US 466496 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
I. W. HEYSINGER.
'Patented Jan. 5, 1892.
N, nA c,
' me Noms crans en., mowumm, msnmmo UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
ISAAC XV. IIEYSINGER, GIP-PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
SPECIFICATION arming pare of Letters Patent No. 466,496, dated January 5, 1892.
Y Application lcd September 24, 189i. Serial No. 406.662. (No model.)
.To all whom it may concern.-
Beit known that L'IsAAo yW. HEYsINGER, a citizen of the United States, residing at Philadelphia, in the county of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain new yand useful Improvements in Combs. and the Manufacture vThereof, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description, reference being had to the drawings which accompany and form a part of this specification, in which- Figure 1 is a front View of a comb embodying my invention. Fig. 2. is a transverse section along the line of Fig. 1. Fig. 2 is a similar view of the end teeth of a comb when they are secured together to form a broad terminal tooth. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section along the line y y of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 shows a modification of construction shown in Fig. Sin the method of forming the side plates-of the comb. The two parts of each of the combs shown in Figs. V3, 4, and 5 are distinguished from each other by the difference in shading.` Fig. 5 is a longitudinal view along the line-of the junction of the teeth with the back of Fig.- 4. Fig. 6 is a similar section to that in Fig. 2 of a comb in which a single` back-piece is used, the teeth applied to the sides and projecting where attached from said back-piece. Fig. 7 is a view from above of a part of a comb similar to Vthat shown in Fig.`6. Fig. 8 is a front view of a comb embodying my invention, having a projecting handle and in which the body of the comb and the teeth are formed from a single plate bent over as shown in section in Fig. 9. Fig. 9 also shows an interposed rod or roll of coloring or cleansing material. (Shown also in outline in Fig. 8.) Fig. 10 is a plan view of a section of the plate from which the comb shown in Figs. 8 and 9 is formed by bending along the line .c a; and Fig. 11 shows the relative position of the teeth of a comb embodying my invention in a section along the vline 'u v, Figs. 2, 6, and 9, and strands of hair interposed, showing the course of the same between the teeth when in use.
,The lettering in all the figures is uniform. The object of my invention is to produce a comb for smoothing, straightening, and dressing hair, in which there is less obstruction to the passage of strands of hair4 between the 'nate in the solid back. lThe hair is jammed frequently broken off. The strand of hair .donot straighten the hairor smooth it, while Y more easily the hair passes through the spaces,
teeth thereof, in which the hair cannot bank or massin the interspaces of the teetlttthe upper ends thereof, in which dirt cannot be- 5 5' come impacted between the teeth at their upper ends, and in which the teeth are subjected to much less strain and are much less liable` to be broken than in combs of the ordinary construction. I also provide means whereby coloring or cleansing matter may be inserted longitudinally within the body kof my comb out of contact with the skin upon which the comb is used, but in ready Contact with the strands of hair which may be passed between the teeth of the same. Y
f In combs as ordinarily constructed the teeth admit a certain quantity of hair between them, and this is forced up into the narrowed space above where the teeth termiinto these crevices and any knots or kinks become drawn or hardened, so that they cannot be extracted, but the hairs are pulled out or broken off. This jamming ofthe strand of hair also spreads the teeth apart toward those teeth which may be outside the strand of hair engaged and the teeth of the comb are also being hard drawn through these narrowed interstices above is scraped and its oily matters are deposited upon the teeth of the comb which by subsequent engagement with strands of hair are forced up into the terminal notches of the teeth against the back and form a compact dirty mass of grease requirin g frequent cleaning and itself aiding to force the teeth ofl the comb apart and breakl them off; Hence very strong and heavy combs and teeth are required, and these, if forced deeplyinto the mass of hair, clog and jam and both vdestroy the hair and themselves. If the combs are held at right angles to the surface, Y they act not as combs, but as wire brushes, and
95 they scrape and irritate the scalp. In my invention, however, these objections are obviated, and the more deeply the strand of hair is engaged between the teeth of the comb the ICO while no dirt can jam into the interstices, and there is little liability to break the teeth. The essential principle is that, while in ordinary combs the points of the teeth will take A IO up more hair than the spaces above will deliver, so in my improved comb the spaces bctween the teeth above and up to their junction with the back of the comb will take np and deliver more hair than the spaces between the points of the teeth will receive. To accomplish this I form a comb in which the points of the teeth are arranged substantially as in those of ordinary combs as to shape, distance apart, material, the., but in which every alternate tooth along the length of the comb occupies a plane different from that of the other alternate teeth, these two planes diverging from each other from below upward at an acute angle, so that the planes above, where they are joined to the back of the comb, are themselves separated l `d/-efrom each other by a space while united along 14come into direct contact with the hair the line occupied by the points of the teeth. It is as though two combs were employed, the alternate teeth of each being removed, the backs then laid together. The teeth facing in one direction, and the points of the teeth interdigitating with each otherwill serve to illustrate my invention. It is obvious that a strand of hair caught up by the teeth of such a comb as the teeth penetrate will not jam above, since the corresponding tooth is missing, as the planes recede, but will take a diagonal direction from the front double space to the rear double space, and pass out to the left or right of the point ot` ent-rance in front. As the strand is thus drawn on a diagonal around the angles of the large interspaces the teeth in free contact will smooth or sleek the lia-ir in its passage, while any knots or kinks haveroom to disentangle themselves as the utrand passes through. As these interspaces between the teeth of each side are double the Width of the points of the teeth apart the hair cannot enter in 'sufficient quantity to jam above, and for the same reason dirt or grease cannot become impacted between the teeth above. The comb, in other words, is selfclearing, like a stream whose outlet is larger than its inlet, and in which a free passage is always provided. I utilize the space between the diverging nately lie, and which forms an open passage through the comb from end to end along the under margin of the back thereof, by inserting, when desired, a rod or roll of absorbent material or coloring-matter or the like, inserted at one end of the comb. This roll, saturated with hair-dye, for instance, will every time the comb is used, but will not touch the skin of the person using it. Instead of dye I use, when desired, medicinal preparations, pcmades, perf limes, or the like, as will be readily understood.
Referring to the drawings, in Fig. l I show a comb embodying my invention and having large teeth A B along one half its length, and smaller teeth a b along the 'other half. As seen in Fig. 2, this comb is formed substantially of two other combs, the backs suitplanes in which theteeth alter-V ably taced oft and formed to make a smooth contact with each other along the line A. These two combs are placed against each other, as shown in Fig. 2, and fastened by the screws C C C, Figs. land 2. Rivets may be used instead of screws, or `the two halves may be cemented or vulcanized to each other, as preferred, as l make my combs of vulcanite, horn, tortoise-shell, bone, metal, or other materials, such as are in general use for like purposes. As shown in Fig. 1, the teeth of each halt are twice as far apart as in ordinary eombs and the teeth of the opposite half show through the interspaces, making in front view the teeth at the same distance as in ordinary combs; but as shown in Fig. 5 these teeth alternate, so that on the diagonal S S, Fig. 5, there is much more space than on the line S S', which would be the line of passage in an ordinary comb with teeth in front view the same distance apart.
As shown in Fig. 2, the teeth occupy the plan es A B', which converge below to form a single line D along the apex. All the teeth of the comb have their points along this line D, so that no morehair can be taken up than in an ordinary comb, While the planes A B, diverging above, leave the open space F, extending through the comb from end to end and which gives clearance for the diagonal passage of the strands ot' hair between the teeth A A and B B', Fig. 5. In order to bring the teeth of the comb along the line I), the said teeth do not extend vertically downward from the back A B, but are sloped inward along the converging planes. They may descend to the line of points from the back in a at plane or in concaved, convexed, or
ogee form, the essential matter being that they shall converge as they descend to the points, the points of the teeth occupying substantially a single line andthe upper portions of the teeth occupying planes which leave a diagonal' passage for the strands of hair, as shown in Figs. 5, G, l0, and 1l.
In Fig. 3 I form the terminal teeth at the opposite ends of the comb like the other teeth, merely making A2 and b2 heavier in body than the others to resist accident. In Fig. 2, however, I form a inishing-tooth at each end upon both parts A and B, A2 being beveled oft and fitted against B2. I show at U a rivet for securing the two parts of the tooth together; but this may be dispensed with, if desired.
Fig. 3 shows the sectional form of the back when I form the end teeth upon their own halves, as at B5 A5, the opposite sides beveled oit, as shown. In Fig. 4 I formthe teeth at the ends across the whole width of the back by heads A4 B4. This is shown also in Fig. 5. Either form may be preferred, as circula stances require.
In Figs. G and 7 I sho'w a different construction. Here the teeth are formed upon the ,sides of a singleback rib projecting out from the sides E, Fig. 7. The dotted outlines of ICO ITO
to receive the dye or like substance.
the teeth in Fig. 6 4show the method which I prefer to use in this construction, which is well adapted for combs with large teeth. The teeth are formed perpendicularly instead of upon converging planes, and can be readily molded in vulcanite, horn, or t-he like in that form. The-two lines of teeth are afterward softened and brought toward each other until the teeth occupy the same line along the mid-V dle line ofthe back E above, when the comb y is allowed to harden and is finished, as usual.
In Figs. 8, 9, and 10 I show another method of making my comb. VA blank of sheet metal, sheet-rubber, horn, orv the like is punched out or sawed like Fig. lO, having the teeth A A' opposite the spaces between the opposite teeth 'B' B. rIhe sheet is then bentover upon the dotted line ,2 a until it assumes the form shown in Fig. 9, when the points of the teeth willoccupy the'line D and the bodies thereof the planes A B', as seen in Fig. 9. I prefer to haveY the body E of the back, Fig. 9, of heavier substancethan/the teeth, though this is not essential. E2 is a handle. v
In Figs. S and 9 I show at F a rod or roll which is introduced at the open end of the comb. A strand of hair drawn through the teeth will always come in contact with this roll or rod F and will receive from it any transmissible substance of which it may be composed or with which it may be' saturated, while it is outof contact with the hands or the skin of the person using it.. I sometimes provide this rod or roll with a little projecting handle F2, of wood or metal, byvwhich it may be removed or inserted and manipulated I show this rod and handle in Fig. 8, the rod at F and the projecting handle at F2. As the handle is not saturated, it will not interfere with the use of the comb by its projection, and in fact will serve as a stopper to the passage in which the rod lies.
While I show several forms in which my, invention can be produced and several methfy .ods of manufacture, I do not conline myself to these, but manufacture my comb, in ac,- cordance with the principles of my invention, in any manner suitabley therefor and of any material. Y
Having now described my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, 1s-
1. As an article of manufacture, a comb consisting of a back E and two series of teeth A -A B B', alternat-ingvwith each other, the
' points thereof interdigitating and occupying a single line D and the bodies of said teeth occupying diverging planes and formed upon the back E along parallel lines separated from each other, substantially as and for the purposes described.
2. As an article of manufacture, a comb consisting of alongitudinal back and two series of teeth projecting downward therefrom, formed upon said back along parallel lines separate from each other, said teeth upon each side alternating with each other, the teeth of one side opposite the interspaces of the other and the bodies of said teeth occupying separate planes along said comb, said planes approaching each other below the point-s of all of said teeth occupying a single line, the teeth of one side vupon said line occupying the interspaces of the other, substantially as described.V
3. An improvement in the manufacture of combs, consisting in forming two separate se- ',ries of teeth, the spaces of one adapted to be occupied by the teeth of the other, said teeth formed integral with a single or double back plate, said series of teeth brought opposite each other, occupying converging planes from said back to the points thereof, and the points of said teeth occupying a single line along the y apex of said converging planes, substantially as described.
4. The method of manufacturing combs, consisting in forming substantially'two separate combs having interspaces between the teeth thereof twice as wide as would be requisite fora like ordinary comb and bringing the points of the teeth of said combs together, interdigitating with each other along a common line, the bodies of said teeth occupying diverging planes and formed at their upper ends integral with a back and occupying sepa; rate parallel lines along said back, substanv ti'ally as described.
5. An improvement in the manufacture ofY vcombs, consisting in forming the comb with vtwo parallel series -of teeth alternating with each other along the parallel margins of the back of said comb, projecting downward and approaching the plane occupied by the teethA of oneside with the plane occupied by the teeth ofthe other, the points of the teeth interdigitating with each other and occupying IOO a common line along the intersection of said planes, substantially as described.
6. An improvement in the manufacture of combs, consisting of forming a double series of teeth upon the back of said comb,`said teeth occupying two parallel lines along the said back at their bases, said teeth projecting downward from said back and constructed to alternate with each other, the teeth of one side adapted to occupy the interspaces of the other, said interspacesrelatively widened, so
that in front view said comb shows the teeth' as in an ordinary comb and in end View shows two series of teeth occupying separate planes along said comb, substantially asdescribed.
7. As an article of manufacture, the improved comb having back E and two series of teeth arranged alternately, the teeth of one side facing the interspaces of the other, said interspaces of double width relatively to said teeth and said series of teeth formed upon said back along two parallel lines and projecting downward therefrom, the points 0f said teeth interdigitating with each other and occupying a single line along the free toothed -IIO margin of said comb, substantially as described.
8. The improvement in combs herein described and shown, consisting of two sets of teeth arranged alternately and attached along the back of said combs upon diierent parallel lines, said teeth projecting downward and having the teeth terminate along the same line, interdigitating with each other, substantially as described.
9. In a comb, the two side plates A and B, supporting two series of alternately-placed teeth A' A' B B', having enlarged interspaces, the teeth of one side adapted to occupy the interspaces of the other, substantially as and for the purposes described.
10. In a comb, the back plate E, consisting of two parallel teeth-supporting lines and a common body, and two series of alternatelyplaced teeth A A' B' B', having relatively enlarged interspaces between A' and A' and B and B', the teeth of one side facing opposite the middle of the interspaces of the other, the points of the teeth occupying a common central line along said comb, and the upper portions of the planes occupied by said separate series of teeth divergent and having longitudinal passage F between said opposite series of teeth and beneath said back plate E, substantially as described.
` 11. In combination with a comb formed of a back plateE and two series of teeth formed upon said back plate along different parallel lines, the interposed space F between said teeth A' A' and B B', said space F extending along said comb, together with the detachable roll or rod F', adapted to said longi tudinal space F, substantially as and for the purposes described.
l2. In combination with the comb E A B, having alternate series ot' teeth A A' and B' B', separate upon di ierent longitudinal planes above and converging below, the points of the teeth of A A' occupying the interspaccs between the points of the teeth ci. B B', and conversely, and having longitudinal passage F, the detachable rod or roll F', adapted to occupy said passage and provided with handie F2, adapted to project in whole or part from the end of said passage, substantially as and for the purpose described.
13. A comb consisting of back plate E, alternate series of teeth A' A' B' B', formed upon said back along different parallel lines converging below, the teeth of one side occupying the interspaces of the other, said interspaces relatively widened to aiord free pas sage for strands of hair, and the projecting comb-handle E2, substantially as described.
14. As an article ot' manufacture, a comb having the points ot the teeth thereof occupying a single line, the said points separated along said line by the usual intervals of ordinary combs, every alternate tooth ot' said comb forming a part of one of two series of alternate teeth occupying diver-ging planes and formed integral with the back of said comb along two separate lines, the whole so constructed that a quantity ot' hair S engaged between the points of the teeth of said comb will, as it is drawn farther up between the teeth of said comb, occupy the interspace of the teeth of one side only, having a width of two spaces between the points of said teeth, substantially, and pass over diagonally to and through the corresponding double interspace.
of the adjacent teeth of the opposite side, giving increased clearance to said strand of hair between the upper portion of said teeth of the comb, substantially as described.
ISAAC W. HEYSINGER.
J oHN R. NOLAN, M. B. FENNINGER.