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Publication numberUS4562543 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 06/491,480
Publication dateDec 31, 1985
Filing dateMay 4, 1983
Priority dateMay 4, 1983
Fee statusPaid
Publication number06491480, 491480, US 4562543 A, US 4562543A, US-A-4562543, US4562543 A, US4562543A
InventorsPierre A. Zuber, Mario Rogers
Original AssigneeWestinghouse Electric Corp.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Vehicle speed control apparatus and method
US 4562543 A
Abstract
A speed control system for a passenger vehicle provides a predetermined brake mode operation to control the vehicle speed when the vehicle speed plus a determined speed offset responsive to a calculated effort request signal is equal to or greater than a desired program stop speed, and then compares the calculated effort request signal with a predetermined value of the effort request signal to control the vehicle speed in response to the calculated effort request signal.
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Claims(11)
We claim:
1. In speed control apparatus for a vehicle moving along a track having a speed command signal and a program stop control signal, said vehicle being operative in one of a power mode and a brake mode, the combination of
means coupled with the vehicle for providing an actual speed signal,
means responsive to the speed command signal and the actual speed signal for calculating an effort request signal,
means responsive to the speed command signal and the actual speed signal for providing a power mode operation for a first value of the actual speed signal and a brake mode operation for a second value of the actual speed signal,
means responsive to the effort request signal for providing a speed offset signal,
means for comparing the program stop control signal with the sum of the actual speed signal and the speed offset signal to change from a power mode operation to a brake mode operation and to provide the effort request signal having no more than a predetermined maximum value to control said vehicle speed, and
means responsive to the actual speed signal being greater than said program stop control signal for controlling the vehicle speed in response to said calculated effort request signal.
2. The speed control apparatus of claim 1, with the speed offset signal providing means being responsive to the sum of the actual speed and the speed offset signal being greater than the program stop control signal.
3. The speed control apparatus of claim 1, including
means responsive to the program stop control signal for initiating the operation of speed offset signal providing means.
4. The speed control apparatus of claim 1, including
means responsive to the program stop control signal being less than the sum of the actual speed and the speed offset signal for terminating the provision of the speed offset signal.
5. The speed control apparatus of claim 1, with the speed offset signal having a predetermined relationship with the effort request signal.
6. The speed control apparatus of claim 1, with the speed offset signal being determined in relation to a difference between the calculated effort request and a predetermined value of the effort request.
7. In a method for the speed control of a vehicle operative with a track having a stop control signal and a desired speed signal, the steps of:
providing an actual speed signal in accordance with the actual speed of the vehicle,
determing a speed control signal in relation to the desired speed signal and the actual speed signal,
providing a speed offset signal in relation to the speed control signal,
providing a first speed control operation of the vehicle in response to a comparison of the stop control signal and the sum of the actual speed signal with the speed offset signal, and
providing a second speed control operation of the vehicle in response to the actual speed signal being greater than the stop control signal.
8. The speed control method of claim 7, with the first speed control operation being the brake mode of said vehicle in response to the speed control signal having no more than a predetermined value.
9. The speed control method of claim 7, with the second speed control operation being the brake mode of the vehicle in response to the determined speed control signal.
10. The speed control method of claim 7, with the first speed control operation being in response to the speed control signal having no more than a predetermined maximum value and with the second speed control operation being in response to the determined speed control signal.
11. The speed control method of claim 7, with the first speed control operation being followed by the second speed control operation.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

It is known to control with a programmed microprocessor the speed of a passenger vehicle such as a mass transit vehicle while that vehicle is moving along a roadway track, such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,217,643. It is known to provide a smooth and comfortable stopping of such vehicle in relation to passenger stations in accordance with a predetermined or program stop velocity profile such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,519,805; 3,727,406 and 4,208,717. For this purpose it is known to provide a transposed signal cable, or portions of such cable, along the vehicle travel path before a passenger station and operative with antennas carried by the vehicle to determine the travel distance and speed of the vehicle in relation to the desired stop position in the station.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In the programmed microprocessor speed control of a passenger vehicle in relation to a desired speed profile for stopping the vehicle in a passenger station, a speed offset is established as a predetermined function of the vehicle acceleration for each cyclic operation of the microprocessor until the sum of the vehicle speed and the speed offset is greater than the desired stopping speed profile. At that time the brake mode of the vehicle is initiated, with a predetermined effort control signal controlling the braking operation until the calculated effort request signal equals or is below that predetermined value, and the calculated signal then resumes control of the vehicle speed in accordance with the desired program stop velocity profile.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 functionally shows a prior art vehicle speed control apparatus;

FIG. 2 shows the well-known speed maintaining operation provided by the speed control apparatus of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 shows the well-known relationship of the P effort request signal for each of a power mode operation and a brake mode operation;

FIG. 4 shows a marker velocity or program stop speed profile and the prior art vehicle speed control operation in response to that speed profile;

FIG. 5 shows the relationship between the effort request P signal, the speed error and the actual speed of the vehicle operative with the prior art speed control apparatus in response to the marker velocity reference signal;

FIG. 6 shows the determination of a control speed offset to improve the flare-in or blending of the vehicle actual speed in relation to the desired program stopping profile speed provided by the speed control apparatus of FIG. 7;

FIG. 7 functionally shows the speed control apparatus in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 8 shows the improved vehicle speed control provided by the apparatus of FIG. 6;

FIG. 9 shows the improved vehicle speed control of the present invention in relation to the P signal, the speed error and the actual speed of the vehicle;

FIG. 10 shows a flow chart for the program routine determining the speed offset to control the flare-in operation with the program stop velocity profile; and

FIG. 11 shows a flow chart for the program routine determining when the actual speed plus the offset speed corresponds with the velocity profile such that the flare-in operation in response to calculated P signal is then provided.

DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

It is known for a passenger vehicle moving along a roadway track, as it approaches a passenger station, to receive position marker signals from one or more transposed cable or tape sections included in the travel path of the vehicle. The microprocessor speed control apparatus carried by the vehicle includes a memory that contains a desired stopping speed profile in the form of a look-up table. The position distance of the vehicle in relation to that speed profile is established by counting cross-over points on the cable at known separation distances such as every six inches. The marker signals from the transposed cable initiate the program stop operation as well as keep track of the vehicle position to control the vehicle in a desired slowdown speed pattern or profile.

The prior art vehicle speed control apparatus shown in FIG. 1 can provide a speed maintaining operation of a passenger vehicle. The input velocity reference signal 10 to the comparator 12 can be a function of the signal block speed command (SPCMD) signal 30 when in speed maintaining control operation or a function of the marker velocity program stop signal 31 for program stop control operation. The marker signal sensing apparatus 11 responds to the transposed program stop cable positioned in the roadway of the passenger vehicle and ahead of a passenger station where it is desired that the vehicle make a stop. The marker signal sensing apparatus 11 can control the operation of a switch 50, which is in the upper position as shown in FIG. 1 when there is no marker tape provided and it is desired that the vehicle operate in the speed maintaining mode for responding to the speed command signal 30 from the signal block occupied by the vehicle. The speed command signal 30 is applied to two differencing devices 32 and 36, with the device 32 providing an input brake velocity reference 34 which is 2 KPH below the value of the speed command signal 30 and the difference device 36 providing a power velocity reference 38 which is 4 KPH below the value of the speed command signal 30. In this way when the vehicle actual speed 14 goes above the brake reference velocity 34, the comparator 40 will provide an output 42 to the power and brake controller 44, which causes the output 45 to provide a brake control signal to the propulsion and brake apparatus 26 and causes the vehicle actual speed 14 to reduce below the brake reference velocity 34. During the brake operation time, the propulsion and brake apparatus responds to the P signal or acceleration effort request signal 24 for determining the brake operation of the vehicle in the brake mode. As the actual speed of the vehicle 14 drops below the power reference velocity 38, the comparator 46 provides an output 48 to the power and brake controller 44 for causing the output 45 to initiate the power mode of operation for the propulsion and brake apparatus 26, such that the propulsion and brake apparatus 26 then responds to the P signal 24 in the power mode of operation. In addition, a selector device 47 responds to the output 45 providing either one of a brake mode of operation to apply the brake reference velocity 34 through the switch 52 to the comparator 12 or a power mode of operation to apply the power reference velocity 38 to the comparator 12 for comparison with the actual speed 14 of the vehicle to provide a speed error 16 which operates with a PI controller 18 to provide a first P signal 20, which is jerk limited in a jerk limiter 22 to provide a control P signal 24 to the propulsion and brake apparatus 26.

In FIG. 2 there is shown the well-known relationship of the input speed command signal 30 with the brake reference velocity 34 and the power reference velocity 38 for determining the speed maintaining operation of a passenger vehicle.

In FIG. 3 there is shown the well-known magnitude ranges of the P signal in relation to each of the power mode and the brake mode of operation of the speed control apparatus shown in FIG. 1. When the P signal is 100 milliamps at the top of the power mode range, this provides full acceleration of the vehicle and when the P signal is at 20 milliamps at the bottom of the brake mode range, this provides the full service brake operating condition. When the P signal is at 60 milliamps, this provides the coast operation of the vehicle.

In FIG. 4 there is illustrated the input command speed 30, and the controlled actual vehicle speed 14 having a speed maintained difference such as 2 KPH below the command speed 30. The command speed 30 determines the vehicle operation before time T1, when the marker signal is sensed from the program stop cable positioned along the roadway track ahead of the passenger station to result in the input reference 10 to the comparator 12 becoming the marker velocity reference signal MVLPS, as illustrated by curve 31. At time T2 the marker program stop velocity profile reference 31 begins to decrease along a predetermined decreasing speed profile in accordance with the desired vehicle stopping operation, such as in relation to a passenger station. The switch 50 shown in FIG. 1 responds to the command speed signal 30 for as long as the marker velocity reference 31 is above the command speed 30, such that the vehicle speed 14 continues more or less unchanged until time T3 when the marker velocity reference 31 goes below the speed command 30 and the marker velocity reference 31 becomes the input velocity reference 10 to the comparator 12 as shown in FIG. 1. The vehicle actual speed 14 then approaches the desired program stop profile speed 31 until at time T4 the actual speed 14 goes overspeed beyond the profile speed 31 and a brake mode operation with maximum service brake condition is provided. This reduces the actual speed 14 and tends to cause the actual speed 14 to go underspeed below the profile speed 31 about time T5 when the power mode operation is again provided to bring the actual speed 14 to within a desired difference of about 2 KPH in relation to the profile speed 31. The speed control apparatus continues to control the vehicle speed 14 substantially to follow the profile speed 31 by switching between the brake mode and the power mode as required.

In FIG. 5 the marker velocity program stop reference 31a is shown in relation to the P signal 24a, the speed error 16a and the vehicle speed 14a illustrate the typical program stop speed control operation provided by the speed control apparatus shown in FIG. 1.

In FIG. 6 there is shown the determination of a control speed offset DVCHK to enable a smooth flare-in of the actual speed 14 in relation to the desired profile speed 31 in accordance with the present invention. At time T10 assume the vehicle speed 14 is below the command speed 30 and accelerating, but since a program stop marker input signal 31 is sensed at this time, the offset speed DVCHK is calculated in accordance with the relationship

DVCHK=1/8 (P signal-68)+2 KPH                              (1)

to provide a speed bias 70 in accordance with the relationship

speed bias=speed+DVCHK                                     (2)

Then this speed bias 70 is compared with the marker velocity reference profile signal 31 to determine the vehicle operation as follows:

When speed bias<MVLPS, stay in the power mode              (3)

When speed bias≦MVLPS, go to brake mode             (4)

Once the speed bias 70, which is the sum of the vehicle speed 14 plus the offset speed DVCHK, goes above the program stop velocity stop profile 31, in accordance with equation (4) the operation changes from power mode to the brake mode of operation and the P signal is set at no more than a maximum predetermined value of 50 milliamps, which operates to close the brake pads and begin to reduce the acceleration of the vehicle, but not provide a substantial amount of braking. This operation in the brake mode then continues until the vehicle speed 14 is greater than the marker velocity signal 31, at which time the calculated P signal again assumes control of the vehicle.

In FIG. 7 there is functionally shown an illustrative speed control apparatus operative in accordance with the present invention. The operation of the power and brake controller 44 and the selector device 47 and the other components shown in FIG. 1 is the same as previously described in relation to FIG. 1. In the power mode of operation prior to the sensing of the marker velocity signal 31 by the marker velocity sensing apparatus 11, the switch 80 is operative with the terminal 82 such that the calculated P signal 20 as determined by the PI controller 18 is applied through the jerk limiter 22 to the propulsion and brake apparatus 26 for determining the speed 14 of the vehicle. When the marker signal sensing apparatus 11 provides an output signal in response to the marker velocity signal 31 being sensed by the vehicle, the switch 50 is raised to apply the marker velocity signal 31 to the comparator 12 as the speed reference signal and the switch 81 is closed to apply the P signal 24 to the minimum signal limit 90.

The minimum limit 90 operates such that when the P signal 24 is less than 77 milliamps, the limit 90 provides an output 92 of 77 milliamps. When the P signal 24 is greater than 77 milliamps, the actual calculated value of the P signal goes through the minimum limit 90 to the output 92. The difference device 94 subtracts 68 milliamps from the value of the P signal 92, and the multiplier 98 multiplies the difference output 96 by 1/8 to provide the offset DVCHK that is shown in FIG. 6 and in accordance with above equation (1). The summing device 100 adds the offset DVCHK to the actual speed 14 to provide speed bias 70 in accordance with above equation (2). The comparator 86 senses when speed bias 70 is greater than MVLPS profile 31 and then raises the switch 80 into contact with the terminal 84 to provide the brake mode of operation for the speed control apparatus with a maximum P signal of no more than 50 milliamps.

This brake mode of operation, with a clamped maximum 50 milliamp P signal, is continued until the vehicle speed 14 is greater than the MVLPS signal 31 as sensed by comparator 87 and operative to open switch 83 to return the contact 80 to the lower position shown in FIG. 7 such that the calculated value of the P signal 20 then continues to determine the speed of the vehicle in response to the marker velocity program stop signal 31. When the switch 81 connected between the P signal 24 and the limit device 90 opens, the calculated value of the P signal no longer is applied to determine the speed offset DVCHK and which switch 81 is closed again when the MVLPS signal 31 is operative with the speed control apparatus.

In FIG. 8 there is shown the improved speed flare-in or merge control operation provided by the speed control apparatus of FIG. 6. It is seen that the speed 14 approaches the velocity profile 31 and does not overshoot in an overspeed condition, but rather after a smooth merge with the profile 31 follows at a predetermined 2 KPH speed difference in relation to the profile 31 as desired.

In FIG. 9 the improved speed control provided by the speed control apparatus of FIG. 6 is shown, where the MVLPS reference velocity 31 is shown in 31b, in curve 24b is shown the calculated P signal 24, in curve 16b there is shown the speed error 16 and in curve 14b there is shown the actual speed 14 of the vehicle, which result with the speed control apparatus of FIG. 6.

In FIG. 10 there is shown the functional flow chart for the control program which establishes the speed offset DVCHK in relation to vehicle acceleration. At block 120 a check is made to see if the vehicle has responded to a roadway track marker to request the program stop operation. If not, the speed control operation goes back to a speed maintaining routine, 128, such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,217,643. If yes, at block 122 a check is made to see if the vehicle speed is already in accordance with the desired program stop velocity profile. If it is, the operation goes to the marker program stop control routine 130, such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,208,717. If not, the flare-in speed offset DVCHK is calculated at block 124 using above equation (1). This speed offset DVCHK responds to the vehicle acceleration through the P signal, which is an effort request signal to determine the acceleration of the vehicle, and establishes with the speed bias control parameter when to stop accelerating and start braking the vehicle in relation to that acceleration to permit the actual speed 14 to smoothly flare into the desired program stop velocity profile 31. At block 126 a check is made to see if the speed bias, which is actual speed plus the speed offset DVCHK in accordance with above equations (2), (3), and (4), is greater than the marker velocity for program stop profile 31 at that time, such that the program stop control operation should start. If not, the operation returns to the speed maintaining control routine 128 and if yes, the operation goes to the marker program stop control routine 130.

In FIG. 11 there is shown the performance modification control routine that operates as a portion of the marker program stop control routine to determine the program stopping of the vehicle in the passenger station. At block 150 a check is made to see if the vehicle operation is in program stop. If not, the operation goes to block 152 where a check is made to see if the operation is in power. If yes at block 150, the operation goes to block 154 to set the brake mode of operation and to block 156 to check if the calculated P signal 20 is greater than 50 milliamps. If yes at block 156, then at block 158 a check is made to see if the actual speed 14 corresponds with the desired profile speed 31. If not, at step 160 the P signal 20 is clamped to a maximum of 50 milliamps, which energizes the brake pads but does not provide a substantial braking effort and which is illustrated in FIG. 6 by the operation of the switch 80 being lowered to contact the terminal 84. At block 162 a check is made to see if the speed 14 is greater than the program stop profile velocity 31 and if yes, the in profile flag is set at block 164 and the calculated P signal 20 again controls the program stop operation, which is illustrated by the comparator 87 in FIG. 6 moving the switch 80 in contact with terminal 82 and opening the switch 81.

At block 152 if the operation is not in power, the operation goes to block 166 to check if the P signal 20 is greater than 60 milliamps and if not, the operation goes to the jerk limiter routine. If yes at block 166, the operation goes to the coast routine. If yes at block 152, a check is made at block 168 to see if the P signal is greater than 60 milliamps and if not, the operation goes to the coast routine. If yes at block 168, the operation goes to determine what level of performance modification is required. At block 170 the P signal 20 is set to 60 milliamps for the coast operation and at block 172 the PI controller 18 is reset.

In Appendix A there is included an instruction program listing that has been prepared to control a process operation, such as a transit passenger vehicle in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention and the flow chart shown in FIG. 10 and in Appendix B there is included an instruction program listing in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention and the flow chart shown in FIG. 11. These instruction program listings are written in the assembly language of an Intel 8080 microprocessor computer system that is provided to implement the speed control apparatus of FIG. 6 for this purpose. Many of these computer systems have already been supplied to customers, including customer instruction books and descriptive documentation to explain to persons skilled in this art the operation of the hardware logic and the executive software of this digital computer system. These instruction program listings are included to provide an illustration of one suitable embodiment of the present control system and method that has actually been prepared. These instruction program listings at the present time are more or less development programs and have not been extensively debugged through the course of practical operation of vehicles on a transit system. It is well known by persons skilled in this art that real time process control application programs may contain some bugs or minor errors, and it is within the skill of such persons and takes varying periods of actual operation time to identify and correct the more critical of these bugs.

                                  APPENDIX A__________________________________________________________________________LOC OBJ  LINE     SOURCE STATEMENT__________________________________________________________________________    3610BFA    77   362 BEGIN:             MOV M,A   ;HOLD TIMER0BFB    3A3274    363      LDA MPSFL0BFE    B7   364      ORA A     ;DO PROGRAM STOP ?0BFF    CAB10C    365      JZ  SPMC  ;NO, SET SPEED MAINTAINING CONSTANTS0C02    3A3374    366      LDA MPSF10C05    B7   367      ORA A     ;IN PROFILE ?0C06    C2710C    368      JNZ MPSC  ;YES, SET MARKER/P-STOP CONSTANTS.0C09    3A1E74    369      LDA PSIG0C00    FED5 370      CPI 197   ;PSIG > 77 MA ?0C0E    D2130C    371      JNC BE8N3 ;YES.0011    3ED5 372      MVI A,197 ;BET PSIG = 77 MA.    3730C13    B6AB 374 BEGN1:             SUI 173   ;PSIG - 68 MA.0C15    0F   375      RRC0C16    0F   376      RRC0C17    E63F 377      ANI 3FH   ;BVCHK = .25(PSIG - 68).0C19    320974    378      STA DVCHK0C1C    210474    379      LXI H,SPEED0C1F    B6   380      ADD M     ;SPEED BIAS = SPEED  BVCHK.0C20    320A74    381      STA SBIAS0C23    210174    382      LXI H,MVLPS0C26    P6   383      SUP M     ;START PROGRAM STOP ?0C27    BAB10C    384      JC  SPMC  ;NO: KEEP ON WITH SPEED MAINTAINING.0C2A    3E0A 385      MVI A:0AH ;SET FLARE IN FLAG.0C2C    323374    386      STA MPSF10C2F    210000    387      LXI H,00H0C32    221474    388      SHLD                 PI    ;RESET PI CONTROLLER.0C35    C37100    389      JMP MPSC  ;SET MARKER/PROGRAM STOP CONSTANTS.    390__________________________________________________________________________

                                  APPENDIX B__________________________________________________________________________LOC OBJ  LINE      SOURCE STATEMENT__________________________________________________________________________    648       PERFORMANCE MODIFICATION CONTROL ROUTINE.    6490DD6    213374    650 PMCON:              LXI   H,MPSF10DD9    117874    651       LXI   D,OUT6A0DDC    7E   652       MOV   A,M     ;SET MPSF1.0DDD    B7   653       ORA   A       ;IN PROGRAM STOP ?0DDE    C2F00D    654       JNZ   BRMOD   ;YES.0DE1    1A   655       LDAX  D       ;GET OUT6A0DE2    E602 656       ANI   02H     ;IN POWER ?0DE4    CA110E    657       JZ    BRK1    ;NO.0DE7    3E99 658       MVI   A:1530DE9    B8   659       CMP   B       ;PSIG1 > 60 MA ?0DEA    D2170E    660       JNC   COAST   ;NO.0DEB    C3210E    661       JMP   PWMOD    6620DF0    FE   663 BRMOD:              DI            ;VISABLE INTERRUPT.0DF1    1A   664       LDAX  D       ;GET OUT6A0DF2    E60B 665       ANI   ODH     ;SET BRAKE MODE.0DF4    12   666       STAX  B       ;UP-DATE OUT6A.0DF5    7E   667       MOV   A,M     ;SET MPSF1 FLAG8.0DE6    17   668       RAL           ;IN PROFILE ?0DF7    BA110E    669       JC    BRKI    ;YES.0DFA    3A0174    670       LDA   MVLPS0DFB    4F   671       MOV   C,A     ;TEMP C = MVLP8.0DFE    3A0474    672       LDA   SPEED0E01    B9   673       CMP   C       ;MVLPS > SPEED ?0E02    BA070E    674       JC    BRK0    ;YES.0E05    36AA 675       MVI   M,0AAH  ;SET IN PROFILE FLAG.    6760E07    3E7F 677 BRK0: MVI   A,1270E09    B8   678       CMP   B       ;PSIG1 > 50 MA ?0E0A    D26B0E    679       JNC   JERK    ;NO.0E0B    47   680       MOV   B,A     ;SET PSIG1 = 50 MA.0E0E    C36B0E    681       JMP   JERK    6820E11    3E99 683 BRK1: MVI   A,1530E13    B8   684       DMP   B       ;PSIG1 > 60 MA ?0E14    D26B0E    685       JNC   JERK    ;NO.    6860E17    47   687 COAST:              MOV   B,A     ;TEMP B = PSIG1 = 60 MA.0E18    210000    688       LXI   H,00H   ;RESET PI CONTROLLER.0E1B    221474    689       SHLD  PI0E1E    C36B0E    690       JMP   JERK    691__________________________________________________________________________
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4723213 *Sep 5, 1984Feb 2, 1988Aisin Seiki KabushikikaishaControl device for vehicle speed
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US8380361 *Jun 16, 2008Feb 19, 2013General Electric CompanySystem, method, and computer readable memory medium for remotely controlling the movement of a series of connected vehicles
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Classifications
U.S. Classification701/20, 246/182.00R, 701/117, 246/182.00C, 246/182.00B
International ClassificationB61L3/00
Cooperative ClassificationB61L3/008
European ClassificationB61L3/00D
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