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Publication numberUS4605474 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 06/769,343
Publication dateAug 12, 1986
Filing dateAug 26, 1985
Priority dateNov 2, 1983
Fee statusLapsed
Also published asDE3339541A1, DE3339541C2, EP0143919A1, EP0143919B1, US4565608
Publication number06769343, 769343, US 4605474 A, US 4605474A, US-A-4605474, US4605474 A, US4605474A
InventorsGerd Hoffacker, Willi Muller
Original AssigneeGerd Hoffacker, Mueller Willi
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Alkaline cyanide bath for electrolytic deposition of copper-tin-alloy coatings
US 4605474 A
Abstract
There is provided a bath composition for the electrolytic deposition of copper-tin alloy coatings which contain besides the customary components (copper cyanide, stannate, complex former, free cyanide, and hydroxide) at least one organic material from at least one of the following groups:
(a) fatty acid amidoalkyl dialkylamine oxides of the general formula
R1 CO--NH(CH2)n --N(R2)2 →0,
wherein
R1 is an alkyl group having 11 to 17 carbon atoms,
R2 is an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and n is 1-30
(b) fatty acid amidoalkyl-dialkylamine betaines of the general formula
R1 CO--NH(CH2)n --.sup.⊕ N(R2)2 --CH2 
--COO.sup.⊖,
wherein
R1 is an alkyl group having 11 to 17 carbon atoms,
R2 is an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and
n is 1-30, and
(c) ethoxylated naphthols of the general formula ##STR1## wherein R3 is H or O(CH2 --CH2 O)m H,
R4 is O(CH2 CH2 O)m H or H
m=10 to 14, e.g., 10, 12, or 14
in an amount of 0.05 to 5 g/l.
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Claims(7)
What is claimed is:
1. In an alkaline cyanide bath for the electrolytic deposition of bright to brilliant copper-tin alloy coatings, the improvement comprising including in the bath at least one organic material from at least one of the following groups:
(a) fatty acid amidoalkyl dialkylamine oxides of the general formula
R1 CO--NH(CH2)n --N(R2)2 →0,
wherein
R1 is an alkyl group having 11 to 17 carbon atoms,
R2 is an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and
n is 1-30
(b) fatty acid amidoalkyl-dialkylamine betaines of the general formula
R1 CO--NH(CH2)n --.sup.⊕ N(R2)2 --CH2 --COO.sup.⊖,
wherein
R1 is an alkyl group having 11 to 17 carbon atoms,
R2 is an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and
n is 1-30, and
(c) ethoxylated naphthols of the general formula ##STR3## wherein R3 is H or O(CH2 --CH2 O)m H,
R4 is O(CH2 CH2 O)m H or H
m=10 to 14
in an amount of 0.05 to 5 g/l.
2. An alkaline cyanide bath according to claim 1 consisting essentially of said organic material, water, 1 to 60 g/l of copper in the form of copper cyanide, 7 to 30 g/l of tin in the form of alkali stannate, 0.1 to 100 g/l of at least one complex former of the group consisting of phosphates, polyphosphates, phosphonates, and polyhydroxy carboxylic acids and salts thereof, 1 to 50 g/l of free alkali cyanide, 1 to 50 g/l of free alkali hydroxide, and 0 to 50 g/l of alkali carbonate.
3. An alkaline cyanide bath according to claim 2 containing 1 to 3 g/l of the organic material.
4. An alkaline cyanide bath according to claim 2 wherein the organic material is a fatty acid amidoalkyl dialkylamine oxide.
5. An alkaline cyanide bath according to claim 1 wherein the organic material is a fatty acid amidoalkyl dialkylamine betaine.
6. A process of electrolytically depositing a bright to brilliant copper-tin alloy coating on a metal substrate comprising employing the alkaline cyanide bath of claim 1 at a temperature of 38 to 58 C.
7. A process according to claim 6 wherein there is employed a current density between 0.4 and 3.0 A/dm2 and the pH of the bath is 11.5 to 12.5.
Description

This application is a continuation of Ser. No. 666,318 filed Oct. 30, 1984 and now U.S. Pat. No. 4,565,608.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The invention is directed to an alkaline cyanide bath for the electrolytic deposition of brilliant copper-tin-alloy coatings, especially copper-tin alloy coatings having 45 to 60 percent copper, consisting of (or consisting essentially of) 1 to 60 g/l of copper in the form of copper cyanide, 7 to 30 g/l of tin in the form of stannate, e.g., alkali stannate such as sodium stannate or potassium stannate, 0.1 to 100 g/l of one or more complex formers of the group consisting of phosphates, e.g., sodium phosphate or potassium phosphate, polyphosphates, e.g., sodium polyphosphate, or potassium polyphosphate, phosphonates, e.g., disodium methylenediphosphonate, disodium hydroxymethanediphosphonate, disodium hydroxyethanediphosphonate, and polyhydroxy carboxylic acids and salts thereof, e.g., tartaric acid, citric acid, gluconic acid, and their sodium and potassium salts, 1 to 50 g/l of free alkali cyanide, e.g., sodium cyanide or potassium cyanide, 1 to 50 g/l of free alkali hydroxide, e.g., sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, and 0 to 50 g/l of alkali carbonate, e.g., sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate.

The coating can be deposited, for example, on steel.

It has been known for many years to deposit copper-tin alloy coatings from electrolytic baths. There have especially been used coatings which contain 45 to 60 percent copper, preferably 55 to 60 percent copper, since these have a clear silver brightness and is not inclined to tarnish. Therefore, they are used in the decorative electroplating as replacements for, for example, silver, chromium, or aluminum. However, copper-tin alloy coatings also find increasing industrial use because of their very good soldering properties, their resistance to abrasion, and their low electrical contact resistance.

Such copper-tin alloys were predominantly deposited from alkaline, cyanide containing electrolysis baths which contain the tin as stannate. Other electrolysis baths contain phosphate and pyrophosphate as complex former and also colloids, such as e.g., polypeptides as brighteners (German OS 860 300). These known baths must be operated at high, constant temperatures (65 C. and higher) in order to obtain uniform layers of constant composition. The same is true also for the adjustment of the cyanide and hydroxide concentration in the bath. Therefore, working with these baths is difficult and cumbersome.

Therefore, it was the problem of the present invention to develop an alkaline cyanide bath for the electrolytic deposition of bright to brilliant copper-tin-alloy coatings, especially copper-tin alloy coatings having 45 to 60 percent copper, consisting of (or consisting essentially of) 1 to 60 g/l of copper in the form of copper cyanide, 7 to 30 g/l of tin in the form of stannate, e.g., alkali stannate such as sodium stannate or potassium stannate, 0.1 to 100 g/l of one or more complex formers of the group consisting of phosphates, e.g., sodium phosphate or potassium phosphate, polyphosphates, e.g., sodium polyphosphate, or potassium polyphosphate, phosphonates, e.g., disodium methylenediphosphonate, disodium hydroxymethanediphosphonate, disodium hydroxyethanediphosphonate, and polyhydroxy carboxylic acids, e.g., tartaric acid, citric acid, gluconic acid, 1 to 50 g/l of free alkali hydroxide, e.g., sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, and 0 to 50 g/l of alkali carbonate, e.g., sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate which can be operated at lower temperatures and in which the coating composition is less strongly dependent upon the deviations of the bath components.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This problem has been solved according to the invention by providing that the bath contain in addition to the materials just set forth at least one organic material from at least one of the following groups:

(a) fatty acid amidoalkyl dialkylamine oxides of the general formula

R1 CO--NH(CH2)n --N(R2)2 →0,

wherein

R1 is an alkyl group having 11 to 17 carbon atoms,

R2 is an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and

n is 1-30

(b) fatty acid amidoalkyl-dialkylamine betaines of the general formula

R1 CO--NH(CH2)n --.sup.⊕ N(R2)2 --CH2 --COO.sup.⊕,

wherein

R1 is an alkyl group having 11 to 17 carbon atoms,

R2 is an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and

n is 1-30, and

(c) ethoxylated naphthols of the general formula ##STR2## wherein R3 is H or O(CH2 --CH2 O)m H,

R4 is O(CH2 CH2 O)m H or H

m=10 to 14, e.g., 10, 12, or 14

in an amount of 0.05 to 5 g/l.

In the compounds just mentioned, R1 can be, for example, undecyl, dodecyl, tridecyl, pentadecyl, or heptadecyl, R2 can be, for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, sec. butyl, or amyl, n can be, for example, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 18, 20, 24, or 30.

The corresponding β-naphthol derivatives have proven especially desirable.

Preferably, the baths contain 1 to 3 g/l of these organic materials from one or more of groups (a), (b), and (c).

The coatings deposited from such baths are bright but not yet brilliant. For the deposition of brilliant copper-tin alloy coatings, there is additionally added to the bath 0.05 to 2 g/l of one or more brighteners selected from one or more of the following groups.

(a) polyethylenediamine of the general formula

H2 N--(CH2)o --NH2 

where o is 6 to 100, e.g., 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, or 100, or the reacton products with benzyl chloride or epichlorohydrin,

(b) benzaldehyde having one or more hydroxy and/or alkoxy groups on the nucleus, and cinnamicaldehyde or their reaction products with thiocyanates and sulfites,

(c) ethinols, ethindiols, and their ethoxylates and propoxylates of the general formula

R5 C.tbd.C--CH2 OR6 

wherein R5 =H or CH2 OR6 and R6 =H, C2 H5, or C3 H7, or

(d) benzylpyridinecarboxylate of the formula

(C6 H5 --CH2 --C5 H4 N.sup.⊕ --COONa)Cl.sup.⊖.

Cl.sup.⊖ =chloride.

Advantageously, the baths contain 0.8 to 1.5 g/l of this brightener. Since the compounds of brightener groups (a) and (b) are difficulty soluble in water, they are advantageously first reacted with benzyl chloride or epichlorohydrin, respectively thiocyanate or sulfite.

The baths of the invention can be operated with insoluble anodes, such as, e.g., with fine steel anodes. The operating temperatures are between 38 and 58 C., the current densities between 0.4 and 3.0 A/dm2, and the pH between 11.5 and 12.5.

There have proven good baths containing 2 to 10 g/l copper in the form of copper cyanide, 10 to 20 g/l tin in the form of alkali stannate, 10 to 50 g/l complex former, 5 to 30 g/l free alkali cyanide, 5 to 30 g/l free alkali hydroxide, 5 to 20 g/l alkali carbonate, and 0.8 to 1.5 g/l brightener.

As brighteners, there have proven useful from group (b), e.g., p-methoxybenzaldehyde (anisaldehyde), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) and cinnamaldehyde, from group (c), e.g., butin-2-diol-1,4,butinediol monopropoxylate, and propargyl alcohol monoethoxylate. Advantageously, however, there is used polyethylenediamine and benzyl-pyridine carboxylate.

The composition can consist essentially of or consist of the stated materials.

Unless otherwise indicated, all parts and percentages are by weight.

The following examples explain the baths of the invention in greater detail.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Example 1

On steel sheets there were obtained from an aqueous bath containing 8.4 g/l copper (I) cyanide, 58 g/l sodium stannate, 25 g/l potassium sodium tartrate, 25 g/l tetrasodium diphosphate, 20 g/l each of free sodium cyanide and sodium hydroxide, 15 g/l of sodium carbonate, and 0.3 g/l of ethoxylated β-naphthol having m=12 (average number of units) at a temperature of 58 C. and current density of 1 A/dm2 in 50 minutes a 5 μm thick, bright, white coatings which contained 53 percent copper and did not tarnish.

Example 2

On ferrous parts there were obtained from an aqueous bath containing 2.8 g/l copper (I) cyanide, 46.4 g/l sodium stannate, 25 g/l potassium sodium tartrate, 25 g/l tetrasodium diphosphate, 20 g/l each sodium cyanide and sodium hydroxide, 15 g/l sodium carbonate, 0.3 g/l of a fatty acid amido-alkyl-dialkylamine-betaine (where R1 is C15, R2 is methyl, and n is 6), and 1.1 g/l butin-2-diol-1,4 at 42 C. and 1 A/dm2 in one hour a 5 μm thick white coatings which contained 49 percent copper and were very brilliant.

Example 3

On nickel parts there was deposited from an aqueous bath containing 2.8 g/l copper (I) cyanide, 46.4 g/l sodium stannate, 25 g/l tetrasodium diphosphate, 25 g/l dipotassium tartrate, 16 g/l free potassium cyanide, 14 g/l free potassium hydroxide, 1 g/l of a fatty acid amidoalkyldialkylaminoxide (R1 is C12, R2 is propyl, and n is 4), and 0.7 g/l of benzylpyridine carboxylate at 42 C. and 1 A/dm2 a white, brilliant coating having a copper content of 50 percent.

Example 4

On steel sheets there were obtained from an aqueous bath containing 1.4 g/l copper (I) cyanide, 23.2 g/l sodium stannate, 25 g/l sodium citrate, 25 g/l sodium phosphate, 13 g/l each of potassium cyanide and potassium hydroxide, 1 g/l ethoxylated β-naphthol (where m is 10), 0.1 g/l polyethylene-diamine (where o is 50), and 0.02 g/l propargyl alcohol at 42 C. and 0.8 A/dm2 brilliant white coatings (4 μm in 40 minutes) having 57 percent copper.

Example 5

By increasing the Cu/Sn ratio in the bath, there can also be deposited yellow gold and rose copper-tin alloys. There were obtained from a bath containing 8.4 g/l copper (I) cyanide, 48 g/l sodium stannate, 40 g/l dipotassium phosphate, 25 g/l tetrasodium diphosphate, 16 g/l sodium cyanide, 12 g/l sodium hydroxide, 15 g/l sodium carbonate, 2 g/l ethoxylated β-naphthol (where m is 10), and 0.2 g/l vanillin at 45 C. and 1 A/dm2 yellow gold, brilliant coatings having 70 percent copper.

The entire disclosure of German priority application P.3339541.1-45 is hereby incorporated by reference.

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5494565 *Oct 17, 1994Feb 27, 1996Degussa AktiengesellschaftMethod of producing workpieces of non-corrosion-resistant metals with wear-resistant coatings and articles
Classifications
U.S. Classification205/241
International ClassificationC25D3/58, C25D3/60
Cooperative ClassificationC25D3/60, C25D3/58
European ClassificationC25D3/58, C25D3/60
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jan 19, 1990FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Jan 19, 1994FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Mar 3, 1998REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Aug 9, 1998LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Oct 20, 1998FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 19980812