunger working through the top "of thetvalve-chamber-d d. To the top of this piston or plunger is attached the piston-rod 2, which extends out through the neck of said glass vessel.
The piston or plunger may be solid or hol that it may be light. l
The sides of thevalve-chamber d dconverge toward the top. The piston or plunger should .work loosely in the top of the valve-chamber d d, leaving a space between the twosutiicient for water to pass in small quantities.
The operation of this hydraulic regulator is as follows: When the piston or-plnnger g is raised by the lever to, attached to the pistonrod, as described, avacnum is formed, the waterpassing through the holes in the side of the cylinder b b raises the valve f, andthe chamber d d is filled with water. When the piston or plunger descends the water which it displaces passes between saidplunger and the sides of the chamber (1 (Lin which it works,
and as this space is small, admitting the water only in small quantities, the plunger must descend very slowly, but, having no resistance to overcome except the weight of the plunger, it can ascend rapidly, which is important to re,,- ulate the motion of the lever .10, asabove described.
After the machine is arranged as above described all that is necessary. to cause it to print is for the person attending the composing part to press down, the fingen-key marked with the letter or character whichhemay de sire to print. This being done, thety'pe-wheel will stop when the type of the same letter or character is opposite to the paper-cylinder, and, thetype-wheel so stopping, the lever u will fall and the shaft 11. will revolve, bringing the cylinder in contact with the type, and thus the letter or character willbe formed.
To transmit numbers it is to be understood between the person making and the one re- :ceiving the communication that the first ten letters of the alphabet represent the nine digits and the cipher, in the order in which they are respectively placed, and that each of these letters in the transmission of'nnmbers is to be used for its corresponding digit or cipher, and may therefore be made to represent numbers. When these letters are so used for Y numbers it is to be understood that the same is to be indicated, say, by two dots, which must precede the letters, thereby giving 110- tice to the person receiving the message that the letters following are to represent numbers and to be followed by two blank spaces, indicatlng that they have ceased to be used fo'r numbers.
When a message is about to be transmitted it may be necessaryfor the person tending the composing-machine to give notice of the same to the person tending the printing-machine by-an alarm. This is effected as follows: F ofFigs'. 3 and 4st Sheet I of the drawings is a bell, and a its knocker or hammer, attached to the frame by a spring at the lower. end. "In the side of the eccentric wheelE is a pin, 1), about three-quarters of an inch long, against which the rod of the knocker rests. When' the eccentric wheel revolves, as described above, the hammer or knocker falls upon the bell and gives the alarm, and thusthe bell willbe rung and the alarm given as often as the shaft at revolves, or until the attention of the person tending the printing part of the machine is attracted thereto. While the machine is in process of printing the knocker may be secured from the hell by means of-a bent .wire or book, which should be at tached to the frame.
I-have now described the mechanism and arrangement thereof sutfieient to transmit intelligence from the place atwhich the composing-machine is stationed to the place at which the said printing-machine is stationed; but it will be important to revenseihe order of such communication between the same points or places, andthis may be done by having on'e composing-maehine and one printingmachine stationed at each place or point and connected with the same circuit of conductors in like manner as described above; also, the intelligence may be communicated to and recorded at any intermediate place or places between the two most distant points or termini in like manner as the printing-machine is connected with the said circuit of conductors at the mostdistant-place or termini, as described.
' the finger-keys are netic ,scribed, and for the purpose I do not wish to be understood in these .1 specifications as confining myself to any par 'ticular size or form or materials in the construction of the parts before described, unless it would change the general feature of said I: part or parts. Neither do I wish to be understood that I confine myself to any particular number of the letters of the alphabet, or to any particular alphabet. In all cases where the type of any other characters are to be used to be designated by the same Characters. 7
What I claim'as my own invention, and not previously known,in the above-described magletter-printing telegraph is- Y which I arrange and combine the finger-keys, a key-shaft, and a circuitwheel, respectively, for the purpose and substantially as herein described.
' 2. The combination of the esc'apement withthe type-wheel by means of pins in the side of saidtype 7 wheel, corresponding in ham- 1. The manner in her with half the number of letters and other characters which the type-wheel is con structed to form, and the above combination and arrangement of the escapement and type wheel in combination with magnets, as herein deherein stated.
3. The combination of the typewheel with the lever to by means of pins fixed in the side of said type-wheel equal in number to the number of letters and other characters formed,
' catches q and p,
other characters I mean as well the blank spot as the letters and dot,) for the pur-- pose of regulating the motion of the shaft av tocarry the paper-cylinder to and ,from the type-wheel, all as described in said specification.
(and by Y 4. The manner of combining E on the shaft a with the lever u;
I by-means of the pin 'v and projections w and or onsaid wheeL.
5. The combination of the lever u with the hydraulic regulator, to produoethe efl'ect herein pointed out, and scribed.
6. The manner of producing andregnlating the several motions of the'paper-cylinder by the combined action of the several parts, re"- spectively,
as herein described, viz: the hydraulic regulator, the wheel E,- the lever u, the
type-wheel, the eccentric-shaft It, and the rods m and m connected therewith, the ratchets or and the posts landl, as herethe manner of applying the in described, also as herein deplnmbago' to blackeuthe type, scribed. v 1
7. The combination of the composing apparatus with the magnets, for the purposes specified. V g
M. M. VAIL, GEO. GIFFORD.
inthe manner'herein de-'