|Publication number||US4678597 A|
|Application number||US 06/840,182|
|Publication date||Jul 7, 1987|
|Filing date||Mar 17, 1986|
|Priority date||Mar 17, 1986|
|Also published as||CA1282304C|
|Publication number||06840182, 840182, US 4678597 A, US 4678597A, US-A-4678597, US4678597 A, US4678597A|
|Inventors||Michael A. Kiener|
|Original Assignee||Am International, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (6), Classifications (15), Legal Events (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates generally to chemical cleaning compositions and, more particularly, this invention relates to aqueous chemical solutions for cleaning photographic processing tanks and trays.
2. Description of Related Art
Rendering visible camera or otherwise exposed silver-based photographic materials conventionally requires a three bath process: develop, fix and wash, Contact with these solutions can be performed manually, e.g. in trays, or by a mechanized conveyance, e.g. rollers or belts to carry the photographic material from one tank to the next. Such automatic devices, referred to herein as processors, normally have the tanks adjacent and contiguous.
After substantial use of the processor, deposits are formed in the various tanks and conveyance means which are detrimental to processor performance and output quality. These deposits consist variously of some or all of the following: metallic silver and silver salts in the developer tank; silver salts and alkali metal salts in the fixer tank; alkali metal salts, algae/fungal deposits ("bioslime"), gelatin and gelatin by-products in the wash tank.
The prior art utilizes a different solution composition for cleaning each tank. The developer tank requires a strong oxidizer/silver solvent system. Commonly employed agents are chromic acid salts with sulfuric or sulfamic acid. An alkali bisulfite solution "neutralizer" is needed to remove residual chromate salts after the first solution is used. Chromium is a priority pollutant, designated by the U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), and also classified by the EPA as a "known human carcinogen".
The fixer tank cleaning process employs a strong caustic solution, e.g. caustic soda or caustic potash, to dissolve the salts and silver complexes. Not only is the caustic solution injurious to skin and eyes, the mixing of the chromic acid developer tank cleaner and the caustic fixer tank cleaner may result in a strongly exothermic and potentially violent reaction.
Growth of algae and fungi is very common in the wash tanks of these processors. The accumulation of gelatin and the soluble and insoluble salts create an ideal growth medium. A chlorine bleach, e.g., calcium hypochlorite solution (Clorox®), is commonly employed for this "bioslime" removal. Although effective, except for dissolution of the salt deposits, in cleaning the wash tank, the well known incompatibility of the strong caustic (from the adjacent fixer tank) and "liquid bleach" can produce volumes of deadly gaseous chlorine if mixed.
It is an object of the invention to overcome one or more of the problems described above.
According to the invention, a chemical cleaning composition for photographic processors is provided. The chemical cleaning composition consists essentially of a solution of water, a hydroxycarboxylic acid, and a peroxymonosulfate compound. The cleaning composition may be used in various photographic processors, such as wash tanks, fixer tanks and developer tanks, by simply varying the concentration of the active components of the composition.
In addition to cleaning compositions, the invention comprehends methods of cleaning the working surfaces of silver halide based photo processing tanks and methods for the removal of various deposits from such surfaces.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the appended claims.
According to the invention, a chemical cleaning composition useful for cleaning photographic processors is provided. The cleaning composition is a solution consisting essentially of water, a hydroxycarboxylic acid and a peroxymonosulfate compound.
Any effective hydroxycarboxylic acid may be used in the practice of the present invention. Hydroxycarboxylic acids that have been tested and have been found useful in the practice of the present invention include citric acid and tartaric acid, with citric acid being preferred.
The peroxymonosulfate compound sold under the designation Oxone® (trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours Company) has been found useful in the practice of the present invention. The Oxone® product contains the active ingredient potassium peroxymonosulfate which is a highly preferred peroxymonosulfate compound for use in the practice of the present invention.
Neither active component of the composition works well alone as a cleanser, but the mixture of the components in an aqueous solution results in a very effective cleaning composition.
In the invention, the hydroxycarboxylic acid is a very effective chelating agent for mineral salts in the very highly acidic environment of the peroxymonosulfate compound.
In tests done on silver halide based photographic processors, it has been found that it is necessary only to provide sufficient Oxone® in the cleaning composition to permit the removal of silver deposits from developer processors. The relative proportions of the active components may then be adjusted empirically.
It is generally preferable that the composition contain at least about 20 weight percent and no more than about 75 weight percent of the hydroxycarboxylic acid, based on the total weight of the hydroxycarboxylic acid and peroxymonosulfate compound. The presence of too much hydroxycarboxylic acid may slow the oxidizing process and thus render the cleaning process too time consuming and thus uneconomical. A composition wherein the hydroxycarboxylic acid and the peroxymonosulfate compound are in a substantially one-to-one weight ratio is highly preferred.
The composition of the present invention is an ecologically safe cleanser useful in all three processor tanks conventionally used in silver halide based photo processing system. The composition can be used in photographic processor wash tanks, fixer tanks and/or developer tanks simply by varying the total concentration of the active components in the composition.
For use in a photographic wash processor, a total concentration of the hydroxycarboxylic acid and peroxymonosulfate compound in a one-to-one weight ratio of at least about 13 grams per liter of solution is preferred and has been found effective in removing calcium and magnesium salt deposits as well as algae-fungal deposits.
For use in a photographic processor fixer tank, a total concentration of hydroxycarboxylic acid and peroxymonosulfate compound in a one-to-one weight ratio of at least about 26 grams per liter of solution is preferred and has been found effective in removing calcium, magnesium and aluminum salt deposits.
For use in a photographic processor developer tank, a total concentration of hydroxycarboxylic acid and peroxymonosulfate compound in a one-to-one weight ratio of at least about 40 grams per liter of solution is preferred and has been found effective in removing calcium and magnesium salt deposits as well as silver deposits.
The cleaning of a surface is accomplished simply by contacting the surface with the aqueous cleaning solution containing the desired concentration of active ingredients. Such cleaning is easily accomplished with an overnight soaking of the surface desired to be cleaned with an effective concentration of the cleaning composition of the present invention.
The composition and method of the invention is applicable to photographic processors generally, including those known in the art as "RC Processors", those sold under the trademark "Headliner" by Varityper (East Hanover, N.J.) as well as X-ray processors. The invention is generally not applicable to stabilization processors.
The composition of the invention is safe and non-toxic. The need for highly toxic ingredients of prior art compositions, such as thiourea (a suspected carcinogen) is eliminated.
The foregoing detailed description is given for clearness of understanding only, and no unnecessary limitation should be understood therefrom, as modifications within the scope of the invention will be obvious to those skilled in the art.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US973008 *||May 16, 1910||Oct 18, 1910||Charles Cyr||Belt-stretcher.|
|US3072502 *||Feb 14, 1961||Jan 8, 1963||Pfizer & Co C||Process for removing copper-containing iron oxide scale from metal surfaces|
|US3607759 *||Apr 17, 1969||Sep 21, 1971||Colgate Palmolive Co||Denture soak tablet|
|US3732170 *||Jun 26, 1972||May 8, 1973||Colgate Palmolive Co||Bio-soaking performances|
|US3738867 *||Apr 1, 1971||Jun 12, 1973||Ppg Industries Inc||Removal of metal containing deposits from non-metallic substrates|
|US3900337 *||Apr 5, 1974||Aug 19, 1975||Ibm||Method for stripping layers of organic material|
|US3968048 *||Feb 14, 1975||Jul 6, 1976||The Drackett Company||Drain cleaning compositions|
|US3988254 *||Jun 14, 1974||Oct 26, 1976||Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.||De-smutting agent|
|US3997459 *||Oct 28, 1975||Dec 14, 1976||Reckitt & Colman Products Limited||Denture cleaning composition|
|US4021264 *||Oct 20, 1975||May 3, 1977||Deutsche Gold- Und Silber-Scheideanstalt Vormals Roessler||Method of dissolving a silver coating in a photo tank|
|US4452643 *||Jan 12, 1983||Jun 5, 1984||Halliburton Company||Method of removing copper and copper oxide from a ferrous metal surface|
|US4459217 *||Sep 21, 1981||Jul 10, 1984||Reckitt & Colman Products Limited||Denture cleansing compositions|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5266121 *||Aug 12, 1992||Nov 30, 1993||Helion Industries, Inc.||Method of cleaning photographic processing equipment|
|US5441665 *||Aug 19, 1993||Aug 15, 1995||Medefield Pty Ltd||Photographic equipment cleaner|
|US5542981 *||Jun 22, 1994||Aug 6, 1996||Lee, Sr.; Clel E.||Process for removing mineral deposits from lagoon recycle lines|
|US6846788||Jun 7, 2001||Jan 25, 2005||Ecolab Inc.||Methods for removing silver-oxide|
|US7348302||Nov 4, 2005||Mar 25, 2008||Ecolab Inc.||Foam cleaning and brightening composition comprising a sulfate/bisulfate salt mixture|
|US20060100119 *||Nov 4, 2005||May 11, 2006||Ecolab, Inc.||Foam cleaning and brightening composition, and methods|
|U.S. Classification||510/169, 134/3, 134/22.19, 134/38, 134/22.16, 510/108, 134/42, 134/41, 510/372|
|International Classification||C11D7/26, C11D3/39|
|Cooperative Classification||C11D3/3942, C11D7/265|
|European Classification||C11D3/39D, C11D7/26E|
|Apr 20, 1987||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: AM INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, 333 W. WACKER DR., C
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:KIENER, MICHAEL A.;REEL/FRAME:004702/0129
Effective date: 19860311
Owner name: AM INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, A CORP. OF DE.,ILL
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:KIENER, MICHAEL A.;REEL/FRAME:004702/0129
Effective date: 19860311
|Sep 19, 1988||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: PACIFICORP CREDIT, INC., 111 S.W. FIFTH AVENUE, SU
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:TEGRA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004950/0106
Effective date: 19880727
|Oct 26, 1988||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: VARITYPER, INC., 11 MT. PLEASANT AVE., EAST HANOVE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:AM INTERNATIONAL, INC;REEL/FRAME:005060/0043
Effective date: 19880727
|Jun 18, 1990||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: PACIFIC HARBOR CAPITAL, INC., A CORP. OF OR
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PACIFICORP CREDIT, INC., A CORP. OF OR;REEL/FRAME:005401/0153
Effective date: 19900312
|Jul 17, 1990||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 20, 1994||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: PREPRESS SOLUTIONS, INC., A CORP. OF DE, MASSACHUS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PACIFIC HARBOR CAPITAL, INC.;REEL/FRAME:006937/0009
Effective date: 19940412
|Feb 14, 1995||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jul 9, 1995||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Sep 19, 1995||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 19950712