|Publication number||US461470 A|
|Publication date||Oct 20, 1891|
|Filing date||Jun 13, 1889|
|Publication number||US 461470 A, US 461470A, US-A-461470, US461470 A, US461470A|
|Inventors||Elis Ha Gray|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
(No Model.) 6 Sheets-Sheet 1.
No. 461,470. Patented Oct. 20, 1891.
(No Model.) 6 Sheets-Sheet 2.
' E. GRAY.
TELAUTOGRAPH- N0. 461,470. Patented Oct. 20, 1891.
(No Model.) 6 Sheets-8heet 3.
E. GRAY. TELAUTOGRAPH.
No. 461,470. Patented Oct. 20, 1891.
my @2155 In (No Model.)- 6 SheetsSheet 4.
TELAUTOGRAPH. No. 461,470. Patented Oct. 20, 1891.
r? as f 6 Sheets-Sheet 6.
E. GRAY. TELAUI'OGRAPH.
No. 461,470. #Patented Oct. 20, 1891.
I successively UNITED STATES I PATENT Orrl'cr.
ELIS HA GRAY, OF HIGHLAND PARK, ILLINOIS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent N 0. 461,470, dated October 20, 1891.
Application filed June 13, 1889. Serial No. 314,151. (No model.)
To all whmn it may concern.-
Be it known that I, ELISHA GRAY,a citizen of the United States, residing at Highland Park, county of Lake and State of Illinois,- have invented certain new and useful Improvemen ts in Tel-autographs, fully described and represented in the following specificalion and the accompanying drawings, form,- ing a part of the same. 7
This invention relates to a writing-telegraph of that class in which the act of writing the message at the sending-station, operates to reproduce it at the receiving-station, and it is in the main an improvement upon the apparatus and organization described in my former patents, Nos. 386,814- and 386,815, dated July 31, 1888.
The object of my present improvements is to secure greater speed in transmission and greater accuracy in reproducing the characters transmit-ted than have heretofore been possible.
In order that the detailed description of the apparatus and its organization hereinafter given may be more readily apprehended a brief statement of the general features of my present improvements will first be given.
It is a well-known fact that pulsations of successively opposite polarity can be sent over a line-wire with greater rapidity and certainty of effect than pulsations ofsuccessively like polarity. In my system as heretofore patented by me the pulsations used to operate the receiving-pen were pulsations of the latter sort. It is a feature of importance in my present improvements that pulsations of opposite polarity are employed. The movement of the transmitting-pen in either of two directions, preferably at nearly right angles to each other, produces a succession of these pulsations in two electric circuits, the number of pulsations in the respective circuits being determined bythe distance which the pen is moved in the respective directions and the speed of succession of the pulsations varying with the rapidityof movement of the transmi ting-pen. In my present system these pulsations do not directly operate the motors which move the receivingpen as do the pulsations sent to line in the system of my prior patents. I now propose to produce a constant strain upon the apparareproducing motion of the tus which drives the receiving-pen, this strain originating in a motor or revolving shaft op erated independently as regards its source of power of the transmitting-instrument, and I propose to govern the application of this power to the driving of the receiving-pen by means of an escapement operated by the pul sations above referred to. Thus each pulsation sent over line will permit the receivingpen to advance aspace corresponding to onehalf a tooth of the escapement-wheel, and as each pulsation represents a certaindefinite space traversed by the transmitting-pen and each tooth of the governing escapement-wheel of the receiver represents a certain definite space over which the receiving-pen is driven, the movements of the transmitting-pen will be reproduced with almost absolute accuracy by the receiving-pen.
The devices above referred to provide for transmitting-pen in two directions crosswise of each other. The additional devices for reversing the direction of movement of the receiving-pen upon the reversal of the direction of movement of the transmitting-pen consist of a reversing mechanism between the motor or revolving driving-shaft and each ofthe two devices which drive the receiving pen in directions crosswise of each other and of an organization adapted to electrically control this mechanism from the transmitting-station. One form of this (shown in the drawings) consists of two re-. versely-beveled the revolving motor-driven shaft, one or the other of which may be locked to the shaft, and so caused to transmit motion to the pen by means of an electro-magnetic clutch. Two of these clutches are provided for each of the two reversing-gear mechanisms, one for each beveled battery is directed through the one or the other of them by means of a commutator controlled by escapement-pallets attached to the armature of an electro-magnet. This electromagnet, like the other devices which, have just been described, is duplicated for the two branches of the system, and one is placed in each of the two main circuits and is so organized as not to respond to the ordinary strength of current on line, but only to pulsations of reversing-gear mechanism gear-wheels mounted upon gear-wheel,and the current of alocal extraordinary strength. Provision is made for making temporary. change or variation in the condition of the current, as by sending a stronger pulsation over each circuit at each reversal in the direction of movement of the transmitting-pen corresponding to that circuit for the purpose of operating the commutator-magnet and thereby changing the action of the reversing-gear mechanism; and my present invention consists in part of apparatus specially designed for this purpose.
A feature of special importance in this organization is the electromagnetic clutch, so constructed as to permit slip between the motor or the revolving shaft and the apparatus driving the receiving-pen when the escapementpallet-s are held by their magnet, but which has sufficient strength to drive the receiving-pen when unrestrained by the escapement.
My improvements also include devices and an organization of circuits for securing unison between the transmitting and receiving pens, and improved apparatus and organizations for raising and lowering the receivingpen to correspond with like movements of the,
transmitting-pen and for shifting the paper.
Othernovel features in organization and detail of construction will be hereinafter described in detail and specifically referred to 'in the claims.
The improvements thus briefly outlined will now be described at length, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure 1 is a plan view of the transmitter and receiver. Fig. 2 is a vertical section through the table on line 2 2 of Fig.1, (relaymagnets P P and the motor, however, being shown out of their proper position.) Fig. 3is an end view of the paper-shifting magnet, showing the drum-cylinder and connected parts. Figs. 4 and 5 are views on an enlarged scale of the interrupters and connected parts. Figs. 6 and 7 are plan and side views ofthe unison and paper-shifting switch. Figs. 8, 9, and 10 represent on an enlarged scale an improved pen-rack. Fig. 1 l is a sectional elevation taken on about the line 11 1-1 of Fig.
1, the point of view being in the foreground of the latter figure. Fig. 11 is aside and rear view of the magnet controlling the motor-cir' cuit and connected parts. Fig. 1-2 is a side View, on an enlarged scale, of the'governing reversible escapement-inagnet. Fig. 13 is a plan view of the escapement of said magnet. Figs. 14 and 15 are respectively side and sectional elevations, on an enlarged scale, of the reversing escapement commutator and magnet. Fig. 16 is a detail view of the commutatorcontact-brushes bearing on the commutator. Figs. 17 and 17 are diagrams showing the circuits and circuit connections between a transmitting and a receiving instrument at opposite ends of line-wires.
In my system as now organized I prefer to place the transmitting and receiving instruments 'in close proximity, and so arranged with reference to each other that a single sheet of paper is used for making the copies of messages transmitted and for recording messages received. I have therefore shown the transmitting and the receiving instruments associated together in Fig. 1.
Referring now particularly to Figs. 1, 4, 5, 17, and 17, the principal features of the transmitter will be described. This instrument consists, primarily, of the transmitting-pen A, which is moved by the operator to form the characters or other matter to be transmitted. This pen, as I have stated in my former patents, may be a simple handle of convenient form, or a pen or pencil, with which a copy of the message transmitted is made, and it is therefore termed a pen but this term, wherever used in a general sense, is to be understood as including any writing-instrument or a simple handle of convenient form.
The pen A is connected at its tip to two cords or other flexible connections 63 64:, which extend horizontally crosswise of each other and are connected to operate the two circuitchanging devices B O, termed herein interrupters, located in the two electric circuits 1) c, termed main circuits, and so arranged that as the pen A is moved in the direction of the cord (33 and interrupter B, or in the opposite direction, pulsations are produced in the circuit 1) in quick succession, varying in number with the linear extent of movement of the pen A and varying in speed of succession with the rapidity of such movement,
while, as the pen is moved in the direction of the cord 64 and interrupter O, or in the opposite direction, in forming the characters, pulsations are produced in circuit 0 inthe same manner. In. my former telautograph patents the interrupters are so placed with reference to the transmitting-pen that the connecting-cords 63 Gal extend in directions approximately parallel and perpendicular to the line of characters traced by the transmitting-pen. In my present organization, however, I place the interrupter-s in such positions that the cords will have a diagonal location about midway between lines perpendicular to and parallel with the line of writing. By this organization the steps causing the perpendicular and horizontal movements of the.
pen, which are the movements naturally made most rapidly in writing, are divided between the two halves of themachine,thus enabling a much greater speed to be attained without increasing the working capacity of either circuit. This organization also makes possible a greater degree of compactness in the apparatus, and thereby the use of one strip of p'a-- per for the transmitting and receiving instruments at the same end of line.
The function of theinterruptersin my present transmitting-instrument is not only to cause pulsations in the main-line circuits, but to cause those pulsations to be of successively opposite polarity. That this may be effected,
each main circuit is provided with two batteries, one at the transmitting and one at the receiving end, so placed in line as to be opposed to each other in polarity, the one at the transmitting end being of about treble the strength of the other. The larger batteries in the two circuits are designated (see Figs. 17 and 17) respectively Z and Z, and the smaller batteries respect-ively'z and z. The interrupter is so arranged as to shunt the larger battery out of line at short intervals.
The two interrupters B C and their auxil= iaries and circuit connections are exact duplicates, and a description of one of them therefore applies to both.
Each of the cords 63 64 is connected to and wound upona small drum 65, (see Figs. 1, 4, and 5,) fixed upon one of its sides to a shaft 66. To the other. side of the drum is attached a bracket 67. The outer end of this bracket rests upon a pivot 68, and the upper end of the'shaft 66 is in contact with a pivot 69. The drum is thus mounted so as to revolve between the pivots 68 69. To the shaft 66 is attached a spring 70, which is wound upon the shaft and tends to revolve the drum in the direction opposite to the pull of the pen upon the cords 63 64. Pivoted between the lower face of the drum and the bracket 67 and in line with the shaft 66 is another shaft 71, to which is attachedan arm 7 2, which carries the revolving brush 73. The movement of the arm 72 upon its shaft '71 is limited between-stops 74 75, fixed to the drum, (see Fig. 5,) one of which (75, as shown) is preferably adjustable. The face of the disk over which the brush 73 sweeps is provided with a series of channels or cuts located in proximity and containing pieces of insulating materiel 76, the width of each channel or cut being preferably about the same as that of the adjacent exposed metal surfacebetween it and the next channel. Each main-line circuit divides before reaching the interrupter, (see Fig. 17,) one branch passing through the battery Z or Zat the transmitting end of line and to earth, the other branch connecting with the metal disk of the interrupter. The brush 73 has a permanentconnectiontoearth. When, therefore, the brush is in contact with the metal surface of the disk, the battery Z or Z will be cut out and the battery .e or; 2 at the re ceiving end of the line will alone be in circuit. When, however, the brush 73 rests upon a portion-of theinsulatinginaterial, the branch through the interrupter will be broken and both batteries Z or Z and z or ,2" will be in circuit, their polarity being, as before stated, opposed to each other. In this condition the current of the smaller battery will be overcome and the polarity of the current 011 line determined bythe large battery. The strength of the larger batteries is preferably made about treble that of the smaller batteries, so that the effective current on line is the same (except in polarity) when both batteries are in circuit, as when the smaller battery alone controllers.
is in circuit, and the e fiect on the receivinginstrument will be in both cases the same. The revolution of the brush over the face of the disk will thus cause upon line a succession of pulsations of opposite polarity and substantially equal effective strength, the number and rapidity of these pulsations being determined by the extent and rapidity of the movement of the brush. The mounting of the brush with reference to the drum gives the brush an independent motion, the amount of this motion being adjustable by means of the adjustable stop 75. It results that in practice whenever the motion of the pen re; verses the rotation of the drum the brush will not begin to move in a reverse direction until the drum has so moved a distance corresponding to the amount of independent motion of the arm 72 between the stops 74 75. The object of this independent or lost motion of the brush will be stated hereinafter.
The transmitting-instrument is provided with two devices, one for each circuit, which I term increase current-controllers, each of which acts automatically and momentarily to increase the amount of current passing over its main line whenever the movement of the transmitting-pen is reversed with reference to that line. Each increase-controller consists of two electro magnets or spools D E and D E, (see Figs. 1 and 17,) provided with lugs 79 80 and armatures 81 82. These lugs are of soft iron and are in contact with the core passing through the helix of each magnet and extend out to the periphery f the same. Each armature is trunnioned in the usual manner and extends from one f the lugs 79 80 to the other in close proximity to but not in actual contact with them. The armatures are provided with the usual springs and front and back contact-points, which regulate their strokes to and from their respective magnets. The two magnets of each pair D E and D E are mounted in line with each other, with sufficient space between them for a third armature 83 83, respectively, common to them both, and provided with limiting contact-screws 84 85. This armature is without a spring and is attracted alternately by the two spools. Each of the increase-controllers is provided with a local circuit cl and a local battery g. (See Fig. 17.) Both of these circuits are shown in detailin Fig. 17; but as they are precisely alike the description will be confined to the circuit (Z of increasecontroller D E. In circuit cl is circuit making and breaking arm 86, frictionallymounted upon the drum-shaft 66 of the interrupter B, (see Fig. 4,) and having a limited motion between contact-stops S7 88. From arm 86 the circuit passes by wires 61 and Z. to a contact point 19 and circuit-breaking arm 15, (the purpose of which will be hereinafter stated,) thence by wires Z and d to battery 9 and armature 83. 'It will be'noted that the wires ll of both increase- From armature 83 the circuit are common to the circuits has two branches, one designated by d, including the coil of magnet D and connecting with the stop 87, and the other designated by 61'', including the coil of magnet E and connecting with stop .88. The branch wire fconnects the stop 84 on one side of the armature 83 with the wire d at a point beyond the magnet D, forming a shunt around the same, and a wire f in a similar manner forms a shunt around the magnet E to the wire 01". Each of the circuits 1) a normally includes a resistance R; but a shunt around the resistance is provided for the circuit 1), when either of the armatures 81 or 82 is on its front stop, and a like shunt is provided for the circuit 0 when either of the corresponding armatures of increase-controller D E is on its front stop, as shown by the connections in Fig. 17.
When the motion of the pen is reversed and it is caused to move in the direction of the arrow on Fig l7that is, from the interrupter B-the arm 86 will, at the moment of reversal, come into contact with the stop 87, which will close the circuit (1 through the magnet D, the armature 81 will be attracted to its front stop, and at the same time the common armature 83 will be attracted against the stop 84. As soon as armature 83 strikes stop 84 the magnet D will be demagnetized because of the shunt, closed through wire f, and the armature 81 will fall back to its back point, while the armature 83, having no spring and being held by residual magnetism, will remain in its position until the next reversal of the pen motion causes the arm 86 to rock against the point 88, when the magnet E will he charged, drawing back the armature 83, and, in a manner similar to thatjust described, momentarily attracting its armature 82. It will thus be seen that the armatures 81 82 rest normally on their back points, and only momentarily touch the front points first one and then the other-at the moment the writing is reversed. The effect of the momentary advance of the armature 81 or 82 is to close the shunt before referred to, around the resistance R in the main line, thus causing a j strong impulse to momentarily pass through the line, this strong impulse effecting a reversal in the writing at the receiving end in a manner hereinafter described.
The operation of the transmitter as thus far described is as follows: The operator takes the pen A in his hand and forms the characters in proper sequence in the usual manner, moving the pen up and down and from left to right, the same as in ordinary writing. As the pen makes the downstrokes in forming the characters the cords 63 64 will be unwound from the drums of the interrupters and moving the brush 73 over the disk 8.), and causing a succession of pulsations of opposite polarity over the circuits 1) c in quick succession, the number and rapidity of the pulsations being determined bythe extent of movement and speed of the pen. As the pen rotating the drum and its shaft makes the upstrokes the springs will rewind cords 63 64 and move the brushes 73 in the reverse direction, causing pulsations upon the two main circuits in the same manner. So long as the movement of the pen recedes from either of the interrupters, as B, the shaft 66 will continue to revolve in one direction and the arm 86 will be held against the stop 87, and the pulsations 0n the line will pass through the resistance R. As soon, however,
, as the movement of the pen is reversed-i. 0.,
changed from a motion from the interrupter B to a motion of approach to the interrupterthe movement of the shaft 66 will be reversed and the arm 86 will be caused to rest against the contact 88, thereby momentarily energizing magnet E, drawing up armature 82, and sending astrong pulsation over the line b, and this strong pulsation will be sent over line b as often as reversal in the direction of movement of the pen with reference to the interrupter B occurs. The same succession of operat ions occurs in connection with the circuit 0', interrupter O, increase-controller D E, and connected parts upon each reversal of the direction of movement of the transmitting-pen with reference to the interrupter O.
The purpose of the independent or lost motion in the arm 72 and brush 73, heretofore described, is to allow the reversal of the receiving mechanism to be made while the brush is standing still, whether on a metal or insulating segment of the disk. To accomplish this the stroke of the arms 86 ismade as short as possible,(say the two-hundredth of an inch,) while the play of the brush 7 3 between its stops is made a tritlelonger. This provision for lost motion in the brush 73 is not absolutely essential for perfect writing; but prevents possible loss of steps at the receiving end when the writing is done at a high rate of speed, and is therefore a preferred construction.
Referring now particularly to Figs. 1, 2, l1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 17, the principal features of the receiver will be described.
The receiving-penG is a writing-instrument of anysuitable form forrecording the message; The term pen therefore, as applied to this instrument, is to be understood as including any form of writing-instrument. In the case shown a fountain-pen is employed, which is composed of a tube of glass of very fine or capillary bore, having its end formed into a writingpoint. This pen is supplied by a piece of flexible rubber tubing which runs through the tubular pen-arm 21 and connects by means of a preferably flexible capillary tube 92 with the ink-well 91, as described in my former patents. The pen-arms 21 and 22 are made of light metal tubing, hinged at the point 23 immediatelyover the point of the pen. Each of the arms 21 22 is provided with a cord 93, attached to the arm at each end and having a turn about a drum 94. Motion is given to the receiving-pen by the revolution of these drums 9t, and this revolution-is effected in correspondence with the movements of the transmitting-pen by means of a of the interrupter upon the same side ofthe instrument. This organization causes the transmitting and receiving pens to swing in arcs having the same radii, and consequently to that extent insures an exact reproduction by the receiving-pen of the movementvof the transmittingpen. It will be observed that this advantage is in part secured by the transfer of the circuit-changingarm 86 to the shaftof the interrupter from a position between the interrupter and the transmitting-pen.
The revolution of the drums to move the receiving-pen is effected in my present organization by a power derived from a motor 95, (see Fig. 11,) and the application of the power of the motor to th pen-drums is controlled by a reversible escapement governed by the pulsations sent over the line, as above gear-wheel.
described. The motor may be of any suitable construction, the form which I prefer and which is shown in this application being an electric motor. The shaft 96 of this motor is geared to two distinct shafts, (although there may be but one, if preferred,) one on each side of the receiving-instrument and one for each of the pen-drums 9 1. As the two shafts with theirconnected parts are identical in construction,but one set thereof is described and shown in fullto wit, that upon the left-hand side of the machine as it appears in Fig. 1. The following description may therefore be understood as applicable to both of these sets of de vices.
The shaft 30 (see Fig. 11) is trunnioned between screws 31 32 through the hubs of the two bevel gear-wheels 28 29. Fastened to each of the gear-wheels 28 and 29, one for each wheel, are the softiron disks 33 3%. Fast on the shaft 30 and .on either side of the wheels 28 29 are two clutchmagnetsXY, (the corresponding clutch-magnets on the right-hand side of the receiver being designated in Fig. 17 by the letters X Y, respectively,) which are fastened to and revolve with the shaft 30. The shaft 30 is preferably of brass, the cores of the clutch-mag.
nets being made of soft iron and bored out of such size as to allow the shafts to'slip'into the hole and fit tightly therein. The head of each magnet-spool at the end nearest the bevel gear-wheel is made of hard rubber and also the outer shell or covering is of soft iron,
as is the head of the spool farthest from said The end of this shell next to the gear-wheel, and also the end of the core, proj ect forward a short distance beyond the head and. passes loosely and come into contact with the iron dis k fastened to the wheel. There isth us formed'africtional clutch between the shaft and the gearwheel, which may be electro-magnetically controlled from the transmitting-station, as hereinafter described. \Vhile this clutch may be constructed and used having the magnetizable metallic surfaces in actual contact, I find it preferable, in order to prevent sticking or demagnetization, to face the magnetizable surface with a layer of non-magnetic substance, as parchment. For convenience, I term such a clutch as thisi. 6., one in which operativeness depends upon friction controlled by magnetic attraction-an electro-magnetic frictional clutch. Both of these magnets X Y, with their connected parts, are exactly alike. Meshing with the two bevel gear-wheels 28 29 is a third bevel gear-wheel 27, mounted upon a trunnioned shaft 98, which carries the-receiving-drum 9% and an escapement-wheel 26. The pallets 105 of this escapement-wheel (see Fig. 13) are preferably made adjustable to and from each other, and are attached to the armature 99 of a magnet H, (the correspond.- ing magnet on the other side of the instrument being designated 11.) This magnet is a polarized relay constructed on the principle of the wellknown Siemens relay, with the exception that the polari-zingcoil K (the corresponding coil on the other side of the instrument being designated K) is an electro-magnet and not a permanent magnet, for a purpose hereinafter stated. The soft-iron core 101 of the magnet K is extended npward,and upon it is trunnioned the-arm 99. The other end of the core is connected by soft-iron connecting-pieces 102 1 03 and bracket 104 withthe soft-iron cores of the spools of magnet H. The'angles of the faces of the escapementpallets 105, and also those on the faces of the escape-Wheel teeth, are preferably made the same, so that the escape-wheel will be reversible and operate in either direction with equal facility upon the reversal of the strain which tends to move it.
The two wheels28 and 29 are each provided withalost-motion spring 106 107, (see Fig. 11,) which serves to give the wheels a normal tendency to revolve in the same direction in which they are propelled by the, motor, and keep them, consequently, always in drivingcontact with the cogs of the wheel .27.. The use of these springs is made possible because of the fact that the wheels 28 29 are preferabl-y made of such asize that they need never be moved continuously in one direction for more than one revolution, a complete, rotation of either-of these wheels corresponding to the extreme range of movement of the receiving-pen in its field, and because of the further fact that the gear-wheel 27 so connects the wheels 28 29 that that one of these two wheels which is not clutched to the motor-shaft is driven backward by the one which is operating the receiving-pen through the agency of wheel 27. It results that, each of IIO the two wheels 28 29 revolves to and fro upon the sli'aft 30, first in one direction and then in the other, and always within the limit of a single revolution, and that consequently the lost-motion springs will remain permanently in their proper relation to the hubs upon which they are wound. It is not essential to the operation of my system that the range of the movement of the wheels 28 29 should be restricted to a single rotation; but it is a preferred construction, for the reason that pins 205 may be placed upon these wheels, adapted to come in contact with fixed stops 206 at the extreme limits of motion of the receivingpen, whereby maintaining unison between the transmitting and receiving instruments is aided, as hereinafter stated.
The direction of rotation given to the drum 94, and consequently the direction of move ment given to the receiving-pen thereby, will be determined by the existence of magnetism in the coils of one or the other of the two clutch-magnets X Y. The mechanism for determining which one of these coils receives a current Will next be described.
Situated in the main lines, one for each line b c, are two magnets J J, (see Figs. 1, 11, 14, and 15,) of ordinary construction. Magnet J, which alone need be described in detail, has an armature 108, trunnioned in the ordinary way and carrying upon its end pallets 109, similar to the pallets 105 already described, which engage with an escape-wheel110, the teeth of which are like those of wheel 26 above described, mounted upon a hub 111, which may be of insulating material loosely mounted upon the shaft 30. To the hub 111 are fixed two'commutator-disks 112 113, (see Figs. 11, 14, and 15,) which disks are insulated from each other by the insulating material of hub 111,01 otherwise, and from the shaft 30, as shown in Figs. 14 and 15, each of these commutator-disks consisting of a metal disk having a rim set with sections of insulating material alternating with metallicsections in metallic connection with the disk. Attached to the armature-lever 108 are two springs 38 39, which ride lightly upon the coinmutator-disks, Outside of each commutatordisk and upon shaft 30 are two contact-collars 114 115, made of insulating material. One of these collars115 is rigidly attached to the shaft and the other 114 is feathered upon it, so as to rotate with it, but to be adjustable lengthwise of the shaft. These collars carry springs 42 (see Figs. 11 and 16) upon their faces, which bear continuously against the metal portion of the two commutator-disks and serve two purposes: first, to furnish a means of electrical communication with the commutatordisks, and, second, to cause the properamount of friction between the rotating commutators and escapementwheel and their bearings upon the shaft to cause the commutators to move with the shaft when permitted by the escapement. A lock-nut 116 is provided behind the collar 114, by the use of which the collar may be set backward or forward upon the shaft to secure the proper degree of friction between the shaft and the commutators. The commutator-springs 38 39 are so adjusted that one of them rests upon a metallic section of one commutator-disk, while the other rests upon an insulating section of the other commutator-disk. Both of these springs are insulated from the armature 108. A circuit h, passing through a local battery 2', connects with the shaft 20, with which there is in electrical contact one end of the coil of clutchmagnet X, the other end of the coil of this magnet being connected through insulated wire a with the contact spring on collar 114. One end of the coil of clutch-magnet Y is also in electrical contact with the shaft 30 and the other end of this coil connects by means of wire q passing through the center of shaft 30 and insulated therefrom with the contact-springs on collar 115. (See Fig. 11.) It'will be understood that the circuits of the clutch-magnets maybe madein the manner indicated or in any other convenient way. It results that when the spring 38 is in contact with a metallic segment of its commutatordisk, clutch-magnet Y is in circuit with the local battery 1, the clutch-magnet X being cut out of circuit, and that when spring 39 rests upon a metallic segment of its commutatordisk clutch-magnet X is in circuit with the local battery 2', clutch-magnet Y being then cut out.
The operation of the mechanism thus far described will now be stated. The motorshaft 96, being continually in rotation while a message is being received, gives constant rotation to theshafts 30. When one or the other of the clutch-magnets X Y is energized, the end of its core and shell lying in contact with the disk 83 or 34 becomes magnetic and causes the disk to adhere to it with greater or less force, according to the strength of the local battery. Under such circumstances the attached bevel gear-wheel 28 or 29 is given a tendency to revolve in the same direction as the shaft and will communicate that tendency to the escape-wheel 26 and drum 94. This tendency to revolve will, however, be checked when the line-current is on by the escapement-pallets 105 engaging with the teeth of the escape-wheel 26, except when the armature 99, carrying the pallets, oscillates. The pulsations ofsuccessively opposite polarity sent to line from the transmitter cause changes of magnetic polarity in the poleswithin the two coils of magnet H, causing the armature 99 to be drawn first to one side and then to the other, giving an oscillating motion to the pallets, and permitting the escape-wheel 26 torevolve step by stepone step for each pulsationin the direction in which the constant strain of the motor impels it. The strength of the battery used to charge the clutch-magnets X Y is so regulated that when the pallets are at rest with a line-current on the clutch-magnet will spring 39 onto rotate against the disk 33 or 34 with a friction not great enough to overcome the resistance ofiered by the pallets, but yet suffi ment to carry the pen-drum with its attachment, when released by the pallets 105, in whichever direction the particular clutchmagnet which is energized may determine. \Vhen a reversal occurs in the direction of motion of the transmitting-pen a strong pulsation is sent to line through the agency of the increase-controller in the manner above described, and this pulsation affects the magnet J, which is so organized that it does not respond to the ordinary pulsations. The armature 108 of this magnet is attracted and the commutator-disks 112 113 are permitted to advance by the space of one tooth of the escapement-wheel 110. That one of'the springs 38 39 which prior to this strong pulsation was in contact with a metallic segment, is now in contact with an insulating'segment and vice versa; audit follows that the circuit of the local battery 2' has been broken through that one of the magnets X Y which was previously in circuit and closed through that one which was previously out of circuit. A tendency to rotate in a reverse direction will therefore be imparted to the shaft 98 and drum 94 and its pen-carrying arm 21, and this direction of motion will continue until another strong impulse is sent over the line.
On referring to Figs. 17 and 17 it will be seen that when the transmitting-pen is moving in the direction indicated by arrow numbered 2, and the motor 95 at the receiving end is causing the shaft 30 to revolve in a direction which when-observed from the righthand end is opposite to the movement of the hands of a watch, the two instruments being in unison, the spring 39 will be in contact with a metallic segment of its commutatordisk, closing the circuit of battery 71 through clutch-magnet X and revolving the drum SA on the left-hand side of the instrument in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 17 Upon reversal the operation of the increase-controller D E upon the magnet J throws an insulating'segment and sprlng 38 onto a metallic segment, cutting in magnet Y and cutting out magnet X and causing the drum 94- on the left-hand side of the receiving-instrument to rotate in the direction opposite to that indicated by the arrow in Fig. 17. The main circuit 1) being also provided with a polarized relay H K similar to the relay H K and connections such as above described, the eifect of the ordinary pulsations and the occasionally strong pulsations over that line upon the pen-carrying arm 22 operated from the other pen-driving drum 94 is the same as that which has been just above described with reference to pencarrying arm 21.
The purpose of attaching the springs 38 39 to the armature 108 will now be stated. Itis desirable that the change ofthe clutch-circnit from one clutch to the other should be made in the quickest possible time after the pulsation of increased strength has been sent to line from the transmitter. The length of the stroke of the armature 108 is so adjusted and thesprings 38 39 are so mounted upon it with reference to the metallic and insulating segments of the com mutator-disk upon which condition to continue until the next reversal occurs, and increased speed of writing is thus Secured.
It has now been explained how the movement of the transmitting-pen in a direction to or from either of the interrupters B G will cause the receiving-pen to move in the same direction,the movement of the latter pen being made up of a series of short steps. It is apparen that, as with the system described in my former patents, any movement of the transmitting-pen in a direction intermediate between these two directions will cause the receiving-pen to move in a corresponding direction; but with a movement made up of a number of steps taken at right angles to or crosswise of each other, the relative number of steps in each direction depending upon the obliquity of the movement of the transmittingpen, the receivingpen is thus caused to substantially follow any movement of the transmitting-pen, and thus reproduce a substantial fac-simile of whatever is written or traced by the latter. The use of the escapement accurately defines the length of each step of the receiving-instrument, and, in connection with the equality in radial distance between the pens and the pivotal points of the cords and arms at the transmitting and.
receiving stations, respectively, which I now secure, insures the substantially accurate reproduction at the receivingstation of the writing of the sender.
The mechanism for causing the receiving- ,pen to be raised and lowered in accordance with the position of the transmitt ng-pen will now be described.
A temporary circuit-breaker consisting of two magn et-spools M N, constructed in a manner and having connections in all respects similar to those above described, constituting the increase-controllers D E and D E, is provided as a part of the transmitting-instrumen t. The transmitting-pen in writing rests upon a platen 117, (see Fig. 2,) which in turn rests upon a spring-supported plate 118, which in its normal position rests against a contactpoint 120, but when depressed by the pressure of the transmitting-pen in writing swings on a pivot and meets contact-point 119. (See Figs. 2 and 17.) A circuit m connects the support 118 with local battery it and armature 121, placed between the two coils M N of the temporary circuit-break er. Thence the circuit divides and returns on the one side through wires m and the coil of magnet M to stop 120, and on the other side through wires m and the coil of magnet N to stop 119. The armature 121 vibrates between contact-stops 122 and 123, and a shunt-wire 0 connects stop 122 with the wire m around the coil of magnet M, and a shunt 0 connects stop 123 with wire m around the coil N. Main line b,-after leaving the increase-controller D E, passes through the armature 1.26 of coil M and its contact-stop 125. Main line 0, after leaving the increase-controller D E, passes through contact-stop 127 and armature 126 of magnet N. The weight of the transmitting-pen in writing a message depresses the support 118 against contact 119, closes the circuit m m" through the magnet N, and attracts the armature 126,causing a break in main-line circuit 0. This break is only momentary, since the armature 121 is simultaneously attracted to the magnet N and the shunt around the coils of this magnet through Wire 0 is closed. The armature 126 returns to its back stop 127 and the main-line circuit 0 is again closed. When the transmitting-pen is raised from the paper, support 118 rises, the circuit m m is closed through coil M, and the main-line circuit 1) is momentarily broken in like manner; The effect of these breaks at the receiving end of the line will presently be stated. First, however, the devices for raising and lowering the I receiving-pen will be described.
The receiving-pen is raised and lowered by means of two magnets ST, placed preferably one above the other, and a local battery 1 (See Figs. 2 and 17.) The armature 129, which carries the pen-rest 130, is located between the two magnets S T and is operated upon by both of them. This armature is held in such position as it is left by the attraction of one or the other of the magnets by means of friction-springs 43, the spring 131 serving merely to balance the weight of the pen-rest and armature. The circuit of magnet S passes through wires 3, coils v of paper-shifting magnet V, a section of local battery y, armature 133 of a relay P in the main-line circuit b, and its back-stop 13st. The circuit of magnet T passes through wires 15, (some of these wires, being common to circuits t and s, are marked with both letters, and other local circuits having wires in common are lettered in the drawings in the same manner,-) coils a) of paper-shifting magnet V, thence by wire 8 to local battery y, thence by wires 25 to a mature 132 of a relay P in main-line circuit 0, its back-stop 128, and wire 25 to magnet T. The momentary break in the main circuit 0 caused by the pressure of the transmittingpen upon the writing-platen 117 and the consequent operation of the temporary circuitbreaker M N by reason of the energization of extend outward beyond the contour multaneously close these coil N causes the relay P at the receiving end to release its armature, which falls upon its back point and closes the circuit through wirestand peu-loweringmagnet'l,causing the armature 12.) and the pen-rest13(), carried by it, to be depressed and the pen G to desce nd to its writing position n pon the paper. The ar mature will be held in this position by the friction-springs 13, and the pen will continue upon the paper until the sender raises the transmitting-pen and removes the pressure from the platen 117. The support 118 will then rise, closing the circuit of coil M of temporary circuit-breaker W N through wires on m and making a temporary break in the main-line circuit 1). This temporary break results in releasing the armature of the re lay 1 at the receiving end, which falls upon its back-stop 134 and closes the circuit of magnet S through wires 8 and a section of battery y. The'armature 129 and pen-rest 130 are now raised, lifting the pen G from the paper, and these parts remain in this position through. the pressure of springs 43 until the transmitting-pen is again placed upon the papen \Vhile these operations are in progress the paper-shifting magnet V is inactive, although both the circuits .9 t pass through certain of its coils. This inactivity results from the fact that the magnetVis of the peculiar construction known as a consequent pole-magnet. It is made up f two soft-iron rods of any convenientlength 135 136, (see Figs. 2 and 3,) and upon the ends of these rods are wound helices of the usual construction, spaces being left at the centers of thetwo rods between the helices of sufficicnt width to receive an ordinary armature. At these pointsit is convenient to place pole-pieces 137 138, which of the coils in such position as to conveniently act upon an armature 139, trunnioued in the ordinary manner. The soft-iron rods 135 136 are united at their ends by soft-iron heelpieces 151 152, ring of iron. When only one of the two sets of coils o c are in circuit, the magnetic circuit of the magnet V is closed through the heel-iron opposite to the excited coils, and no magnetism of consequence is'developed in the points 137 138. It-results that when either of the circuits 3 t are separately closed suflicieiit magnetism is not developed in magnet V to cause it to attract its armature. VVhen,however, both of these sets of coils c o are simultaneously energized by a current flowing in opposite directions, polarity. will be, developed in the points 137 138 and the armature 139 will be attracted. The connections of circuits s t are such that the current ofbattery y flows through the two sets of coils r v in opposite directions when these circuits are closed, so that it is only necessary, in order to cause the magnet V to become active, to Sttwo local circuits. The armature 139 has a play limited by stops so that there is a continuous 140 141, depending from the frame-work of the table, and carries a toe 142, which serves as the trigger of an escapement controlling the revolution of the paper-drum 143. The paper passes from the drum 143 over the transmitting-platen 117 and the receivingplaten 144 and then down, friction-rollers 145 being preferably provided to facilitate its movement and is given a forward tendency by the weighted clip 195 or an equivalent tension device. The escapement controlling the paper-drum consists of a cog-gearing 146, attached to the drum or drum-shaft meshing with a small pinion 147, the shaft 196 of which is provided with two arms 148 149, the ends of these arms revolving in the plane of the toe 142.
of the arms 148 149, and thus'preveut the unwinding of the paper; but the temporary action of the magnet V upon its armature 139 withdraws the toe 142 and permits the paperdrum to revolve until the pinion 147 has madea half-revolution. The arm carried upon the opposite side of the pinion then comes in contact with the toe 142, which has meanwhile returned to its normal position. This escapement is so adjusted that this amount of rotation of drum 143 is sufficient to move the paper a distance equal to the space properly left between two lines of writing. The means provided at the transmitter for causing the simultaneous closing of the two local circuits 5 t at the receiving end consists of two circuit makers and breakan arm 160,which is drawn forward by a spring 161 until it rests against a stop-162, in which position the notch 163 formed in its outer end is just below an opening 164 in the plate 156, so that it can be readily reached by the part of the transmitting-pen just above the nib. The main circuit 1), after leaving the temporary circuit-breaker M N, passes to spring 153, contact 158,and thence to therecciving-instrument. Main circuit 0, after leaving the temporary circuit-breaker M-N, passes to spring 154, contact 159, and thence to the receivinginstru'ment. It results that when the transmitting operator, having comp eted a line, de-
sires to shift the paper he has only to carry his pen to the upper left-hand corner of its field and cause its nib to enter the slot 164 and press against the arm 160, operating the circuit-breaking springs 153 154 and making a simultaneous break in both themain-line circuits b c. The two main-line relays P Pat the receiving-station simultaneously drop back, their armatures and circuits 8 t are closed,
both sets of coils 'v o are energized, and mag:
\Vhen the toe 142 is in its normal .position, it will arrest the revolution of one there is a want of net V attracts its armature,releasing the paper-drum escapement and permitting the paper to feed. This operation does not disturb the position of the receiving-pen, which is now resting upon the pen-rest 130, forthe reason that both the magnets simultaneously energized, will balance each other in their effect upon the armature 129, and the pen-rest will not be moved.
It is obvious that to enable the receivinginstrument to reproduce characters traced by the transmitting-pen the direction of motion of the receiving-pen must accord with that of the transmitting-pen, and to secure an exact reproduction it is necessary that the length of the cords connecting the transmitting-pen with the hing'ing-point's on the interrupterdrums should be exactly equal to the lengths of the corresponding pen-arms of the receiving-instrument; or, in other Words, in order to secure perfect resultsitis necessary to start the two instruments in unison and keep them in that relative condition. I have devised a mechanism for bringing the transmitting and receiving-instruments into unison when they are not so, and will now describe it and its operation.
Armature 139 of the paper-shifting magnetcontrols three local circuits which have not yet been noticed. One of these circuits it (see Figs. 11 and 17) izing-coils K K of the governing escapementmagnets, local battery it, back-stop 165, and armature 139. Another circuit 00' includes the coils of magnet J. local battery 2, a brush 166, which I term a unison -brush,. and which bears upon com mutator-disk 112, contact-spring 39, armature 139, contact-spring 167, and stop 168. A likecircuit (see Fig. 17) 00 includes unison-brush 16 6 and other parts exactly similar to those above described connected with magnet J, armature 139, spring 170, carried by armature ,139, and stop 171.
hen the transmitting-pen carried against the switch-arm 160, the their contacts and brea b c, which causes the paper-shifter armature to move to its forward stop, as heretofore stated. As the armature 139 leaves its backstop the circuit-u is broken, which depolarizes the escapement polarizing-magnets H H. No action now takes place except to shift the paper unless the receiving-instrument is out of unison with the transmitting-instrument. The unison-brush 166 is so placed that in case there is a want of unison in the reverssprings 153 154 leave ing-clutch organization of the left-hand side of the receiver it will be in contact with one of the metallic segments of the commutator upon which it bears, causing a current to flow from battery z through the circuit 00' and coils of magnet J. This operates'the reversing-escapement' 110 one step and brings the unison-brush again upon an insulating-segincludes the two polar K both the main lines S and T, being I ment of the commutator, which should be its position at the shifting of the paper. In case unison in the reversingclutch organization of the right-hand side of the receiver it will be corrected in a similar mannerthrough circuita;,brush166,magnet J, and the connected parts. The circuits of both the polarizing-magnets K K beingnow broken and the main-line circuits being also both broken, and the clutch-m agnets of both halves of the system being so set as to carry the receiving-pen toward the upper left-hand corner of the field, it will be seen that the two governing-escapements, having nothing to retard them, the receiving-pen, it behind the transmitting pen, will be permitted to run without hinderan cc to the left-hand upper corner of its field, where it will be stopped by pins properly placed upon gear-wheels 28 29, said pins being arranged to come in contact with fixed stops. If prior to the shifting of the paper the receiving pen was in advance of the the writing of the next line proceeds.
transmitting-pen, it will have been checked by these stops and the transmitting-pen will have overtaken it at the paper-shifting switch. Complete provision is therefore made for securing unison betweea the two pens.
After the paper has been shifted and the transmitting and receiving instruments have been brought to unison, the transmitting-pen is withdrawn from the switch-lever 160 and The effect of the withdrawal of the pen is, of course, to reverse thepositions of thecircuit making and breaking arms 86, closing the circuits d of the increase-controllers D E and D E. If, however, these circuits are closed while the main-line circuits .are still open, no increased pulsation will be sent to line and the receiving-instrument will not be reversed. To provide against such an occurrence a circuit making and breaking arm 15 is provided, rigidly fixed to the shaft 155 and playing between contact-points 18 19, (see Figs. 1, 6, 7, and 17,) and the circuit (1 of both the increasecontrollers D E and D E is caused to pass through the, arm 15, contact-point 19, and wires 1 Z, connected therewith, as heretofore stated. Consequently neither of these circuits can be completed while the lever 15 is out of contact with the stop 19. Arm 15 is so placed on shaft 155 that as the transmitting-pen is drawn away from'the. lever 160 and that lever returns to its position springs 153 15 1 strike their respective contact-points and close the main circuits b 0 before the arm 15 reaches its contact 19. The circuits (1 therefore cannot be closed until after the closing of main-line circuits 1) 0, even if arms 86 are actuated while the main -line circuits are still open. As soon as the arm 15 reaches its stop 19, which will be immediately after the closing of the main circuits Z) a, both increasecontrollers will simultaneously operate to send a strong impulse through both main lines, causing a reversal to take place in both the reversing-escapements at the receiving end and setting the clutches inproper manner to cause the receiving-pen to follow the motion of the transmitting-pen.
The provision for shifting the paper at the transmittinginstrument consists (see Fig. 17) of proper circuit connections, by means of wires 1" r, from contact-points 18 and 181 and spring-extension 1S2, attached to arm 15, to the two paper-shifting and pen-raising circuits s t at the transmitting-station, whereby these circuits are closed by the rocking of the switch-lever 160 and arm 15 at the completion of a line of writing. Connections for this purpose are shown in broken lines, Fig. 2. The paper is thus simultaneously shifted at the transmitting and receiving stations.
Provision for shifting the paperat the transmittingstation independently of the receiving-station is also made, and consists of a push-button 20, so placed that when depressed it electrically connects contact-stops 18 and t.
181. When the operator has completed the sending of his message and placed his pen in the rack, he presses button 20 a sufficient number of times to move his paper forward, so that clean paper is brought under his receiving-pen; and by the connections just described he accomplishes this without disturbing the connections which control the paper at the distant station.
I will now describe an improved pen-rack for holding the transmitting-pen when not in use, which forms a part of my present invention and is illustrated in Figs. 8, 9, and 10. a
This rack consists of a tube 51, supported between two posts 52 52'. tube is fixed a collar 172, to which is rigidly fixed a curved projecting jaw 54:, and to which is pivoted another projecting jaw 53. The jaw 53 projects into as well as out of the tube, and to its inner end is pivoted a rod 55, extending centrally through the tube 51 to one of the posts, (52,) and carrying on its end an upright rod 173, which extends down through and below the post 52 and carries at its lower endablockofinsulatingmaterial57. Wrapped loosely around the rod 55 is a spiral spring 56,
of considerable strength, fastened at each end to washers 61 62, washer 61 being fastened to the tube 51 and washer 62 being attached to the rod 55. The insulating-block 57 has set in it two contact-springs 17 4 175, which are respectivelyconnectedtoline-wiresbandc. Fourcontact-stops 176 177 178 179 are provided, with one pair of which (176 and 177) are connected the wires in circuits be, respectively, passing to the transmitting-instrument at the home station, and with the remaining pair of which (178 179) are attached the wires b c, passing to the receiving-instrument at the home station. The jaws 53 54: are so shaped as to form between them a recess adapted to hold the nib of the pen and retain it in a fixed, preferably an upright, position. These jaws also preferably flare outward topernnit the pen to be forced between them into the recess. The effect of introducing the pen into the recess is to swing the jaw 53 on its pivot and draw the rod 55 against the tension of the spring 56 to the left, causing the springs 174 175,
At the center of the ICC (see Fig. 10,) which when the pen is being used for transmitting rest against the contact-points 176 177, to leave those contactpoints and be pressed against the contactpoints 178 179, the result being to break the connection of the line-wires with the transmitting-instrument and place them in connection with the receiving-instrument. The operator, when he has finished using the transmitting-pen, will place it in the rack, and will thereby swing the system from the condition in which it is fitted to send messages to that in which it is fitted to receive messages, and .the uprightposition of the pen in the rack will indicate at a glance that the system is set for receiving a message, and afford a check against carelessness on the part of the operator. The function of this pen-rack is therefore the same, substantially, as that of the rack described in my former patents. It is, however, superior to that rack in point of simplicity, and in that itgives the pen a position immediately over the field and holds it in a more conspicuous manner and a more convenient position. \Vhen the pen is taken from the rack for the purpose of transmitting a message, the action of the spring 56 automatically returns the contact springs 174 175 to their position in contact with the contacts 170 177 and completes the circuit for transmitting.
It will be observed that with this organization when the transmitting-pens at both ends of the line-wire are hung up both of the stronger line-batteries Z Z will be cut out and only the two small batteries 5 2 will be on line, and these batteries being opposed in polarity will neutralize each other and the condition of theline will be equivalentto that of having no battery in circuit. The main-line relays, therefore, at both ends of the line will rest on their back points. I take advantage of this fact to control the operation ofthe motor in the following manner! The motoris normally in circuit through the wire V with the whole of battery y, only a section of this battery being required to operate the mag nets S, T, and V. Circuit \V is provided with 'a circuit maker and breaker consisting of a spring 197 riding upon ablock 198, partly Ofmetallic and partly of insulating 1naterial. The motor-circuit has two branch circuits w to, one of which (w) includes the armature and front stop of relay P, and the other of which (20) includes the armature and front stop of relay P.
Both of the circuits w 10 pass through an ordinary single spool-magnet L, having an armature-lever 199 trunnioned upon double pivots so as to move toand from the magnet and also sidewise in either direction, as shown in Fig. 11. Themagnet L and its armature 199 are so placed with reference to one of the shafts 30 that a pin 200, fixed to the outer end of the armature, will engage when the armature is released by its magnet with a screw 201, carried by the shaft. The armature 199 is drawn'back from its magnet by a spring 202 in the ordinary manner, and is also provided with a side stop 203, against which it is normally held by a spring 204, this spring 20 putting a strain upon the armature-lever 199 in a direction opposite to the direction in which it is carried by the engagement of the screw 201 with the pin 200. The contact-spring 197 is attached to the armature 199 and rides upon the metallic portion of the block 198-when the armature 199 is against the side stop 203, and the width of this metallic portion of the block 198 is such that the spring 197 will continue to rest upon it as it is moved away from the stop 203 during the time occupied by a number of revolutions of the shaft 30.
The resistance of the magnet L is made such with reference to that of the motor that it will take sufficient current when the motor is in circuit to energize it and cause it to attract its armature. \Vhen therefore either of the relays P or P is energized and its armature rests upon its front contact, the magnet L will be energized, thepin 200 on its armature will be held out of engagement with the screw 201, and the spring '204-will hold it in contact with the stop 203, the spring 197 will rest upon the metallic portion of .the block 198, and the circuit of the motor will be closed. If, however, both of the relays P P are de-energized and both of the circuits to w in consequence thereof are broken,the magnet L will release its armature, pin 200 will engage with screw 201 and be carried away from the stop 203 against the tension of the spring 20$ as the shaft 30 rotates, so that if the break in the two main-line circuits continues long enough the spring 197 will be carried out of contact with the metallic portion of the block 198, andthe motor-circuit will be broken, causing the motor to stop. It results that when there is an effective current on either of the main lines I) c the circuit of the batteryy will be closed through the motor; but when there is an effective current inneither main-line circuit the motor-circuit will be broken andthe motor will stop after a few revolutions of the shaft 80. The spring 197 is so adjusted with reference to the metallic portion of the block 198 that the circuit of the motor will not be brokenin bringing the transmitting and receiving pens to unison under ordinary circumstances, or, in
other words, unison will be reached before the spring 199 is carried off from the metal portion of the block 198.
It follows from thisconstruction that when the transmitting-pen is placed in the rack the relays of the distant receiver will both be deenergized and the motor at this distant station will be brought to rest after a fewrrevolutions of its shaft 30, and that whenboth transmitting-pens are placed in their racks, there being no effective current on line, both motors will come to rest. If now one of the transmittingpens is taken from its rack, it
up. ting operator nary and short-hand writing;
will cut outthe relays at the transmitting end through the agency of the pen-rack switch, and at the same time by throwing the current upon the main line it will close the relays at the distant end and start up the motor, which will remain in operation until the message is completed and the pen again hung This organization gives the transmitthe full control of the motor, as well as of all of the rest of the machinery at the receiving end.
Modifications may be made in most of the details of the system and still it will contain my invention. A few of the more general modifications which may be made will be referred to.
\Vhile I prefer to operate the governing reversible escapement-magnet by pulsations of successively opposite polarity, I do not confine myself to a system in which such pulsations are used. I have secured good results by merely making and breaking the line-circuit, as in the system describedin my former patents, these impulses of like polarity operating a governing-escapement magnet.
It is not essential that two linebatteries of unequal strength be employed, as the alternately positive and negative pulsations may be sent from the transmitting station by means of a pole-changer operated and'controlled by the interrupters or in any other suitable manner.
While I prefer an electric motor as a source of power for driving the receiving-pen, in that it is more readily controlled from the transmitting-station than other forms of prime motors,I do not limitmyself to the use of such a motor, but may employ in its stead any convenient type of mechanical motor or a shaft rotated from any appropriate source of power. Under the term motor I intend to include any and every device from which power may be derived.
It is to be understood that in this applica-' patents, the terms tion, as in my former character, writing, and message, as herein used, include any matter, such as pietures, maps, drawings, diagrams, and arbitrary characters of all kinds, as Well as ordialso, that the term paper includes any surface suit-able for writing or from which any writing or printing is to be traced. If in addition to transmitting messages in writing it should be desired to capacitate the mechanism to transmit and reproduce diagrams, maps, and pictures, all that is necessary is to allow the transmitting and receiving pens to have the necessary range of movement in each direction. I I
In some cases it may be preferred to write the message in the form of a single line extending along the length of a narrow ribbon of paper, as suggested in my former patents, and in such cases it will only beneccssary to aprange the mechanism for shifting the'paper in the direction of a line of writing instead of in a direction perpendicular thereto.
The receiving-pen may in some cases consist of a simple pencil or tracer and the inksupplying' apparatus be dispensed with.
The closing and breaking of the local circuits for lowering and raising the receivingpen may be effected by a special key instead of by the transmitting-pen or by a circuitcloser arranged and operated in any suitable manner.
The paper, instead of being shifted by a weight controlled by an escapement, may be shifted in any other desired manner, as by separate circuits for this purpose, or the.
means for shifting the paper or raising the pen, or both, may be omitted Separate line-wires may be employed for operating the reversing-clutches instead of using an increased current for that purpose; or other changes in the current besides an increase thereof may be resorted to for this purpose.
Also, as stated in my prior Letters Patent, the movements necessary to reproduce the message, instead of beingimparted to the receiving-pen, may be wholly or in part imparted to the paper. It is therefore to be understood that Whenever the movement of the receiving-pen is referred to as forming the characters that also includes the equivalent movement of the paper, and that for the purposes of this specification a recording-surface movable for the purpose of forming characters is the equivalent of a movable pen.
If preferred, two motors may be used for operatingthe receiving-pen, governed by pulsations transmitted over the two circuits, respectively.
No particular form of interrupter is essential in my invention. I intend to include under that term every device by means of which electric pulsations, whether successively of the same or opposite polarity, may be rapidly produced in the circuit.
I do not confine myself to the particular form of reversing mechanism shown herein,
meaning to include under that term all forms of mechanism adapted for the purpose. So, too,I mean to include under the term gear or train of gearing all forms of suitable mechanism adapted to continuously transmit power.
I contemplate the use of each of the several foregoing improvements separately, as well as in conjunction with each other. Thus, for instance, I intend to protect herein the feature of my invention which consists in employing pulsations of successively opposite polarity, whether those pulsations energize the motor-magnets of the receiving-pen directly, as in the organization shown in my said former patents, or whether they operate the receiving-pen by restraining or regulating the force which moves it, as in the organization shown. herein meaning to include both cesses hereinbefore described, as they are.
claimed in my other 318,09land 324,232.
. I do not limit myself in any of myclaims to the same construction of apparatus as that herein shown and described; but under the terms means, mechanism, and similar expressions I intend to include all other devices whatsoever capable of being substituted for the structures or elements thereof claimed.
Having thus described my invention, what applications, Serial Nos.
I claim isl. The combination, with a transmittingpen, of an electric circuit, an interrupter operated through said pen and producing pulsations in said circuit, a receiving-pen, a motor giving movement to the receiving-pen and caused to operate thereon through said pulsations, a reversing mechanism between the motor and the receiving-pen, whereby the direction of movement of the latter may be reversed, magnetically-controlled clutches controlling the reversing mechanism, a currentcontroller at the transmittingstation for causing a temporary change in the line-current upon each reversal ofthe direction of motion of the transmitting-pen, and circuit connections whereby such temporary change in the line-current operates upon the magneticallycontrolled clutches to cause the direction of movement of the receiving-pen to be reversed, substantially as set fort 2. The combination, with a transmittingpen, of an electric circuit, an interrupter operated through said pen and producing pulsations in said circuit, a receiving-pen, a motor giving movement to the receiving-pen and controlled in'the application of its power to the receiving-pen by said pulsations, reversing mechanism between the motor and the receiving-pen, whereby the direction of movement of the latter may be reversed, magnetically-controlled clutches controlling the reversing mechanism, a magnet in line-current controlling the clutches, and a currentcontroller at the transmitting-station forsending to line currents of increased strength upon each reversal of the direction of motion of the transmitting-pen, and thereby operating the last-named magnet 'to control the action of the clutches and cause the direction of movement of the receiving-pen to be reversed, substantially as set forth.
3. The combination, with a transmit-tingpen, of an electric circuit, an interrupter operated through said pen and producing pulsations in said circuit, a receiving-pen, a motor giving movement to the receiving-pen and controlled in the application of its power to the receiving-pen by said pulsations, a reversing mechanism between the motor and governed in the application the receiving-pen,whereby the direction of the movement of the latter may be reversed, cl [itch-magnets connected with the reversing mechanism and provided with electric connections, a commutator or other suitable circuit-controller for controlling the energization of the clutch-magnets, a magnet controlling the position of the commutator or other circuit-controller, and means for electrically controlling the last-named magnet from the transmitting-station, and thereby operating the reversing mechanism atthe receivingstation upon a change of the direction of motion of the transmitting-pen,substantially as set forth.
4. The combination-of a transmitting-pen, an electric circuit, an interrupter operated through said pen and producing pulsations insaid circuit, a receiving-pen, a motor for moving the receiving-pen and caused to operate thereon through said pulsations, a train of gearing connecting the motor with the receiving-pen, a part of said train consisting of a magnetically-controlled clutch, and electrical connections With the transmitting-station controlling said'clutch, substantially as set forth.
5. The combination of a transmitting-pen, an electric circuit, an interrupter operated through said pen and producing pulsations in said circuit, a receiving-pen, a motor for moving the receiving-pen and caused to operate thereon through said pulsations, a train of gearing connecting the motor with the receiving-pen,'a reversing mechanism constituting a part of said train of gearing, and electrical connections with the transmitting-station controlling the reversing mechanism, substantially as set forthrv 6. The combination of a transmitting-pen, an electric circuit, an interrupter operated through said pen and producing pulsations in said circuit, a receiving-pen, a motor for mov-, ing the receiving-pen and caused to operate thereon through said pulsations, a train of gearing connecting the motor with the receiving-pen, two electrically-controlled clutches constituting parts'of said train of gearin and electrical connections with the transmitting-station, whereby one or the other of said clutches is brought into operation according to the direction of motionrequiredto be given to the receiving-pen, substantially as set forth.
7. The combination, in a telautograph systern, of a receiving-pen, a motor for giving movement to the same, a reversible escapement controlled from the transmitting-station, whereby the application of the power of the motor tothe receiving-pen is governed, reversing mechanism between the motor and the escapement, consisting of two re'verselyacting gear-wheels provided with portions capable of magnetic attraction, and-two magnets rotated by. the motor, the magnetic portions of the gear-wheels acting as armatures for the two magnets, respectively, and elec- IIO trical connections controlled from the transmitting-station, whereby one or the other of these magnets may be energized at the will of the transmitting operator to grip its gearwheel, substantially as set forth.
8. The combination of a motor, a telautographic receiving-pen, an escapement for governing the application of the power of the motor to the telautographic receiving-pen, an electro-magnetic frictional clutch constituting a part of the train of gear between the motor and the escapement, and electrical connections for operating the clutch, as required, to cause the motor to operate the telautographic receiving-pen, substantially as set forth.
9. The combination of a motor, a driven mechanism, an escapement for governing the application of the power of the motor to the driven mechanism, a power-transmitting device intermediate between the motor and the escapement, consisting in part of a magnetically-controlled frictional clutch, one part of said clutch being moved by the motor and the other intermediate between the motor and the escapement, and electrical connections whereby the magnetizable portions of said clutch may be excited in a determinate degree, whereby power is transmitted by the friction of its surfaces sufficient to drive the driven mechanism, but insufficient to overcome the restraining action of the escapement, substantially as set forth.
10. The combination, with a transmittingpen, of an electric circuit, an interrupter operated through said pen for producing pulsations in the circuit, a receiving-pen, a motor giving movement ,to the receiving-pen and governed in the application of its power to the receiving-pen through said pulsations, an electrically-controlled frictional clutch constitutin g a part of the train of gear between the motor and the receiving-pen, one of the parts of said clutch being moved by .the motor, and electrical connections operated from the transmitting-station, whereby the magnetization of the excitable portions of the clutch, and consequently the transmission of power therethrough, is controlled by the transmitting operator, substantially as set forth.
11. The combination, with a transmitting-'- pen, of an electric circuit, an interrupter operated through said pen and producing pulsations in said circuit, a receiving-pen, a motor for giving movement thereto, an scapement controlling the application of the power of the motor to the receiving-pen and in turn controlled by said pulsations, a 'train of gearing connecting the motor with the receivingpen and having as a part thereof two electromagnetic frictional clutches, together constituting a reversing mechanism, and electric connections with the transmitting station, whereby one or the other of said clutches is energized as one or the other direction of motion of the receiving-pen is desired, the degree of energization of the clutches being such that power is transmitted through the frictional contact of their surfacessuflicient to drive the receiving-pen, but insufficient to overcome the restraining action of the escapement, substantially as set forth.
12. The combination, with a transmittingpen, of an electric circuit, an interrupter operated through said pen for producing pulsations in the circuit, a receiving-pen, a motor for giving movement to the receiving-pen and governed in the application of its power to the receiving-pen through said pulsations, a reversing mechanism situated between the motor and the receiving-pen,consisting in part of two electro-niagnetic frictional clutches, electrical connections, and a commutator or other suitable circuit-controller whereby one or the other of the said clutches may be operated, a magnet controlling the position of the commutator or other circuit-controller, and electrical connections with the transmittingstation, whereby the transmitting operator may operate the last-named magnet, an d thereby control the direction of motion transmitted from the motor to the receiving-pen, substantially as set forth.
13. The combination of a commutator-disk, an escapement by which the position of the disk is controlled, a magnet controlling the escapement through its armature and contact, a spring through which an electric current passes to the commutator, said spring be ing attached to the armature of the escapement-magnet, whereby the change of current controlled by the commutator is effected immediately upon the movement of the armature, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.
14. The combination, in atela-utograph system, of a transmitting-pen, a line-circuit, a receiving-pen, a motor for giving motion to the receiving-pen, an interrupter operated through the transmitting-pen for sending pulsations over the circuit, whereby the application of the'power of the motor to the receiving-pen is governed, a reversing mechanism between the motor andthe receiving-pen,two magnets and electrical connections for controlling said reversing mechanism, a commutator whereby one or the other'of said magnets is caused to be energized according to the direction of rotation desired, a magnet governing said commutator, a unison-brush bearing upon the commutator and forming a part of a local circuit which includes the com 1 mutator-magnet, and electrical connections having a circuit maker and breaker at the transmitting-station, whereby the transmitting operator can close the unison-circuit, and thereby operate the commutator-magnet if the two pens are out of unison as to direction of motion, substantially as set forth.
15. In atelautograph system, the combination, with a receiving-pen, of a recordingsurface, a feeding mechanism for shifting the recording-surface, an electro-magnet controlling said feeding mechanism, a motor for