|Publication number||US4700967 A|
|Application number||US 06/836,871|
|Publication date||Oct 20, 1987|
|Filing date||Mar 6, 1986|
|Priority date||Dec 13, 1985|
|Also published as||DE3688244D1, DE3688244T2, EP0230126A2, EP0230126A3, EP0230126B1|
|Publication number||06836871, 836871, US 4700967 A, US 4700967A, US-A-4700967, US4700967 A, US4700967A|
|Inventors||Franklin D. Meatto, Edward D. Pilpel|
|Original Assignee||Tristar Sports Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Non-Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (31), Classifications (9), Legal Events (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation-in-part application of Ser. No. 808,922, filed Dec. 13, 1985.
This invention relates generally to a snow ski structure. More specifically, it is concerned with the design of the ski sidecut and the relationship of the skier's foot on the ski to the inside edge and the sidecut of the ski, and how that positioning increases the efficiency of the moment arm about the inside edge, as well as impacting on the turning ability of the ski.
Downhill skiing has increased in popularity since its recreational introduction, focusing attention on the structure and design of skis to produce skis that provide increased speed and greater responsiveness to the improved skiing techniques employed by skiers today. The materials employed in alpine skis have been changed in response to the need to develop higher performance skis at lower manufacturing costs. Materials have been employed which have lightened the weight of the skis, while strengthening them. Today's skis are typically laminated structures with discrete layers of polyethylene, fiberglass, thin layers of rubber and core material, coupled with bottom and top edges, between the bottom running surface and the top facing surface. Little has been done, however, to improve the ability of skiers to control their skis during use or to make it easier to execute turns.
One of the most difficult problems for beginning skiers, and a continuing problem for skiers with intermediate skills, is the ability to control the skis during the initiation and execution of a turn. Properly executed turns are initiated by the gradual shifting of the skier's weight to one ski, which either already is or rapidly becomes the downhill ski, to cause the ski to begin to flex. Specifically, as the skier's weight is moved toward the inside edge of the downhill ski, thus putting the ski up on this edge, the ski begins to flex as the ski skids and slides through its turn.
For the purposes of further discussion, it is to be understood that the term skid or skidding describes movement of the skis across or transverse to the fall line of a ski slope. Similarly, slide or sliding describes movement of the skis parallel to the fall line of a ski slope. A pure carved turn is the desired type of turn and is one in which the ski follows its arc without any transverse skidding. The arc of the ski is the shape of the ski created by its sidecut and flexure.
There are numerous types of skis for the novice to intermediate skier which attempt to provide a product that will accomodate the normally less aggressive skiing style of these non-racing or infrequent skiers. Such skiers will initiate generally wide turns at moderate to high speeds. Most skis have attempted to accomodate skiers in this range by having a short, stiff ski with a center to back-weighted flexural distribution that permits a skidding or sliding technique in turns. Other designs utilize a relatively abrupt flexural transition with low camber and beveling to offer some limited carving capability, in addition to easier skidding and sliding capability. However, none of these types of skis have attempted to make the mechanics of initiating and executing turns easier for the novice and intermediate skier.
The sharpness of the turn executed is based upon the sidecut geometry of the ski; the deeper the sidecut or the longer the arc length or the shorter the radius of curvature forming the sidecut, the sharper the turn that can be executed. However, the amount of effort necessary to initiate a turn and to angulate the ski with respect to the snow surface is partially a function of the positioning of the skier on the skis. In all of the traditional skis, the positioning of the centerline of the foot and the centerline of the ski boot on the ski has generally been over the centerline of the ski extending between the front or shovel and the rear or tail. A skier must exert, therefore, considerable effort to get up or angle the downhill ski on the inside edge and to rotate the skis to initiate a turn and to accomplish a short or tight turn with current designs.
Novice to intermediate skiers, however, do not uniformly, nor properly, execute turning techniques because of inability to put the skis on edge, mistimed and improper rotation of the skis, improper application of pressure to the skis, and improper sequencing of the angulation, rotation and pressure steps.
The foregoing problems are solved in the present invention by providing a ski design which combines deep sidecut geometry and skier placement to assist the skier by providing a mechanical advantage to engage the inside edge. This provides a ski that is responsive turn to turn and initiates carved short radius turns quickly and relatively easily without loss of the rotational skidding and sliding characteristics of a standard ski design.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an alpine ski design with a sidecut radius and a mechanical advantage that permits shorter turns at lower speeds to be more easily accomplished.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an alpine snow ski which, by the combination of the sidecut geometry and the skier placement, provides a ski with which it is easier to initiate turns and which is more responsive between turns than standard ski designs.
It is still another object of the present invention to provide an alpine snow ski that is responsive with less skier effort than is required by conventional alpine skis.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an alpine ski design that increases the skier's control of the speed and direction of the ski during usage.
It is a feature of the present invention that the mounting means on the ski position the foot of the skier such that the distance between the centerline of the foot and the inside edge of the ski is between about 5 and about 20 millimeters.
It is another feature of the present invention that the mounting means is adjustable transversely with respect to the longitudinal centerline of the shovel of the ski.
It is still another feature of the present invention that the ball of the skier's foot, when positioned in the mounting means of the ski, is adjacent the inside edge and along a line parallel to the direction of travel at a distance from the center of the contact length of between about 50 millimeters to the front toward the shovel and about 50 millimeters to the rear toward the tail of the ski.
It is yet another feature of the present invention that the sidecut is much deeper and the radius of curvature forming the sidecut is radically shorter than standard ski designs.
It is a further feature of the present invention that the ski design is asymmetric with the inside edge being curved and the outside edge being straight.
It is yet another feature of the present invention that the sidecut geometry of the ski of the present design is described by the general formula for a circle in Cartesian space, the radius of the circle being between about 10 feet and about 85 feet.
It is still another feature of the present invention that the left ski is a mirror image of the right ski.
It is an advantage of the present invention that an alpine ski is provided which provides greater control and improved responsiveness during traversing on steep terrain.
It is another advantage of the present invention that a quicker inside edge set and greater control is achieved by a substantial reduction in the moment of inertia about the inside edge of the ski required to achieve the desired edge angulation.
It is still another advantage of the present invention that a greater turn initiation angle, almost three times greater than traditional designs, is achieved which results in quicker turn initiation.
It is yet another advantage of the present invention that the alpine ski is quicker responding with less skier input to achieve the required edge angulation to initiate and execute carved short radius turns.
These and other objects, features and advantages are obtained by providing in an alpine snow ski tranversely adjustable mounting means intermediate the shovel and tail of the ski such that the distance between the center line of the foot and the inside edge is between about 5 and about 20 millimeters, while the radius of the curvature of the sidecut is described by the equation R=[(x-A)2 +(y-B)2 ]1/2, the radius being between about 10 and about 85 feet. The ball of the foot is located along a line parallel to the direction of travel at a point along the line between about 50 millimeters to the front or the rear of the center of the contact length of the ski.
The advantages of this invention will become apparent upon consideration of the following detailed disclosure of the invention, especially when it is taken in conjunction with the drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a pair of left and right skis showing the longitudinal centerlines of the shovels of the skis, the inside edges and the transverse adjustability of the mounting plates;
FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the right ski;
FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view of the right ski showing the centerline of the shovel of the ski in relation to the inside edge of the ski;
FIG. 4 is a composite view of the top plan and side elevational views of the front mounting plate;
FIG. 5 is a composite view of the top plan and side elevational views of the rear mounting plate;
FIG. 6 is a partial rear elevational view of the skier's boot in the mounting plate taken along the sectional lines 6--6 of FIG. 1 showing the relationship of the centerline of the boot to the inside edge of the ski;
FIG. 7 is a top plan view of the right ski mounted on the X and Y axes to show the radius of the curvature of the sidecut and the location of the center of the circle from which the arc forming the sidecut is taken; and
FIG. 8 is a partial top plan view diagrammatically depicting the positioning of the right foot of the skier with the centerline of the foot in relation to the inside edge and outside edge of the right ski.
FIG. 1 shows a pair of asymmetric alpine skis, indicated generally by the numeral 10 wherein the top ski is the right ski 11 and the bottom ski is the left ski 21. Ski 11 will be discussed in detail hereafter, but it is to be understood that ski 21 is the mirror image of ski 11. Because of the asymmetry, the left and right skis must be worn on the intended foot and cannot be switched.
Ski 11 has a first side 12 which has a deep sidecut geometry dictated by a short radius of the curvature forming the sidecut on its inner side. The second side 14 is generally straight on the ski's outer side. The second side 14 and its attached outside edge (not shown) extend in a direction that is generally parallel to the direction of travel of the ski 11 when no external forces are exerted to cause lateral movement or initiate a turn. The longitudinal centerline 18 of the shovel 19 is shown extending from the shovel 19 at the front of the ski to the tail 20 at the rear. This centerline 18 is midway between first side 12 and second side 14 through the center of the shovel 19. In the asymmetric ski design of the present invention, it is seen that in the central or waist portion of the ski 11 the first side 12 and the centerline 18 approach one another in a near tangent relationship. Depending upon the radius of curvature selected and the length of the ski 11, this centerline 18 can intersect and pass outside of the first side 12. The ski 11, as seen in FIG. 3 in a bottom plan view, shows the positioning of the inside edge 15 and the outside edge 16.
Mounting means, indicated generally by the numeral 25 are shown on the skis 11 and 21 in FIG. 1 on ski 11 in FIGS. 2 and 3, and separately in FIGS. 4 and 5. Mounting means 25 consist of a front or first mounting plate 26 and a rear or second mounting plate 28. These plates 26 and 28 are held in position on the skis 11 and 21 by a plurality of screws (not shown) that are inserted into front mounting plate through holes 29 and rear mounting plate through holes 30. Multiple sets of through holes 29 and 30 are provided because the mounting plates 26 and 28 are adjustable tranversely with respect to the direction of travel of the ski or the longitudinal centerline 18 of the shovel of each ski 11 and 21. This permits the positioning of the skier's foot and boot, as will be explained later, to be adjusted with respect to this centerline of the shovel and the inside edge 15. This transverse adjustability is shown in FIG. 1 by the positioning of the mounting means in a first position shown in solid lines and in a second position, less offset from the shovel centerline 18 and the inside edges, in dashed lines. Mounting plates 26 and 28 have tapped holes 33 and 43, respectively, to receive binding mounting screws (not shown) when separate mounting plates and bindings are employed.
As shown, mounting means 25 may have the bindings for the ski boots fastened directly to them. Alternately, the mounting means 25 may equally well be the bindings themselves by having the bindings manufactured to provide the overhanging or offsetting relationship with the inside edges of the skis 10, as well as providing the traditional boot retaining function. Similarly, while shown as two separate components for each ski, mounting means 25 could be a single component for each ski.
Front or first mounting plate 26 and rear or second mounting plate 28 are shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. These plates act as flight decks to support the skier's foot and boot as they extend over the side of the ski. Front or first mounting plate 26 is shown as having a first side 39 that is generally parallel to the second or outer side 14 of ski 11 and a second side 40 that overhangs the first side 12 and its inside edge 15 of ski 11 and angles inwardly at its front portion toward the first side 12 and inside edge 15. This is best seen in FIGS. 1 and 4. Rear mounting plate 28 has a head portion 41 with a cut-out portion 42 and a tail portion 44, best seen in FIG. 5. Second mounting plate 28 is shown with the cut-out portion 42 being nearest the second or outer side 14 of ski 11 in FIG. 1. Both the first and second mounting plates 26 and 28 are shown in FIG. 1 as being transversely adjustable.
As best seen in FIGS. 1, 3, and 6 mounting means 25 overhang the first or inner side 12 and the attached bottom inside edge 15 of ski 11. As seen in FIG. 6, this locates the centerline 34 of ski boot 31 with the skier's foot inside at a distance from the inside edge 15 that is between about 5 and about 20 millimeters from the inside edge 15 of the ski in the central section of the ski.
FIG. 6 shows a portion of the ski boot 31 and the rear portion of a ski binding 32, illustrating how the ski boot 31 and the mounting means 25, of which only the second mounting plate 28 is shown, overhang the inside edge 15 and the inner or first side 12 of the ski 11. This view also illustrates the tranverse adjustability of the mounting means 25 with respect to the inside edge 15 of the ski 11, with its consequent effect on the positioning of the boot 31 on the first or front mounting plate 26 (not shown) and the second or rear mounting plate 28. FIG. 6 also shows that the minimum angle formed with the horizontal through the inside edge by a line taken tangent to the inside edge 35 of the sole of the boot 31 and the bottom inside edge 15 is a minimum of 58 degrees. This means that a skier can tilt the ski 11 up on its inside edge 15 until an angle of about 58 degrees, with the mounting means transversely adjusted to its most inside or greatest offset position, before the boot will interfere with the snow surface. This same angle will be about 80 degrees with the mounting means transversely adjusted to its most outside or least offset position. This FIGURE also shows, because of the positioning of the skier's foot on the ski with respect to the bottom inside edge 15 of the ski 11, that less moment about the inside edge 15 is required to tilt the ski up on bottom inside edge 15 to initiate and execute a turn.
This is further shown in FIG. 8 with respect to the skier's foot 36, which is diagrammatically illustrated as being positioned on the ski 11 between the first or inner side 12 and the second or outer side 14. The centerline 38 of the skier's foot 36 is shown at a distance d from the first side 12 and its attached bottom inside edge 15 at the waist of ski 11. Distance d is between about 5 and about 20 millimeters from the inside edge 15, but can be reduced to between about 5 and about 16 millimeters from the inside edge 15.
In the central portion of the ski point Bf is shown in FIG. 8 taken through the ball of the foot along the centerline 38 of the skier's foot and parallel to the direction of travel. The point Bf is located longitudinally along the ski with respect to the center of the contact length, lc/2, between about 50 millimeters to the front toward the shovel 19 and about 50 millimeters to the rear toward the tail 20 . The direction of travel is indicated by the arrow in FIG. 8, while the center of the contact length is seen in FIG. 7.
FIGS. 6 and 8 illustrate the key advantages of the ski of the present invention which permit a skier to initiate a turn with very little work by easily changing the angle of the ski with the ground by rotating up on the bottom inside edge 15 of the downhill ski 11. The tranverse adjustability of the mounting means 25 also affects the responsiveness and ease of initiating a turn of the ski 11. By moving the mounting means 25 more to the outer or second side 14, thereby reducing the amount of overhang of mounting means 25 with respect to the inner or first side 12 and inside edge 15, the responsiveness of the ski is reduced since it requires more work on the part of the skier and greater moment of inertia to change the angle of the ski 11 with respect to the ground, but increases the stability with greater speed.
The sidecut geometry of the ski, and specifically of the inner or first side and the bottom inside edges, also influences how small of a radius or tight of a turn a skier can accomplish naturally without any force being applied to the skis by the skier. The deeper the sidecut geometry, the sharper the turn or the smaller radius within which a turn can be accomplished. The ski 11 of the this invention combines the increased sidecut geometry with the positioning of the skier's foot and boot on the ski 11 to achieve a quicker transition to the on edge position which results in a more responsive ski and permits carved short radius turns to be easily accomplished by novice to intermediate skiers. It is to be understood that the inside edge is coincident with the sidecut as discussed in this description and is defined by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard F472-85.
FIG. 7 shows this sidecut geometry on the ski 11 by placing the tip of the shovel of the ski 11 at the origin on the X and Y axes. The general formula for a circle in Cartesian space may then be applied to this plotting. This formula may be expressed in terms of the radius R of the curvature forming the sidecut geometry as R=[(x-A)2 +(y-B)2 ]1/2, where the radius is between about 10 feet and about 85 feet. A and B are equal to the x and y coordinates, respectively, of the center point C of the circle from which the arc is taken to achieve the sidecut geometry of the inner or first side 12 of the ski 11. A is equal to the x or abscissa value of the point P on the first side 12 in the waist or central section of the ski 11, while y is equal to the y or ordinate value of point P. In this instance, since the point P is located on the sidecut of the ski 11 at the waist, the ordinate is equal to B+R. The waist is defined by the previously mentioned ASTM standard as the narrowest point of the ski body between the widest part of the ski in the tail 20 and the widest part of the ski in the shovel 19. The center point C of the circle may be located at any distance along the X axis between about 0.550 to about 0.700 times the length L of the ski 11.
FIG. 7 further shows the length of the ski 11 from the tip of the shovel to the tip or rear edge of the tail as L and the contact length, lc, which extends between the points on the bottom running surface in the shovel and the tail where the running surface of the unloaded ski contacts a flat plane surface. Point P in FIG. 7 is shown as being located on the sidecut at the waist of the ski 11 and is measured at a distance XbM from the tip of the tail. The radius R swings through the sidecut of the ski 11 between the points P1 and P2 in the shovel and the tail where the radius breaks with the first side 12. The length of the arc between these points is calculated by the equation, ##EQU1## The angle θ is shown as illustrated and for skis of a length L of about 100 centimeters to about 210 centimeters will vary from between about 4.19° to about 21.60° and preferably between about 4.19° and about 8.64° for radii between about 10 and about 85 feet.
FIG. 7, with tip of the shovel of ski 11 at the origin of the Cartesian coordinate system and the X axis parallel to the direction of travel, permits the centerline 38 of the skier's foot in FIG. 8 to be seen as parallel to the X axis. The second or outer side 14 of ski 11 is also parallel to the direction of travel, indicated by the arrow in FIG. 8. The ball of the skier's foot is located at point Bf. The value of the angle θ can then be closely approximated by the formula for the length of a chord subtended by θ, utilizing the contact length, lc, for the approximate length of the chord, or Sin 1/2θ≅lc/2R.
Every ski has its own sidecut geometry. Traditionally skis have had a radius R of curvature forming the sidecut that has been greater than 90 meters. This large radius R of curvature forming the sidecut has meant that traditional skis turn in a wide path or large circle, without considerable extra effort on the part of the skier to initiate and carry the ski through the turn. In contrast, the ski of the present design has the ski do a substantial portion of the work required to initiate and complete a turn by having decreased the lever arm, lowered the moment of inertia about the inside edge 15, and shortened the radius of curvature forming the sidecut of the ski.
While the preferred structure in which the principles of the present invention have been incorporated as shown and described above, it is to be understood that the present invention is not to be limited to the particular details thus presented, but in fact, widely different means may be employed in the practice of the broader aspects of this invention. It is possible, for example that the ski boot sole can be offset from the remainder of the ski boot to attempt to achieve the same results. The scope of the appended claims is intended to encompass all obvious changes in the details, materials, and arrangements to structural parts that will occur to one of ordinary skill in the art upon a reading of this disclosure.
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|AT262116B *||Title not available|
|CH595118A5 *||Title not available|
|DE2701729A1 *||Jan 18, 1977||Jul 20, 1978||Dullek Rudi Erwin||Ski for improved control of turning - has foot placed further forward to apply more weight on front of ski|
|DE3045853A1 *||Dec 5, 1980||Jun 9, 1982||Ekkehard Dr Ing Grau||Ski with stepped running surface - has separated wedge surfaces each with air supply channel to wedge slot providing compressed air|
|DE3220688A1 *||Jun 2, 1982||Dec 23, 1982||Nishizawa Kk||Ski|
|FR2559673A1 *||Title not available|
|1||*||SKI Magazine, Sep. 1976 Edition, pp. 128 and 117.|
|2||*||Skiing Magazine, Oct. 1976 Edition, p. 168.|
|3||*||Skiing Mechanics, John G. Howe, 1983, pp. 22 24 and 101 104.|
|4||Skiing Mechanics, John G. Howe, 1983, pp. 22-24 and 101-104.|
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|US4895388 *||Jun 26, 1989||Jan 23, 1990||Richmond William D||Pair of skis|
|US4971350 *||Dec 6, 1989||Nov 20, 1990||Skis Rossignol S.A.||Alpine skis|
|US5303949 *||Apr 26, 1993||Apr 19, 1994||Harper Luke J||Multi-edged downhill snow skis|
|US5876056 *||Feb 13, 1995||Mar 2, 1999||Hi-Turn As||Alpine pair ski|
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|US7690674 *||Aug 10, 2006||Apr 6, 2010||Armada Skis, Inc.||Snow riding implement|
|US8172250 *||Jan 23, 2009||May 8, 2012||Salomon S.A.S.||Alpine ski with an adjustment arrangement|
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|US9238168||Feb 8, 2013||Jan 19, 2016||Bryce M. Kloster||Splitboard joining device|
|US9266010||Jun 11, 2013||Feb 23, 2016||Tyler G. Kloster||Splitboard binding with adjustable leverage devices|
|US20040084879 *||Oct 31, 2002||May 6, 2004||Wilson Anton F.||Gliding skis|
|US20040262885 *||Jun 25, 2003||Dec 30, 2004||Wilson Anton F.||Ski with tunnel and enhanced edges|
|US20050269801 *||Jun 2, 2005||Dec 8, 2005||Ski Logic D/B/A Scottybob||Snow Skis And Snowboards Having Split Tips And/Or Tails|
|US20070267847 *||Mar 1, 2007||Nov 22, 2007||Ski Logic D/B/A Scottybob||Snow Skis and Snowboards Having Split Tips and/or Tails|
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|US20080106068 *||Nov 1, 2007||May 8, 2008||Drake Powderworks, Llc||Ski and Snowboard|
|US20090189370 *||Jul 30, 2009||Salomon S.A.S.||Alpine Ski with an Adjustment Arrangement|
|US20100102522 *||Oct 22, 2009||Apr 29, 2010||Kloster Bryce M||Splitboard binding apparatus|
|US20100176575 *||Jul 15, 2010||Armada Skis, Inc.||Snow riding implement|
|WO2001017623A1 *||Aug 23, 2000||Mar 15, 2001||Ski Logic, Llc||Snow skis having asymmetrical edges|
|U.S. Classification||280/609, 280/610|
|Cooperative Classification||A63C5/0411, A63C5/0405, A63C5/00|
|European Classification||A63C5/04A2, A63C5/04A, A63C5/00|
|Mar 6, 1986||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: OLIN CORPORATION, A CORP OF VIRGINIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:MEATTO, FRANKLIN D.;PILPEL, EDWARD D.;REEL/FRAME:004542/0497;SIGNING DATES FROM 19860220 TO 19860227
|Oct 2, 1987||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TRISTAR SPORTS INC., A CORP. OF DE
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:OLIN SKI COMPANY, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004775/0552
Effective date: 19860627
Owner name: OLIN SKI COMPANY, INC.
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:TRAK INCORPORATED INTO;REEL/FRAME:004777/0883
Effective date: 19870113
Owner name: OLIN SKI COMPANY, INC., STAMFORD, CT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:OLIN CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:004779/0262
Effective date: 19860530
Owner name: TRISTAR SPORTS INC.
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:OLIN SKI COMPANY, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004775/0552
Effective date: 19860627
Owner name: OLIN SKI COMPANY, INC.,CONNECTICUT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:OLIN CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:004779/0262
Effective date: 19860530
|Oct 23, 1989||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SITCA ACQUISITIONS INC., (SITCA), 19215-99TH AVE.
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:TRISTAR SPORTS INC.;REEL/FRAME:005165/0990
Effective date: 19890831
|Nov 16, 1990||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jul 1, 1991||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SITCA ACQUISITIONS, INC., A CORPORATION OF WA
Free format text: TO CORRECT U.S. PROPERTIES IN A PREVIOUSLY RECORDED ASSIGNMENT, RECORDED ON 10-23-89, AT REEL 5165,FRAMES 990-992. ASSIGNOR HEREBY CONFIRMS THE ASSIGNMENT, NUNC PRO TUNC OF 8-31-89.;ASSIGNOR:TRISTAR SPORT, INC., A CORPORATION OF DE;REEL/FRAME:005755/0211
Effective date: 19910614
|May 30, 1995||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Oct 22, 1995||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Jan 2, 1996||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 19951025