|Publication number||US4633467 A|
|Application number||US 06/634,461|
|Publication date||Dec 30, 1986|
|Filing date||Jul 26, 1984|
|Priority date||Jul 26, 1984|
|Also published as||CA1227875A, CA1227875A1, DE3584835D1, EP0190216A1, EP0190216B1, WO1986001019A1|
|Publication number||06634461, 634461, US 4633467 A, US 4633467A, US-A-4633467, US4633467 A, US4633467A|
|Inventors||Mark J. Abel, Chi L. Kwan, Philip V. Polli, Michael T. Veach|
|Original Assignee||At&T Bell Laboratories|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Non-Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (61), Classifications (12), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention pertains to computer system fault detection and recovery techniques in general and, in particular, to techniques for identifying faulty units in computer-controlled telephone switching systems.
It is desirable automatically to identify faulty units in computer systems that involve many peripheral units as well as processors, memories, etc. Telephony is a good example of an art in which fault identification and automatic system recovery has been developed to a high degree of sophistication. System redundancy and automatic detection of system malfunctions have long been employed in switching systems to enhance system reliability, even in older electromechanical systems. Redundancy, immediate fault detection and unit reconfiguration have continued to be the mainstay of system reliability of the computer controlled switching offices of today.
Many techniques are known for identifying the source of a system malfunction. In general, however, these techniques are based on system recovery algorithms of reconfiguring the system and retrying the operation on which a malfunction occurred until a successful completion of the operation is achieved. If an algorithm is designed properly, the system is then able by a process of elimination to identify the offending (faulty) unit. While techniques such as these are workable in general, they sometimes have certain disadvantages. For example, some subsystems may have complex paths of communication in which any given unit may appear in more than one path. Depending on the specific characteristics of such a subsystem, it may be difficult to design a recovery strategy based on the traditional reconfigure and retry strategy. Algorithm reliability, that is, the ability to consistently and accurately identify a faulty unit in a complex system or subsystem, may be inadequate. The amount of dedicated software required to recover a system and to identify a faulty unit may become burdensome in a complex environment. In some cases, the system time required to perform the recovery and identification steps may be intolerable, such as in a real-time environment of a telephone office.
The above problems are partially solved and an advance in the art is achieved in a method of identifying faulty units in a computer system based on a historical analysis of system malfunctions. The system comprises at least a processing unit, a peripheral unit and an interface unit connecting the peripheral unit to the processing unit. In response to the detection of a malfunction, each system unit which detects the malfunction generates and returns an error report identifying the malfunction and the detecting unit to the processing unit. The processing unit uses the error report to generate an initial list of fault probability weights for the system units. A history list also containing fault weights for the system units as a result of prior error reports is aged by reducing its unit fault weights according to the amount of time elapsed since receipt of the last error report. A new history list is generated by combining the individual fault weights from the initial list with those contained in the aged history list. The unit having the largest combined fault weight which also has a non-zero fault weight in the initial list is selected as being faulty.
In the drawing:
FIG. 1 shows a block diagram of an illustrative subsystem of part of a computer controlled switching system, including the various inter communication paths, shown as numbers in the channels interconnecting the units, for unit intercommunication on any given system transaction;
FIGS. 2 through 4 show illustrative flowcharts of the method discussed herein as implemented in software for controlling a processing unit;
FIG. 5 shows an illustrative format of a fault weight table maintained in memory of the system and containing predefined fault probability weights for the different types of units shown in FIG. 1, based on the types of error conditions that can be reported by the individual system units;
FIGS. 6 through 10 illustrate different software lists generated and analyzed by the method discussed herein for identifying faulty units in response to error reports from the subsystem units; and
FIG. 11 shows an illustrative modulation table containing predefined information used to refine the accuracy of fault unit identification in certain cases in which a threshold of error reports from a given type of unit may implicate another unit type as being faulty.
FIG. 1 shows a block diagram of an illustrative subsystem used to describe the invention. Specifically, the subsystem is contained in the No. 5 electronic switching system manufactured by AT&T Technologies, Inc. and described briefly in AT&T Bell Laboratories Record, November 1983, at page 4 and January 1984, at page 13.
The units of FIG. 1 will not be described in detail herein as this is not necessary for an understanding of the invention. Suffice it to say that the subsystem of FIG. 1 consists of duplicated central processing units (CPUs) 0 and 1, one of which is active and one standby at any given time, for controlling operations of the subsystem, at least one switch module (SM) for establishing time-division multiplexed communication connections between a plurality of incoming and outgoing lines and trunks (not shown), and a complicated and highly redundant set of interface circuits providing alternative communication paths via which the CPUs control the operations of the switch module SM.
More specifically, the illustrative interface units consist of duplicated message switch control units, MSCU 0 and MSCU 1, quadruplicated module message processors MMP 0A, MMP 0B, MMP 1A and MMP 1B, duplicated message interface units MICU 0 and MICU 1, and duplicated time multiplex switches TMS 0 and TMS 1. The interface units provide a total of eight alternative control communication paths 0 to 7 between the CPUs and the SM. These paths are shown in FIG. 1 as numerals located in the channels interconnecting the units. Thus, for example, communication paths 0, 2, 4 and 6 extend from either CPU 0 or CPU 1, whichever is active, to MSCU 0. From MSCU 0, paths 0 and 4 extend to MMP 0A, while paths 2 and 6 extend to MMP 0B. By following the other paths in FIG. 1 it is seen that paths 0, 1, 2, and 3 proceed via MICU 0 to TMS 0, where two separate physical channels connect individual path pairs 0,1 and 2,3 to the switch module SM via a dual link interface (DLI) 0. Similarly, paths 4 through 7 proceed via MICU 1 and TMS 1 to the SM via DLI 1.
Each of the units detect various types of subsystem malfunctions while routing a control message from an active CPU to the SM. A unit detecting a malfunction generates and returns an error report having an error report number indicating the type of malfunction detected to the CPU via a separate communication channel not shown in FIG. 1. The active CPU, on receipt of an error report, initiates fault analysis and recovery by passing program control to the ERROR ANALYSIS program, whose flowcharts are shown beginning at FIG. 2 herein.
ERROR ANALYSIS begins at step 200 by indexing into a fault weight table, shown in FIG. 5, with the number of the error message that has been received to obtain a set of probable fault weights for each type of unit in the subsystem of FIG. 1, except the SM. The fault weights in the fault weight table are predefined based on a mathematical model of the subsystem in question, taking into account the logical fault propagation dependencies of the subsystem, expected failure rates of the individual units based on their circuit structure and components, and any other factors that might characterize the failure modes of the subsystem. Thus, for example, if a fault occurs in the subsystem resulting in the generation of error message number 2 by, say MICU 0 or 1, then according to word 2 of the fault weight table, the fault likely resides in a CPU 5% of the time, in a MSCU 30% of the time, etc.
Once the fault weights are obtained, the specific units implicated by the error report must be ascertained. This is a function of which CPU is active and the active communications path used to transmit the control message that resulted in the generation of the error report. The active communication path being used at any given time is routinely maintained in memory by the active CPU in a conventional manner. Step 202 obtains this information and determines the implicated units in the active communications path. Thus, if error message 2 is received and step 202 determines that CPU 0 is active and that the active communications path is 6, then it is seen from FIGS. 1 and 5 that the implicated units are CPU 0, MSCU 0, MMP 0B, MICU 1 and TMS 1. Step 204 generates an initial faulty probability list, illustrated in FIG. 6, containing the implicated units with their respective fault weights from the fault weight table.
Step 206 next ages an existing error history list according to the elapsed time since the receipt of the last error report. The generation of the history list is discussed below. FIG. 7 shows an illustrative history list for purposes of discussion. For this example, the history list is assumed to contain the following fault weights before aging: MSCU 0-10%, MMP 0A-15%, TMS 1-50%. In the preferred illustrative embodiment, aging of the history list is performed by subtracting a value from each of the fault weights in the history list equal to the number five multiplied by the number of seconds elapsed since the last error report (aged fault weight=current weight-5 * no. of elapsed seconds). Any desired algorithm may, however, be used. If the result for any aged fault weight is less than zero, that result is set to zero rather than to a negative number. FIG. 8 shows the aged history list for this example, assuming that two seconds have elapsed between the previous error report and the current report. MSCU 0, MMP 0A and TMS 1 have aged fault weights of 0, 5 and 40 percent, respectively.
Step 208 generates a resultant list of implicated units by adding the fault weights for the individual units from the initial list to the respective weights now present in the aged history list. A resultant list in the present example is shown in FIG. 9. By examining the initial list in FIG. 6 and the aged history list in FIG. 8, it is seen that the resultant list contains the following units with the following fault weights: CPU 0-5%, MSCU 0-30%, MMP 0A--5% MMP 0B-40%, MICU 1-15%, TMS 1-50%, DLI 1-0%. To prevent possible aberrations in the prediction of a faulty unit because of unforeseen circumstances that might otherwise result in excessively large fault weights in the resultant list, the weights in the resultant list are scaled by step 210 so that no weights are larger than a preselected value N. In the preferred embodiment, the scaling is done by merely reducing any resultant fault weight greater than N to N.
In any given system, there may be certain error reports that, when generated frequently by a particular type of unit, implicate another unit not otherwise implicated by such an error report. This is the case in the specific subsystem of FIG. 1 for a family of error reports generated by a MMP and identified for discussion here as AA, which at some point implicate a MSCU. A modulation table, illustratively shown in FIG. 11, is used to determine the point at which an MSCU is implicated. The modulation table consists of several words, each of which contain a search parameter X which represents the number of MMPs in service at the beginning of a modulation interval and a second parameter Z indicating a threshold level related to the number of error reports AA generated by the MMP. More specifically, the threshold level is directly related to the difference between the number of active MMPs present at the beginning of a modulation interval and the number of active MMPs present at the time of generation of subsequent error reports AA during the modulation interval. The threshold can be viewed in these terms because, in general, a MMP is removed from service in response to a fixed number of successive error reports AA. Receipt of a first report AA initiates the modulation interval. In response to receipt of an error report AA during the modulation interval, the analysis program determines the number of presently active MMPs and then it determines if the threshold level has been exceeded. If so, it is concluded that the MSCU communicating with the MMP generating the last error report AA may be faulty.
In more detail now, step 300 determines if the received error report is number AA. If not, the modulation process is bypassed. If so, a modulation timer is tested for the value zero by step 304. The modulation timer defines the modulation interval during which the threshold level must occur to implicate an MSCU. If the content of the modulation timer is zero, step 306 initializes the timer to an illustrative 90 second interval to begin the modulation interval. Step 308 saves the number of MMPs active at this time in a variable X. Step 316 searches the X parameter of the modulation table in FIG. 11 for an entry containing a number equal to the number of presently active MMPs. When this is found, step 318 reads the threshold level contained in the second entry of the table and sets variable Z to this value.
Step 310 now proceeds with normal analysis by masking the resultant and initial lists to get a final selection list from which a most probable faulty unit is selected. Masking in this context means preserving in the selection list the fault weights contained in the resultant list for all units that are present in both the resultant and initial lists.
An illustrative selection list generated by step 310 in the present example is shown in FIG. 10. The selection list contains entries for CPU 0, MSCU 0, MMP 0B, MICU 1 and TMS 1, since these units have non-zero fault weights in both the initial and resultant lists. The fault weights in the selection list for these units are taken from the resultant list.
The unit in the selection list having the largest fault weight is presumed to be a faulty unit. Accordingly, step 312 determines this unit, which is TMS 1 in the present example, removes it from service and schedules additional diagnostic tests to be executed on the unit to pinpoint the location of the fault within the unit.
To return to the discussion of the modulation analysis, assume that after TMS 1 is removed from service in this example error report number AA is again received by the active CPU. Step 304 determines if the modulation timer initially set to an illustrative 90 seconds has expired. If so, the timer is reinitialized by step 306 and analysis with respect to this error report continues as already discussed. On the other hand, if the timer is not equal to 0, then an error report AA from a MMP was received in the recent past, thereby possibly implicating a MSCU as faulty. To determine if this is so, step 314 determines the number of presently active MMPs and sets a variable Y to this value. Step 320 determines if the number X of active MMPs present when the modulation timer was last initialized (see step 308) minus the number of presently active MMPs Y is less than the number Z contained in the second entry of the modulation table. If this is true, a MSCU is not implicated. If X-Y>=Z, however, step 322 forces a fault weight in the resultant list for the MSCU to a value guaranteed to cause its implication as a faulty unit.
Because the above-described fault analysis process is based on probabilities initially determined by human input, it is possible that an erroneous selection of a fault unit will be made in any given instance. A strategy illustrated in FIG. 4 is provided to minimize the effects of erroneous fault unit selection and, in such a case, to help assure that eventually the correct fault unit will be found. A diagnostic process executed on a unit declared as faulty by the above-described method is illustrated by step 400. The results of a diagnostic process are a confirmation of a unit fault or an all tests pass (ATP) condition. This latter event may suggest an incorrect selection by the fault analysis process. When the ATP condition is found by the diagnostic process, a system recovery strategy process illustrated by step 402 is executed. If the unit diagnosed is contained in the subsystem discussed herein, the system recovery strategy process enters SSATP, also shown in FIG. 4, with a unit identification and a unit fault weight reduction parameter as input parameters. As a result, step 404 reduces the fault weight for the unit in the history list by the value of the reduction parameter, but not to a resulting value less than zero. This action lessens the historical fault implication attributed to the identified unit for purposes of the next error report.
It is to be understood that the above-described arrangement is merely illustrative of the application of the principles of the invention and that other arrangements may be devised by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4108360 *||Sep 19, 1977||Aug 22, 1978||International Business Machines Corporation||Method of error analysis and diagnosis in electronic data processing systems|
|US4380067 *||Apr 15, 1981||Apr 12, 1983||International Business Machines Corporation||Error control in a hierarchical system|
|US4438494 *||Aug 25, 1981||Mar 20, 1984||Intel Corporation||Apparatus of fault-handling in a multiprocessing system|
|US4453210 *||Apr 15, 1980||Jun 5, 1984||Hitachi, Ltd.||Multiprocessor information processing system having fault detection function based on periodic supervision of updated fault supervising codes|
|US4503535 *||Jun 30, 1982||Mar 5, 1985||Intel Corporation||Apparatus for recovery from failures in a multiprocessing system|
|US4517639 *||May 13, 1982||May 14, 1985||The Boeing Company||Fault scoring and selection circuit and method for redundant system|
|1||"IBM Techical Disclosure", J. R. Keffler, vol. 16, No. 6, Nov. 1973, pp. 1903-1904.|
|2||"Proceedings of the IEEE", A. L. Hopkins et al. vol. 66, No. 10, Oct. 1978, pp. 1221-1239.|
|3||*||IBM Techical Disclosure , J. R. Keffler, vol. 16, No. 6, Nov. 1973, pp. 1903 1904.|
|4||*||Proceedings of the IEEE , A. L. Hopkins et al. vol. 66, No. 10, Oct. 1978, pp. 1221 1239.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4710926 *||Dec 27, 1985||Dec 1, 1987||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||Fault recovery in a distributed processing system|
|US4829520 *||Mar 16, 1987||May 9, 1989||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||In-place diagnosable electronic circuit board|
|US4924466 *||Jun 30, 1988||May 8, 1990||International Business Machines Corp.||Direct hardware error identification method and apparatus for error recovery in pipelined processing areas of a computer system|
|US4970644 *||Jun 30, 1989||Nov 13, 1990||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||Reconfigurable well logging system|
|US5065311 *||Apr 20, 1988||Nov 12, 1991||Hitachi, Ltd.||Distributed data base system of composite subsystem type, and method fault recovery for the system|
|US5090014 *||Nov 1, 1989||Feb 18, 1992||Digital Equipment Corporation||Identifying likely failure points in a digital data processing system|
|US5107497 *||Jul 28, 1989||Apr 21, 1992||At&T Bell Laboratories||Technique for producing an expert system for system fault diagnosis|
|US5119488 *||Feb 21, 1989||Jun 2, 1992||Hitachi, Ltd.||Input/output system implementing several access paths for rerouting data in the event one path fails|
|US5140691 *||Aug 30, 1990||Aug 18, 1992||International Business Machines Corp.||Adapter-bus switch for improving the availability of a control unit|
|US5155731 *||May 11, 1990||Oct 13, 1992||Fujitsu Limited||Error logging data storing system|
|US5157667 *||Apr 30, 1990||Oct 20, 1992||International Business Machines Corporation||Methods and apparatus for performing fault isolation and failure analysis in link-connected systems|
|US5200958 *||Sep 28, 1990||Apr 6, 1993||Xerox Corporation||Method and apparatus for recording and diagnosing faults in an electronic reprographic printing system|
|US5313628 *||Dec 30, 1991||May 17, 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Component replacement control for fault-tolerant data processing system|
|US5432932 *||Oct 23, 1992||Jul 11, 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for dynamically controlling remote processes from a performance monitor|
|US5469463 *||May 8, 1991||Nov 21, 1995||Digital Equipment Corporation||Expert system for identifying likely failure points in a digital data processing system|
|US5483468 *||Oct 23, 1992||Jan 9, 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for concurrent recording and displaying of system performance data|
|US5506955 *||Dec 1, 1994||Apr 9, 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for monitoring and optimizing performance in a data processing system|
|US5553235 *||May 1, 1995||Sep 3, 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for maintaining performance data in a data processing system|
|US5684945 *||Apr 16, 1996||Nov 4, 1997||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for maintaining performance data in a data processing system|
|US5729733 *||May 5, 1995||Mar 17, 1998||Harris Corporation||Method of operating a distributed databse based on object ownership and transaction classification utilizing an aggressive reverse one phase commit protocol|
|US5737600 *||Apr 15, 1996||Apr 7, 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system for log management in a coupled data processing system|
|US5774645 *||Aug 29, 1995||Jun 30, 1998||Aerospatiale Societe Nationale Industrielle||Process and device for identifying faults in a complex system|
|US5790779 *||Apr 28, 1997||Aug 4, 1998||Microsoft Corporation||Method and system for consolidating related error reports in a computer system|
|US5907670 *||Jul 24, 1996||May 25, 1999||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Distributed processing method for checking status of processor in electronic switching system|
|US6249755||Jul 15, 1997||Jun 19, 2001||System Management Arts, Inc.||Apparatus and method for event correlation and problem reporting|
|US6301685 *||Nov 19, 1998||Oct 9, 2001||Nec Corporation||Error propagation path extraction system, error propagation path extraction method, and recording medium recording error propagation path extraction control program|
|US6385665 *||Dec 18, 1998||May 7, 2002||Alcatel Usa Sourcing, L.P.||System and method for managing faults in a data transmission system|
|US6560738 *||Jun 29, 2000||May 6, 2003||Nec Electronics Corporation||Fault propagation path estimating method, fault propagation path estimating apparatus and recording media|
|US6598179||Mar 31, 2000||Jul 22, 2003||International Business Machines Corporation||Table-based error log analysis|
|US6622264 *||Nov 22, 1999||Sep 16, 2003||General Electric Company||Process and system for analyzing fault log data from a machine so as to identify faults predictive of machine failures|
|US6687851||Apr 13, 2000||Feb 3, 2004||Stratus Technologies Bermuda Ltd.||Method and system for upgrading fault-tolerant systems|
|US6820213||Apr 13, 2000||Nov 16, 2004||Stratus Technologies Bermuda, Ltd.||Fault-tolerant computer system with voter delay buffer|
|US6834257 *||Sep 5, 2002||Dec 21, 2004||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Method for providing diagnostic messages|
|US6871299 *||Feb 5, 2001||Mar 22, 2005||Fisher-Rosemount Systems, Inc.||Hierarchical failure management for process control systems|
|US7055071||Jan 9, 2003||May 30, 2006||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for reporting error logs in a logical environment|
|US7065672||Mar 28, 2001||Jun 20, 2006||Stratus Technologies Bermuda Ltd.||Apparatus and methods for fault-tolerant computing using a switching fabric|
|US7142960 *||Oct 14, 2004||Nov 28, 2006||Snap-On Incorporated||Prioritized test procedure and step display using statistical feedback|
|US7143236 *||Jul 30, 2003||Nov 28, 2006||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, Lp.||Persistent volatile memory fault tracking using entries in the non-volatile memory of a fault storage unit|
|US7159146 *||Feb 12, 2003||Jan 2, 2007||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Analyzing system error messages|
|US7409595 *||Jan 18, 2005||Aug 5, 2008||International Business Machines Corporation||History-based prioritizing of suspected components|
|US7587634 *||Feb 23, 2006||Sep 8, 2009||Fujitsu Limited||Network fault diagnostic device, network fault diagnostic method, and computer product|
|US7940706||May 10, 2011||International Business Machines Corporation||Controlling the state of duplexing of coupling facility structures|
|US8341188||Apr 13, 2011||Dec 25, 2012||International Business Machines Corporation||Controlling the state of duplexing of coupling facility structures|
|US8438179 *||Jun 25, 2009||May 7, 2013||Fujitsu Limited||Storage medium storing trouble handling program, and trouble handling apparatus|
|US8595553 *||Jun 3, 2010||Nov 26, 2013||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Error pattern identification in an installed base of systems|
|US9253046||Dec 21, 2012||Feb 2, 2016||International Business Machines Corporation||Controlling the state of duplexing of coupling facility structures|
|US9311176 *||Nov 20, 2012||Apr 12, 2016||Emc Corporation||Evaluating a set of storage devices and providing recommended activities|
|US20020108077 *||Feb 5, 2001||Aug 8, 2002||Havekost Robert B.||Hierarchical failure management for process control systems|
|US20030061857 *||Sep 5, 2002||Apr 3, 2003||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Method for providing diagnostic messages|
|US20030237035 *||Feb 12, 2003||Dec 25, 2003||Bowers Wayne J.||Analyzing system error messages|
|US20040139368 *||Jan 9, 2003||Jul 15, 2004||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for reporting error logs in a logical environment|
|US20050028038 *||Jul 30, 2003||Feb 3, 2005||Pomaranski Ken Gary||Persistent volatile memory fault tracking|
|US20060085108 *||Oct 14, 2004||Apr 20, 2006||Jeff Grier||Prioritized test procedure and step display using statistical feedback|
|US20060161819 *||Jan 18, 2005||Jul 20, 2006||International Business Machines Corporation||History-based prioritizing of suspected components|
|US20070074076 *||Feb 23, 2006||Mar 29, 2007||Fujitsu Limited||Network fault diagnostic device, network fault diagnostic method, and computer product|
|US20090300430 *||Jun 2, 2008||Dec 3, 2009||Orit Nissan-Messing||History-based prioritizing of suspected components|
|US20100070462 *||Jun 25, 2009||Mar 18, 2010||Fujitsu Limited||Storage medium storing trouble handling program, and trouble handling apparatus|
|US20110302461 *||Dec 8, 2011||Georg Goertler||Error pattern identification in an installed base of systems|
|EP0455442A2 *||Apr 26, 1991||Nov 6, 1991||International Business Machines Corporation||Fault detection in link-connected systems|
|WO2001080009A2 *||Apr 12, 2001||Oct 25, 2001||Stratus Technologies Bermuda, Ltd.||Fault-tolerant computer system with voter delay buffer|
|WO2001080009A3 *||Apr 12, 2001||Mar 21, 2002||Stratus Technologies Internati||Fault-tolerant computer system with voter delay buffer|
|U.S. Classification||714/45, 714/3, 714/E11.026, 714/E11.071|
|International Classification||G06F11/07, G06F11/20, G06F11/22|
|Cooperative Classification||G06F11/0715, G06F11/20, G06F11/079|
|European Classification||G06F11/07P6, G06F11/20|
|Jul 26, 1984||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES, INCORPORATED, 600 MOU
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:ABEL, MARK J.;KWAN, CHI L.;POLLI, PHILIP V.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:004290/0559
Effective date: 19840720
|Nov 29, 1984||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES INCORPORATED 600 MOUNT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:ABEL, MARK J.;REEL/FRAME:004338/0395
Effective date: 19841121
Owner name: BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES INCORPORATED,NEW JERSE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ABEL, MARK J.;REEL/FRAME:004338/0395
Effective date: 19841121
|May 16, 1990||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|May 5, 1994||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|May 29, 1998||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12