|Publication number||US4577718 A|
|Application number||US 06/606,699|
|Publication date||Mar 25, 1986|
|Filing date||May 3, 1984|
|Priority date||May 4, 1983|
|Also published as||DE3416369A1, DE3416369C2|
|Publication number||06606699, 606699, US 4577718 A, US 4577718A, US-A-4577718, US4577718 A, US4577718A|
|Original Assignee||Diesel Kiki Co., Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (21), Classifications (21), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to an apparatus for controlling the speed of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine, more particularly to a vehicle speed control apparatus by which the speed of a vehicle having an electronically controlled internal combustion engine is controlled so as to maintain a predetermined speed.
In prior art, a number of vehicle speed control apparatuses have been proposed in which the amount of fuel supplied to an internal combustion engine such as a diesel engine, gasoline engine or the like is regulated so as to control the speed of the vehicle having the engine at a desired constant speed. Such an apparatus is required to change the control condition in accordance with the condition of engine operation in order to carry out satisfactory vehicle speed control. For example, as disclosed in Japanese Utility Model Public Disclosure No. 57-14212, a vehicle speed control apparatus has been proposed in which a vehicle speed pulse with a frequency corresponding to the vehicle speed is converted into a voltage signal by a frequency-voltage converter, the conversion gain is changed in accordance with a predetermined level by the use of a changing circuit, whereby the gain of the control loop is changed in accordance with the vehicle speed.
However, since the apparatus gives no consideration to increases in engine load which occur, for example, during hill climbing and takes account of only the vehicle speed, it is difficult to attain satisfactory vehicle speed control. That is, in order to control the vehicle speed with good response characteristics, it is necessary to increase the gain of the control loop when the engine load increases. However, in the conventional apparatus, the control characteristics are insufficient since no consideration is given to this point.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved apparatus for controlling the speed of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine, wherein optimum control characteristics can be established in consideration of the load condition of the engine.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for controlling the speed of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine, wherein a control constant for a vehicle speed control circuit is selected in accordance with at least the engine load, so that optimum vehicle speed control for the condition of engine operation at each instant can be carried out.
According to the present invention, in an apparatus for controlling the speed of a vehicle driven by an internal combustion engine so as to maintain the vehicle speed at a target vehicle speed, the apparatus has means for generating a first signal relating to the target vehicle speed, means for generating a second signal relating to the actual vehicle speed at each instant, means for producing a load signal relating to the load of the internal combustion engine and a deviation detecting means responsive to the first and the second signals for producing a third signal indicative of the deviation of the actual vehicle speed from the target vehicle speed. To carry out PID (Proportional, Integrational and Differential) control of the speed of the engine in accordance with desired PID control characteristics dependent on the load signal, a control signal subjected to desired signal processing in response to the load signal and the third signal is derived from a signal generating means and the speed of the internal combustion engine is controlled in accordance with the control signal, whereby the actual vehicle speed is maintained at the target vehicle speed with high response characteristics.
The desired PID control characteristics may also be determined taking into account the second signal in addition to the third signal and the determination thereof may be carried out by a map calculation using a read only memory (ROM). That is, in a preferred embodiment, the load and second signal are applied to a read only memory in which a number of data showing various PID control characteristics have been stored in advance, and desired data is read out from the read only memory in response to the load and the second signal.
With this structure, when the load condition of the vehicle changes, the PID control characteristics are changed in response to the change in the load condition to decrease or increases the control variable. Therefore, it is possible to carry out a control operation for maintaining the vehicle speed at a desired constant level that takes the torque performance of the engine into account and is matched to the condition of the engine at each instant. Consequently, even when the engine is operating under heavy load as during hill climbing, it is still possible to carry out the control operation for maintaining the vehicle speed at a desired constant speed with excellent response.
The invention will be better understood and the other objects and advantages thereof will be more apparent from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an embodiment of the vehicle speed controlling apparatus of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is the flow chart of a control program used when a deviation detecting circuit and a control signal generator are replaced by a microcomputer; and
FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating another circuit arrangement for producing data showing vehicle speed.
FIG. 1 shows a block diagram of an embodiment of the apparatus for controlling vehicle speed of the present invention. A vehicle speed controlling apparatus 1 controls the position of a control rack 3a of a fuel injection pump 3 for supplying fuel to a diesel engine 2 and in this way controls the speed of the diesel engine 2 in such manner that the speed of the vehicle (not shown) driven by the diesel engine 2 is maintained at a desired target vehicle speed.
Data indicating the target vehicle speed is stored in a memory 4 by a data input device 4a and a first data D1 indicative of the target vehicle speed is read out from the memory 4 and applied to one input terminal of a deviation detecting circuit 5. For detecting the actual vehicle speed at each instant, there is provided a pulse generator 6 for generating a pulse train signal P whose period varies in accordance with the actual vehicle speed. The pulse generator 6 is provided in association with the propeller shaft (not shown) and the pulse train signal P is applied to a vehicle speed data generator 7. The vehicle speed data generator 7 has a period detector 71 for detecting the period of the pulse train signal P and a computing circuit 72 for computing and producing a second data D2 indicative of the actual vehicle speed in response to the output from the period detector 71. The second data D2 is applied to another input terminal of the deviation detecting circuit 5, which produces a third data D3 representing the deviation of the actual vehicle speed from the target vehicle speed.
The third data D3 is applied to a control signal generator 8 which produces a control signal CS on the basis of the third data D3, and the amount of fuel injected is controlled in PID control mode in accordance with the control signal CS.
The control signal generator 8 has a signal processing circuit 9 for carrying out signal processing on the third data D3 as required for carrying out the proportional, integral and differential control (PID control) on the basis of the third data. The PID control characteristics effected by the signal processing circuit 9 are determined by a fourth data D4. The fourth data D4 represents a set of PID control constants consisting of a proportional constant, an integration constant and a differential coefficient, and are derived from a setting device 10.
To determine the PID control constants on the basis of the engine load and the vehicle speed, the second data D2 and a load data D5, obtained from a load detector 11 and indicative of the engine load at each instant, are applied to the setting device 10. The load detector 11 is a position sensor for detecting the position of the control rack 3a and the load data D5 produced thereby represents the position of the control rack 3a at each instant.
The setting device 10 includes a reading only memory (ROM) 10a in which many sets of PID control constants are stored. The second data D2 and the load data D5 are applied to the ROM 10a as address data. As a result, the data stored at the address designated by these data D2 and D5 is read out as data representing the optimum PID control constants for the condition of vehicle operation at that time, and the data read out is applied to the signal processing circuit 9.
The data to be stored at each address designated by the data D2 and D5 as providing optimum control for the conditions represented by the data D2 and D5 can be determined experimentally.
The structure of the setting device 10 is not limited to that of the above described device in which map calculation is carried out in response to the data D2 and D5 to obtain the optimum PID control constants for the operating condition at that time, but may be arranged so that the optimum PID control constants are obtained by computations based on the data D2 and D5.
After the third data D3 has been subjected to the data processing by the signal processing circuit 9 in accordance with data D4 obtained as described above, PID control data D6 is derived from the signal processing circuit 9 and applied to a control variable output circuit 12 for producing the control signal CS. The control signal CS is amplified by an amplifier 13 and then is applied to an actuator 14 connected with the control rack 3a.
The control rack 3a is moved in response to the control signal CS in such a way that the deviation indicated by data D3 becomes zero. As a result, the vehicle speed is controlled so as to be maintained at the desired vehicle speed indicated by the data D1 from the memory 4.
With this circuit structure, since the PID control constants vary in accordance with the load condition of the vehicle or engine, the control variable is adjusted in response to the load condition, so that it is possible to realize optimum control for maintaining the vehicle speed at a desired constant speed. In particular, as shown in the embodiment, in the case where the PID control constants can be set on the basis of two parameters, namely the vehicle speed and the load, it is possible to realize optimum control for the condition of the engine operation at each instant in a manner that takes the torque performance into account.
The functions of the deviation detecting circuit 5 and the control signal generator 8 shown in FIG. 1 can also be realized by employing a microcomputer. The flow chart of an example of a program which can be used in this case is shown in FIG. 2. This program may, for example, be executed in the course of executing a main program for the control of the fuel injection pump by a microcomputer built in a main control device (not shown) for electronically controlling the fuel injection pump 3.
At first, in step 21, the first data D1, the second data D2 and the load data D5 are read in and then a map operation for obtaining the data D4 indicating the PID control characteristics is executed in step 22 on the basis of data D2 and D5. After the execution of step 22, the deviation of the actual vehicle speed from the target vehicle speed is computed on the basis of the difference between the data D1 and the data D2 in step 23, and the computation for the PID control is carried out for the deviation represented by the data D4 obtained by step 22 (step 24). Finally, in step 25, the control variable is computed on the basis of the result obtained in step 24 and the control signal CS is output.
Although, as shown in FIG. 1, the data D2 concerning the vehicle speed is obtained by directly utilizing a signal from a pulse generator which is, for example, provided in association with the propeller shaft, the data D2 may instead be obtained on the basis of the engine speed and the position of the gear change lever. FIG. 3 shows another block diagram of a circuit for producing the data D2. A data generator 30 for generating the data D2 representing the actual vehicle speed has an engine speed detector 31 for generating a data DN indicative of the actual engine speed and a gear position detector 32 for generating a data DG indicative of the position of the gear change lever 33, and data DN and DG are applied to a vehicle speed detector 34 to compute the actual vehicle speed on the basis of the engine speed shown by data DN and the position of the gear change lever 33. The result computed by the vehicle speed detector 34 is output as the second data D2.
With this arrangement, since the engine speed can be detected with higher accuracy than the propeller shaft speed, the vehicle speed can be determined more accurately.
Although the present invention has been described in relation to a diesel engine, it can also be applied to a vehicle with a gasoline engine in a similar manner as described above.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4301883 *||Jul 17, 1978||Nov 24, 1981||Vdo Adolf Schindling Ag||Device for the control of the traveling speed of a motor vehicle|
|US4337839 *||Jun 30, 1980||Jul 6, 1982||The Bendix Corporation||Means for improving automobile driveability|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4698762 *||Feb 25, 1985||Oct 6, 1987||Diesel Kiki C., Ltd.||Cruise control apparatus for vehicles|
|US4715339 *||Aug 27, 1985||Dec 29, 1987||Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Governor for internal combustion engine|
|US4725969 *||Sep 26, 1984||Feb 16, 1988||Nippondenso Co., Ltd.||Constant-speed driving system|
|US4729104 *||May 22, 1986||Mar 1, 1988||Nissan Motor Company, Limited||Method and apparatus for vehicle speed control|
|US4729356 *||Apr 21, 1987||Mar 8, 1988||Mazda Motor Corporation||Control systems for vehicle engines|
|US4747051 *||Mar 3, 1986||May 24, 1988||Robert Bosch Gmbh||Device for modifying traveling speed of a motor vehicle|
|US4780827 *||Mar 17, 1986||Oct 25, 1988||Diesel Kiki Co., Ltd.||Apparatus for controlling idling operation of an internal combustion engine|
|US4875448 *||Sep 23, 1988||Oct 24, 1989||Briggs & Stratton Corporation||Cyclic responding electronic speed governor|
|US4884203 *||Feb 2, 1988||Nov 28, 1989||Robert Bosch Gmbh||Method for influencing the driving speed of a motor vehicle and apparatus therefor|
|US4911259 *||Jan 30, 1989||Mar 27, 1990||Mitsubishi Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Running control method and running control system|
|US5142473 *||Aug 12, 1988||Aug 25, 1992||Davis Dale R||Speed, acceleration, and trim control system for power boats|
|US5159990 *||Mar 27, 1991||Nov 3, 1992||Nippon Denso Co||Wheel slippage control apparatus in motor vehicle|
|US5477457 *||Jan 11, 1994||Dec 19, 1995||Okada; Motohiro||Cruise control system for motorcars|
|US5983149 *||Apr 8, 1991||Nov 9, 1999||Caterpillar Inc.||Automatic vehicle speed retarding control through actuation of wheel brakes|
|US6196189 *||Jun 18, 1999||Mar 6, 2001||Caterpillar Inc.||Method and apparatus for controlling the speed of an engine|
|US8160781||Apr 17, 2012||Hitachi, Ltd.||Vehicular control system and control method|
|US20050267663 *||Mar 7, 2005||Dec 1, 2005||Ken Naono||Vehicular control system and control method|
|US20060191739 *||Sep 15, 2005||Aug 31, 2006||Showa Corporation||Motor-driven steering assist apparatus|
|EP0299235A2 *||Jun 21, 1988||Jan 18, 1989||Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha||Speed control system for a vehicle|
|EP1600830A1 *||Mar 7, 2005||Nov 30, 2005||Hitachi, Ltd.||Control system and control method, in particular for vehicles|
|WO1992017354A1 *||Apr 8, 1991||Oct 15, 1992||Caterpillar Inc.||Automatic vehicle speed retarding control|
|U.S. Classification||180/179, 123/352, 123/361|
|International Classification||B60K31/00, G05D13/66, B60K31/04, G05D13/62, G05B13/02, G05B13/00, B60W30/00, F02D41/04|
|Cooperative Classification||G05D13/66, B60K31/047, B60W2510/1005, G05B13/02, B60K31/045, B60W2510/0638|
|European Classification||G05B13/02, G05D13/66, B60K31/04B2, B60K31/04B2B|
|May 3, 1984||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: DIESEL KIKI CO., LTD 6-7, SHIBUYA 3-CHOME SHIBUYA-
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:UENO, MASAHITO;REEL/FRAME:004256/0823
Effective date: 19840420
|Sep 12, 1989||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|May 6, 1991||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ZEZEL CORPORATION
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:DIESEL KOKI CO., LTD.;REEL/FRAME:005691/0763
Effective date: 19900911
|Oct 26, 1993||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Mar 27, 1994||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Jun 7, 1994||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 19940330