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Publication numberUS4700389 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 06/828,796
Publication dateOct 13, 1987
Filing dateFeb 12, 1986
Priority dateFeb 15, 1985
Fee statusLapsed
Publication number06828796, 828796, US 4700389 A, US 4700389A, US-A-4700389, US4700389 A, US4700389A
InventorsKazuaki Nakayama
Original AssigneePioneer Electronic Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Stereo sound field enlarging circuit
US 4700389 A
Abstract
In a stereo sound field enlarging circuit, signals A and B applied to left and right input terminals are suitably processed so that signals A' and B' represented by the following equations are provided at respective left and right output terminals:
A'=|A|LPF +K(A-B)
B'=|B|LPF +K(B-A)
where |A|LPF (|B|LPF) is the A (B) signal passed through a low-pass filter, and K is a constant.
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Claims(7)
I claim:
1. In a stereo sound field enlarging circuit in which signals A and B applied to two input terminals are processed to provide signals A' and B' at two respective output terminals, the improvement comprising: means, including a first and a second low pass filter, for producing said signals A' and B' from said signals A and B in accordance with the following equations,
A'=|A|LPF +K(A-B)
B'=|B|LPF +K(B-A),
where |A|LPF is the signal A passed through said first low-pass filter, |B|LPF is the signal B passed through said second low-pass filter, and K is a constant, said first and second low pass filters being respectively connected to said first and second input terminals and receiving said signals A and B; difference circuit means connected between said two input terminals for producing a difference signal (A-B); multiplier means for multiplying said difference signal to produce multiplied difference signals K (A-B) and K (B-A), where K is a constant; first adder circuit means for receiving the multiplied signal K (A-B) and the output of the first low pass filter for producing output signal A'; and second adder circuit means for receiving the multiplied difference signal K (B-A) and the output of said second low pass filter to produce said signal B'.
2. The stereo sound field enlarging circuit as claimed in claim 1, in which each said low-pass filter is a lag-lead characteristic primary low-pass filter.
3. The stereo sound field enlarging circuit as claimed in claim 1, in which each said low-pass filter is a lag characteristic primary low-pass filter.
4. The stereo sound field enlarging circuit as claimed in claim 2, in which said lag-lead characteristic primary low-pass filter comprises a filter providing a residual ratio of a band to be emphasized for localization, which ratio is larger than those of other bands.
5. The stero sound field enlarging circuit as claimed in claim 1, further comprising means for producing two signals having a phase difference therebetween from a band component of said original signals A and B to be emphasized for localization, and means for adding said two signals in a predetermined residual ratio to said signals A' and B'.
6. The stereo sound field enlarging circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said first and second low pass filters pass frequencies only below 300 Hz, and wherein the majority of the frequency range of the difference signal (A-B) is above 1,000 Hz.
7. The stereo sound field enlarging circuit as claimed in claim 6, wherein K is in the range of 1 to 2.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a stereo sound field enlarging circuit for enlarging a stereo sound field.

A conventional stereo sound field enlarging circuit is arranged as shown in FIG. 1. In the circuit, the difference signal between two signals A and B, which are applied to respective left and right input channel input terminals L and R, is obtained. The difference signal thus obtained is applied to a sound field enlarging circuit, composed of a delay circuit having a delay time τ and a phase shifter imposing a phase shift ψ, so that it is phase-shifted and time-delayed. The resultant signals are added, in an optional ratio, to the respective original left and right channel input signals A and B, as a result of which left and right output signals A' and B' are provided.

When reproduced, these signals cause the listener to perceive the reproduced sound as if the sound field were enlarged.

However, the delay circuit and the phase shifter of the sound field enlarging circuit 1 are intricate components and accordingly high in manufacturing cost. Especially, a circuit employing a BBD (bucket-brigade device) as the delay circuit has a considerably high manufacturing cost. Furthermore, perceived natural enlargement of the sound field cannot be obtained without setting the delay time τ and the amount of phase shift ψ to suitable values, which are difficult to determine, and it is considerably difficult to obtain an output from the circuit 1 of sufficient bandwidth to select addition ratio. Especially in a circuit using a BBD, the bandwidth is narrow, and the amount of data available to characterize the directivity of the reproduced sound is small.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, an object of the invention is to eliminate the above-described difficulties accompanying a conventional stereo sound field enlarging circuit.

More specifically, an object of the invention is to provide a stereo sound field enlarging circuit which is simple in construction, has a low manufacturing cost, and which is effective to produce perceived natural enlargement of the sound field.

The foregoing object and other objects of the invention have been achieved by the provision of a stereo sound field enlarging circuit in which, according to the invention, signals A and B, two input channel signals, are processed to provide signals A' and B' at two respective output terminals, the signals A' and B' being represented by the following equations:

A'=|A|LPF +K(A-B)

B'=|B|LPF +K(B-A)

where |A|LPF (|B|LPF) is the signal A (B) passed through a low-pass filter, and K is a constant.

The nature, principle and utility of the invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description and the appended claims when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In the accompanying drawings:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing an example of a conventional stereo sound field enlarging circuit;

FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing an example of a stereo sound field enlarging circuit according to the invention;

FIG. 3 is a graphical representation indicating levels of signals processed in the circuit of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram, partly in the form of a block diagram, showing a specific implementation of the circuit of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram, partly in the form of a block diagram, showing a modification of the circuit of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a block diagram showing another example of a stereo sound field enlarging circuit according to the invention;

FIG. 7 is a circuit diagram, partly in the form of a block diagram, showing a specific implementation of the circuit shown in FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a graphical representation indicating the levels of signals processed in the circuit of FIG. 7;

FIG. 9 is a circuit diagram, partly in the form of a block diagram, showing another example of a stereo sound field enlarging circuit according to the invention which provides the signals as shown in FIG. 8;

FIG. 10 is a circuit diagram, partly in the form of a block diagram, showing yet another example of a stereo sound field enlarging circuit according to the invention;

FIG. 11 is a graphical representation indicating the frequency distribution of the output signals of the circuit shown in FIG. 10;

FIG. 12 is a circuit diagram, partly as a block diagram, showing still another example of a stereo sound field enlarging circuit according to the invention;

FIG. 13 is a graphical representation indicating the frequency distribution of the output signals of the circuit shown in FIG. 12; and

FIG. 14 is a circuit diagram, partly in the form of a block diagram, showing a specific implementation of the circuit shown in FIG. 12.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Preferred embodiments of the invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings.

FIG. 2 shows an example of a stereo sound field enlarging circuit according to the invention. In FIG. 2, reference characters L and R designate input terminals to which left and right channel signals A and B of a stereo signal are respectively applied; L' and R', output terminals to which respective left and right channel signals A' and B', namely, the input stereo signals after being subjected to sound field enlarging processing, are applied; 10, a difference signal circuit for obtaining as a difference signal the difference between the left and right channel signals A and B applied respectively to the input terminal L and R; 12a and 12b, low-pass filters having a lag-lead characteristic, the low-pass filters attenuating the harmonic components of the left and right channel signals A and B applied to the input terminals L and R, respectively; 14a and 14b, constant multiplier circuits; and 16a and 16b, adder circuits. In each of the constant multiplier circuits 14a and 14b, the difference signal received from the difference signal circuit 10 is multiplied by a constant, and the resulting output is applied to the respective adder circuit. The constant multiplier circuit 14b operates also as a phase inverting circuit. In the adder circuit 16a, the output signal of the low-pass filter 12a is added to the output signal of the constant multiplier circuit 14a, and the addition result is applied as the left channel signal A' to the output terminal L'. Similarly, in the adder circuit 16b, the output signal of the low-pass filter 12b is added to the output signal of the constant multiplier (phase inverting) circuit 14b, and the result of addition is applied as the right channel signal B' to the output terminal R'. Accordingly, channel signals A' and B' represented by the following equations (1) and (2) are applied to the output terminals L' and R', respectively:

A'=|A|LPF +K(A-B)                   (1)

B'=|B|LPF +K(B-A)                   (2)

where |A|LPF (|B|LPF) is the signal A (B) passed through the low-pass filter 12a (12b), and K is the multiplier constant.

FIG. 3 is a graphical representation indicating the frequency distribution of the channel signals A' and B' provided respectively at the output terminals L' and R'. In this graphical representation, the localization signal components |A|LPF and |B|LPF passed through the low-pass filters 12a and 12b are indicated by X, and the difference signal components K(A-B) and K(B-A) by Y. Further in FIG. 3, WL and WR designate the lower and upper frequency limits of the cutoff range provided when the low-pass filters 12a and 12b are of the lag-lead type. Since little low frequency components are included in the difference signal, the curve Y drops in the low frequency range.

In the sound field enlarging circuit constructed as described above, the delay component and the reverbration component included in the difference signal provide the perception of sound field enlargement, and the perception of sound field enlargement is increased by applying the difference signal component to the two channels. However, as a larger part of the difference signal component is distributed over a range of frequencies higher than 300-1,000 Hz, addition of the difference signal component to each channel signal strongly breaks the sound range balance. On the other hand, if the difference signal component is increased, then the low frequency component and the central localization component (containing the frequencies of the human voice, for instance) are eliminated. For this reason, the low-pass filters 12a and 12b are employed. Therefore, addition of the difference signal component to the channel signals passed through the lag-lead characteristic low-pass filters, which transmit frequencies lower than 300-1,000 Hz, provides a sound field clear in central localization without disturbing the sound range balance.

FIG. 4 shows the stereo sound field enlarging circuit of FIG. 2 in more detail. In FIG. 4, an operational amplifier OP1 and resistors R4a, R4b, R5a and R5b form a difference signal circuit, operational amplifiers OP2 and OP3 form respective adder circuits, an operational amplifier OP4 and resistors R8 and R9 form a phase inverting circuit, resistors R1a, R2a and R3a and a capacitor Ca form a primary low-pass filter having a lag-lead characteristic, resistors R2b, R2b and R3b and a capacitor Cb form another primary low-pass filter having a lag-lead characteristic, and resitors R6a, R7a, and R6b, R7b form respective constant multiplier circuits.

In the circuit of FIG. 4, it is assumed that R4a, R4b =R5a, R5b and R8 =R9. Hence, the transfer characteristic of the circuit is as indicated by the following equations (3) and (4): ##EQU1## In equations (3) and (4): ##EQU2## where the suffices a and b for the resistors have been omitted.

Equations (3) and (4) correspond to equations (1) and (2), respectively.

FIG. 5 shows a modification of the circuit of FIG. 4 in which the noninverting input of the operational amplifier OP3 is utilized to eliminate the operational amplifier circuit OP4 forming the phase inverting circuit. In this modification, R2 >>R1, and the values of the resistors R8 and R9 are determined so that the difference signal mixing ratio is equal to that of the channel L.

FIG. 6 shows a second example of a stereo sound field enlarging circuit of the invention. In FIG. 6, reference characters L and R designate input terminals; L' and R', output terminals; 12a and 12b, low-pass filters having a lag-lead characteristic; 16a and 16b, adder circuits; 18a and 18b, constant multiplier circuits; and 20a and 20b, constant multiplier and phase inverting circuits.

In the circuit shown in FIG. 8, channel signals A and B, applied respectively to the input terminals L and R, are multiplied by a constant in the constant multiplier circuits 18a and 18b, the outputs of which are applied to first input terminals of the adder circuits 16a and 16b, respectively. The channel signals A and B applied to the input terminals L and R are applied to the low-pass filters 12a and 12b, respectively, where the high frequency components are attenuated. The outputs of the low-pass filters 12a and 12b are applied to second input terminals of the adder circuits 16a and 16b. Third input terminals of the adder circuits 16a and 16b receive the channels signals B and A, which are subjected to phase inversion and multiplication by a constant in the constant multiplier and phase inverting circuits 20a and 20b. The output signals of the circuits 12a, 18a and 20b and the output signals of the circuits 12b, 18b and 20a are mixed. The adder circuits 16a and 16b apply the resulting channel signals A' and B' to the output terminals L' and R', respectively.

In the circuit of FIG. 6 also, the above-described equations (1) and (2) are established, and the same effects as those of the first example of a stereo sound field enlarging circuit are obtained.

FIG. 7 shows the stereo sound field enlarging circuit of FIG. 6 in more detail. In FIG. 7, an operational amplifier OP5 and resistors R4a and R5a, and an operational amplifier OP6 and resistors R4b and R5b, for respective phase inverting circuits.

In the circuits of FIGS. 4, 5 and 7, the resistors R3a and R3b may be eliminated if it is permitted that reproduced voice and the like be somewhat low in localization.

Equations (3) and (4) can be rewritten as follows: ##EQU3## If ω<<ωL in equation (5), then ##EQU4## If ω>>ωH, then ##EQU5## where l, K' and m are constants. The constant m is represented by the following equation (9): ##EQU6## FIG. 8 is a graphical representation illustrating the above-described signal processing operation.

FIG. 9 shows a circuit which satisfies both equations (8) and (9). In FIG. 9, OP10 and OP11 designate operational amplifiers used to perform addition and subtraction. Resistors R11b and R12b and a capacitor Ca form a primary low-pass filter having a lag-lead characteristic. Similarly, resistors R11b and R12b and a capacitor Cb form another primary low-pass filter. Resistors R13a, R14a and R13b, R14b form respective constant multiplier circuits.

In the circuit of FIG. 9, with ω<<ωL, the signal A' of the output channel L' is: ##EQU7## With ω>>ωH, the signal A' of the output channel L' is: ##EQU8##

Combining equations (8) and (9) with equations (10) and (11), ##EQU9## From equations (12) through (14), ##EQU10##

According to experiments, the best results can be obtained with K'=1 to 2, and m=1/2 to 1/3, ωL is set to a value in a range of about 500 to 600 Hz to 1,000 Hz.

Inserting the above-described constants into equations (5) and (6), the following equations are obtained: ##EQU11##

In the above-described circuit, lag type low-pass filters may be employed in which m=0. However, in this case, the central localization component of voice, for instance, is in the relatively high frequency range, the perceived localization thereof is thus reduced.

The above-described stereo sound field enlarging circuit includes no delay circuit nor phase shifter. Accordingly, the circuit is simple in construction, low in manufacturing cost, and effective in the natural enlargement of a sound field.

Although the above-described circuit is simple in construction and produces the desired effect, frequency components lower than several hundred of hertz are not included in the difference signal (A-B), which is the residual component. That is, the larger part of the energy of the difference signal is in the middle and high frequency ranges. Accordingly, especially a female voice which should be centrally localized is liable to become unclear. This difficulty may be substantially eliminated by increasing the value of m and decreasing the value of K; however, doing so decreases the amount of sound field enlargement.

This problen is eliminated, however, in the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 10.

The circuit of FIG. 10 is obtained by adding two lag-lead type filters, each of which includes a resistor R15 and a capacitor C1, to the circuit of FIG. 9. As the circuit includes the lag-lead type filters, a signal A', distributed as shown in FIG. 11, is provided at the output channel L'. In FIG. 11, m1 designates the residual ratio of the original signal in the band of the human voice, and m2, the residual ratio of the original signal in the high frequency range. The residual ratios m1 and m2 are represented by the following expressions: ##EQU12## where R2 '=R12a /R15

In the above-described example, the residual ratio m1 in the human voice band is higher than that m2 of the high frequency range, and therefore the clarity of the human voice is increased; however, the perceived sound field enlargement in this band is somewhat decreased.

FIG. 12 shows another example of a stereo sound field enlarging circuit according to the invention. In the circuit of FIG. 12, the output signals of the operational amplifiers OP10 and OP11 in FIG. 10 are added, in a predetermined residual ratio, to the two signals different in phase from each other formed from the original signals A and B, thereby to obtain output channel signals A' and B'. The circuit includes a bandpass filter (BPF) 30 for transmitting the voice band component of the sum of the input signals A and B, a phase shifter for forming two signals m'(A+B)ψ1 and m'(A+B)ψ2 which differ from each other by about 90 in phase, an adder circuit 34 for adding the output of the phase shifter 32 to the output of the operational amplifier OP10, and an adder circuit 36 for adding the output of the phase shifter 32 to the output of the operational amplifier OP11.

The signal A' of the output channel L' in the circuit has a frequency distribution as shown in FIG. 13. In FIG. 13, ωL ' and ωH ' designate the cutoff frequencies of the bandpass filter 30, and m', the residual rate. The addition signals m'(A+B)ψ1 and m'(A+B)ψ2 determined by the factors ωD ', ωH ' and m' will not reduce the perception of sound field enlargement, being different by about 90 in phase from each other. Accordingly, the degree of clarity of the reproduced human voice can be increased by increasing the factor m'.

FIG. 14 illustrates an exemplary implementation of the circuit shown in FIG. 12. In the circuit of FIG. 14, a transistor Q1 forms a phase shifter, and transistors Q2 and Q3 form respective buffers. A capacitor C2 connected to the input of the transistor Q1 forms a low-pass filter (LPF), and capacitors C connected in series with the outputs of the transistors Q2 and Q3 form respective high-pass filters (HPFs). These filters together form a bandpass filter (BPF). In the circuit of FIG. 14, the phase difference signal is applied to the noninverting input terminals of the operational amplifiers OP10 and OP11, thereby to eliminate the addition circuits 34 and 36 of FIG. 12.

In the circuit of FIG. 14, the residual ratio m of the original signal in the middle and high frequency ranges is set to zero, i.e., R2 =KR1, and the phase difference voice signal band is subjected to addition in an addition ratio m'.

The value m' is represented by the following equation: ##EQU13##

In the equation, R2 =KR1, and therefore ##EQU14##

The cutoff frequencies ωL ' and ωH ' of the bandpass filters are: ##EQU15##

Thus, ωL ' is equal to ωL in equations (5) and (6).

The circuit of FIG. 14 uses a bandpass filter in order to process the voice frequency band. However, the bandpass filter may be eliminated if the circuit is not limited to this band.

In this circuit, the sum signal (A+B) of the right and left channels is processed; however, an effect acceptable in some cases can be obtained by processing only the input signal of one of the channels.

In general, frequency components lower than several hundred hertz are not contained in the difference signal, but rarely the difference signal may contain low frequency components. In the latter case, components other than the reverberation components are subjected to addition and subtraction, and therefore the listener may perceive the sound field enlargement as being unnatural. However, such a problem can be resolved by applying the difference signal.

As is apparent from the above description, according to the invention, the residual ratio of the band component in the original signal, which is to be emphasized in localization, is increased. Therefore, the degree of clarity can be increased without disturbing the perception of natural sound field enlargement.

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
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US5042068 *Jan 18, 1991Aug 20, 1991Zenith Electronics CorporationAudio spatial equalization system
US5509078 *Jan 21, 1993Apr 16, 1996Pioneer Electronic CorporationCircuit for preventing crosstalk
US5677957 *Nov 13, 1995Oct 14, 1997Hulsebus; AlanAudio circuit producing enhanced ambience
US5692050 *Jun 15, 1995Nov 25, 1997Binaura CorporationMethod and apparatus for spatially enhancing stereo and monophonic signals
US5862228 *Feb 21, 1997Jan 19, 1999Dolby Laboratories Licensing CorporationFor encoding a single digital audio signal
US5987142 *Feb 11, 1997Nov 16, 1999Sextant AvioniqueSystem of sound spatialization and method personalization for the implementation thereof
US6314330Feb 26, 1998Nov 6, 2001Cirrus Logic, Inc.Single-chip audio system power reduction circuitry and methods
US6373954Oct 14, 1997Apr 16, 2002Cirrus Logic, Inc.Single-chip audio circuitry, method, and systems using the same
US6405093Feb 26, 1998Jun 11, 2002Cirrus Logic, Inc.Signal amplitude control circuitry and methods
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US6628999Feb 26, 1998Sep 30, 2003Cirrus Logic, Inc.Single-chip audio system volume control circuitry and methods
US6952621 *Nov 20, 2000Oct 4, 2005Crystal Semiconductor Corp.Single-chip audio circuits, methods, and systems using the same
US7492906 *Dec 7, 2004Feb 17, 2009Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki KaishaSpeaker-characteristic method and speaker reproduction system
US20110261981 *Jul 7, 2011Oct 27, 2011Thx Ltd.Vehicle sound system
EP0790753A1 *Feb 5, 1997Aug 20, 1997Sextant AvioniqueSystem for sound spatial effect and method therefor
EP1365625A2 *May 2, 2003Nov 26, 2003Thomson Licensing S.A.Expanded stereophonic circuit with tonal compensation
WO1999020006A2 *Oct 1, 1998Apr 22, 1999Crystal Semiconductor CorpSingle-chip audio circuits, methods, and systems using the same
Classifications
U.S. Classification381/1
International ClassificationH04S1/00
Cooperative ClassificationH04S1/002
European ClassificationH04S1/00A
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Dec 21, 1999FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 19991013
Oct 10, 1999LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
May 4, 1999REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Apr 4, 1995FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Apr 15, 1991FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Jul 20, 1987ASAssignment
Owner name: PIONEER ELECTRONIC CORPORATION, NO. 4-1, MEGURO 1-
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:NAKAYAMA, KAZUAKI;REEL/FRAME:004740/0412
Effective date: 19860205
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NAKAYAMA, KAZUAKI;REEL/FRAME:4740/412
Owner name: PIONEER ELECTRONIC CORPORATION,JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NAKAYAMA, KAZUAKI;REEL/FRAME:004740/0412