Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS4704126 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 06/723,098
Publication dateNov 3, 1987
Filing dateApr 15, 1985
Priority dateApr 15, 1985
Fee statusPaid
Also published asCA1252697A1, DE3683395D1, EP0202031A2, EP0202031A3, EP0202031B1
Publication number06723098, 723098, US 4704126 A, US 4704126A, US-A-4704126, US4704126 A, US4704126A
InventorsImogene Baswell, Kimberly Walsh, Eric Benz
Original AssigneeRichards Medical Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Solution of lactic nitric and hydrofluoric acids
US 4704126 A
Abstract
A method of chemically polishing medical implants by immersing them in a solution including lactic acid, hydrofluoric acid, and nitric acid to produce smooth, matte finished implants.
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(9)
What is claimed is:
1. A method of polishing a surgical ear tube implant formed of a biocompatible titanium or titanium alloy having a smooth polished surface that discourages tissue growth thereon, comprising the steps of:
a. contacting the implant with a polishing solution including lactic acid, hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid;
b. moving the implant and polishing compound relative one to the other; and thereafter
c. washing the implant to remove substantially all of the polishing compound until the alloy has matte finish.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the contacting step includes immersing the implant in a polishing solution that comprises:
from about 60 to about 79 weight percent lactic acid;
from about 10.5 to about 20 weight percent hydroflouric acid; and
from about 10.5 to about 20 weight percent nitric acid.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the moving step includes agitating the immersed implant in the solution.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the contacting and moving steps are carried out long enough to effectively remove surface irregularities on the implant without removing excessive amounts of the implant material.
5. The method of claim 3 wherein the washing step is followed by the step of inspecting the polished implant to determine the extent of polishing and thereafter repeating the contacting, moving, and washing steps if more polishing is needed.
6. A polished surgical ear tube implant comprising an ear tube surgical implant formed of a biocompatible titanium or titanium alloy polished to a smooth, matte finish by contacting the formed implant with a polishing solution including lactic acid, hydrofluoric acid, and nitric acid;
a. moving the implant and solution relative to one another; and thereafter
b. washing the implant to remove substantially all of the polishing solution to produce the polished implant.
7. The polished ear tube implant of claim 6 wherein the polishing solution comprises:
from about 60 to about 79 weight percent lactic acid;
from about 10.5 to about 20 weight percent hydroflouric acid; and
from about 10.5 to about 20 weight percent nitric acid.
8. The polished ear tube implant of claim 7 wherein the immersed implant is polished by agitating the immersed implant in the solution.
9. The polished ear tube implant of claim 8 wherein the formed implant is an ear tube having machining grooves therein and wherein the contacting, moving, and washing steps are repeated to substantially decrease the depth of the grooves to produce a smooth, matte finished ear tube.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a method of chemically polishing medical implants made of titanium or an alloy of titanium to produce a smooth, matte finished surface.

Chemically pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy are extremely biocompatible materials which are used for a variety of medical applications including implants. When an implant fabricated from such a metal is implanted in the human body, the host tissue surrounding the implant fixes itself to the implant in direct apposition to the implant, in contrast with other common implant materials to which fibrous tissue may tend to encapsulate the implant. Thus titanium and alloys thereof are particularly useful for implants in which the former direct apposition type of fixation is preferable to the later surrounding type of fixation.

If a titanium implant surface is rough, tissue will attach itself mechanically at the implant-tissue interface. Although for a permanent implant, this type of fixation may be appropriate in that it is a predictable stabilizing mechanism, for a semi-permanent (long-term temporary) implant, such permanent fixation is undesirable. When the implant is to be removed, it may be necessary to cut the implant from the surrounding tissue thus creating trauma to the surrounding tissue. Examples of implants intended for temporary or semi-permanent implantation include ventilation tubes, e.g. a vent tube for the tympanic membrane, percutaneous devices for drug infusion, and other similar devices. The invention is particularly suitable for implants having intricate designs and/or of small size which are difficult to polish by conventional metal polishing techniques and for implants designed to create a passageway through surrounding tissue, where tissue ingrowth may clog the passageway decreasing its effectiveness for ventilation and/or fluid drainage.

A further problem with rough or sharp edges on implants is that they may cause an undesirable inflammatory response by surrounding body tissue. A smooth surface is also required for articulating implants, or implants that come in direct contact with blood. For these reasons, among others, such implants should be polished in some manner after they are fabricated.

In the past, metal implants have been finished by a variety of techniques including hand polishing, glass beading, vapor blasting, and electrolytic polishing. Although acceptable for many applications, it is difficult to effectively polish all surfaces and crevices of miniature implants, or implants having intricate designs and/or internal passageways. Mechanical polishing and electrolytic polishing produce a finished product having a bright, light-reflective surface. This type of surface is undesirable because bright light used for inserting the implant can cause considerable glare which interferes with the physician's ability to see the exact location of the implant. Thus it would be desirable to have a polishing technique which reduces glare and is more effective in polishing internal passageways as well as external surfaces of multi-faceted implants and instruments.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a method of chemically polishing surgical implants formed of titanium or titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V which produces a smooth, matte finished implant. The invention includes contacting the formed implant with a polishing solution including lactic acid or glycerine, hydroflouric acid, and nitric acid; moving the solution and implant relative to one another; and thereafter washing the implant to remove the polishing solution and stop the polishing action.

The polishing solution preferably includes from about 60 to about 79 weight percent lactic acid, from about 10.5 to about 20 weight percent hydroflouric acid, and from about 10.5 to about 20 weight percent nitric acid. For polishing several implants in a batch polishing process, it is preferred that the polishing be accomplished in a series of immersing and washing steps, with inspection of the polished implants after each polishing stage to determine the extent of polishing and prevent over-polishing or too much metal removal for any single implant.

By practicing the instant invention, surgical implants formed of titanium or titanium alloys can be successfully polished to minimize tissue fixation normally associated with rough surfaced implants, minimize clogging of interior passageways, and substantially prevent reflective glare from interfering with the surgical implantation procedure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a photograph of a Reuter bobbin as machined, prior to practicing the instant invention.

FIG. 2 is a Reuter bobbin polished using prior art vapor blasting technique.

FIG. 3 is a Reuter bobbin polished in accordance with the instant invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

The method of the present invention can be used for any titanium or titanium alloy surgical implant which is used for medical applications. For implants such as drainage or ventilation tubes and the like, for example ossicular replacement prostheses and middle ear ventilation tubes having intricate and miniature designs, the chemical polishing method of the instant invention provides both more effective polishing than mechanical methods previously used and a matte finish which substantially prevents undesirables glare during the implantation procedure.

Although chemical polishing in accordance with the instant invention may impart hydrogen ions to the surface of the implant or instrument, and thus may create hydrogen embrittlement, residual hydrogen ions can be removed by heating the implant or instrument to a particular temperature, depending on the dimensions and anticipated loading of the part to drive off the hydrogen ions. For this reason, it is believed that the chemical polishing of the instant invention is suitable for most, if not all, implants and instruments for which the matte finish and effective polishing of intricate designs is desirable.

The following discussion of the method of the instant invention is directed to chemically polishing middle ear vent tubes used for insertion in a myringotomy procedure which involves making an incision or slit in the eardrum to alleviate a build-up of fluid caused by negative pressure in the middle ear cavity--a condition known as otitis media. The tube primarily keeps the ear drum slit open for a sufficient period of time following the surgery to allow fluid to drain and the middle ear cavity to dry out and to equalize pressure between the middle and the outer ear area. Frequently the condition of middle ear fluid or pressure imbalance in the middle ear cavity which the tube is intended to alleviate requires that the tube remain in place for a significant period of time. However, when the otitis media condition is no longer present, the purpose of the ear tube no longer exists and should be removed. In the majority of cases, ventilation tubes will extrude naturally due to the rotation and sloughing of tympanic membrane tissue. An ear vent tube polished using the chemical polishing process of the instant invention will have less tendency to be fixed permanently and will be less likely to resist natural extrusion.

Although the following example relates to polishing a particular size of middle ear ventilation tubes, as can be appreciated, the method of the present invention is not so limited and can be used for any type of titanium or titanium alloy implant.

In the following examples, the middle ear vent tubes polished in accordance with the instant invention were Reuter bobbins, e.g. bobbin 10 of FIG. 1, manufactured by Richards Medical Company sold as Catalog No. 14-5219. FIG. 2 shows the bobbin 10 polished using the prior art vapor blasting technique. FIG. 3 shows the smooth, matte finished bobbin 20 polished in accordance with the instant invention.

The bobbin 10, shown in FIG. 1, was machined from a single piece of Ti-6Al-4V to include flanges 12 and lumen 14. Each of the flanges 12 included holes 16. Before polishing, the inside diameter of the lumen 14 was about 0.0389 inches (1.0 mm) , the outside diameter of each of the flanges 12 was 0.1099 inches (2.8 mm), each of the flanges were about 0.0105 inches (0.27 mm) thick, and the flange holes 16 each had an inside diameter of about 0.0167 inches (0.42 Mm).

The polishing solution used in the following example included one part hydrofluoric acid, one part nitric acid, and three parts lactic acid. Due to the corrosive effect of hydroflouric acid on glass, a polyethylene container for the polishing solution bath was constructed having a volume of approximately 425 milliliters. A basket to enclose the ear vent tubes was constructed from type 304 stainless steel mesh (50 mesh, 0.010 inches in diameter) and wire, having overall dimensions of approximately 11/2 inch by 11/2 inch by 3/4 inch deep (3.8 cm×3.8 cm×1.9 cm). The polishing was accomplished by submerging the wire basket containing thirty of the bobbins 10, and agitating the bobbins within the container of polishing solution by slowly moving the wire basket across the bottom of the polyethylene container of solution.

Because the depth of machining grooves and other imperfections on the individual bobbins vary, a single immersion did not produce uniform polishing of all of the bobbins. For this reason, successive polishing steps were found to be preferable to a single, longer immersion for achieving uniformly polished bobbins.

For the above described middle ear vent tubes, it was found that good polishing resulted from first cleaning the batch of implants in acetone and drying with heat before polishing. An initial polishing step consisted in immersing the implants for 5 seconds with mild agitation followed by washing them in clear water with agitation, and again cleaning with acetone and drying. This preliminary polishing step serves to prevent overpolishing by restricting the time in the polishing solution. A second polishing step including 10 second immersion and agitation in the polishing compound followed by washing and drying is preferred to permit satisfactorily polished bobbins to be removed after inspection. As noted above, due to the varying depths of machine lines, some bobbins with machine grooves of relatively shallow depth will be completely polished after this step. These polished bobbins are removed from the batch, and the process of ten second polishing, followed by cleaning and inspecting is repeated until all of the remaining bobbins are polished.

It is preferred for the bobbins described above that the maximum chemical polishing time not exceed 65 seconds to keep the polished bobbin within production specification dimensions, and that the final water rinse should be 10 minutes to assure complete removal of the polishing compound to prevent overpolishing.

Practicing the particular technique outlined with a batch of 30 bobbins, as illustrated by Table I below, resulted in very little metal removal, with the mean difference in bobbin dimensions being no more than 0.0017 inches (0.043 mm). The standard deviations in dimension differed by no more that 0.0001 inches (0.003 mm). Thus the polished bobbins were maintained within production specifications for dimensions.

              TABLE I______________________________________Measurements Before and After the Chemical Polishingof 30 Reuter Bobbin Vent Tubes*        Before  After        (n = 30)                (n = 28)  Difference______________________________________I.D. of Lumen (A)          = 0.0389  = 0.0399  = 0.0010          = 0.0004  = 0.0005  = 0.0001O.D. of Flange (B)          = 0.1099  = 0.1091  = 0.0008          = 0.0006  = 0.0007  = 0.0001Flange Thickness (C)          = 0.0105  = 0.0095  = 0.0010          = 0.0006  = 0.0006  = 0.0000Flange Hole Diameter (D)          = 0.0167  = 0.0184  = 0.0017          = 0.0005  = 0.0004  = 0.0001______________________________________ *Units are in inches

The results shown in Table I represent 30 bobbins subjected to repetitive immersions of 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, and then 20 seconds, with satisfactorily polished bobbins being removed after inspection at various stages from just after the first 10 second immersion through after the last 20 second immersion. As can be appreciated, metal removed from bobbins remains in the polishing solution so that successive immersions require somewhat more time to achieve the same amount of metal removal as preceeding immersions.

The chemical polishing process of the instant invention provides a polishing technique which produces a smooth, matte finished implant or instrument in very little time with very little labor which is particularly suitable for small titanium or titanium alloy parts. Although the discussion was directed to polishing bobbins or ear vent tubes, the invention is not limited to such implants, and can be readily adapted to many types of medical products for which a smooth, matte finish is desirable.

The foregoing disclosure and description of the invention are illustrative and explanatory thereof, and various changes in the size, shape and materials, as well as in the details of the illustrated construction may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2942954 *Oct 20, 1955Jun 28, 1960Gen Motors CorpNon-hazardous etching solutions
US2981609 *Nov 20, 1956Apr 25, 1961United Aircraft CorpEtching bath for titanium and its alloys and process of etching
US3514407 *Sep 28, 1966May 26, 1970Lockheed Aircraft CorpChemical polishing of titanium and titanium alloys
US3562013 *Oct 23, 1967Feb 9, 1971Diversey CorpProcess of deoxidizing titanium and its alloys
US3605123 *Apr 29, 1969Sep 20, 1971Melpar IncBone implant
US3725224 *Jun 30, 1971Apr 3, 1973Rohr Industries IncComposition for electrolytic descaling of titanium and its alloys
US3749618 *Sep 20, 1971Jul 31, 1973Mc Donnell Douglas CorpProcess and solution for removing titanium and refractory metals and their alloys from tools
US3891456 *Oct 17, 1973Jun 24, 1975Us Air ForceSurface treatment of titanium and titanium alloys
US4075040 *Jul 15, 1976Feb 21, 1978Societe Nationale Industrielle AerospatialeTitanium and titanium alloy surface preparation method for subsequent bonding
US4169292 *Nov 14, 1977Oct 2, 1979Grote Johannes JArtificial middle ear and ear canal prosthesis
US4170488 *Jun 27, 1977Oct 9, 1979J. S. Mannor Machine CorporationEnvironmental, small-part continuous washing process
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1"Low Temperature Creep of Ti-6 Al-4 V" by Ben C. Odegard and Anthony W. Thompson, Metallurgical Transactions, Apr. 1974.
2 *Low Temperature Creep of Ti 6 Al 4 V by Ben C. Odegard and Anthony W. Thompson, Metallurgical Transactions, Apr. 1974.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4900398 *Jun 19, 1989Feb 13, 1990General Motors CorporationChemical milling of titanium
US5098398 *Apr 21, 1987Mar 24, 1992Dan LundgrenImplant passageway
US5246455 *May 17, 1991Sep 21, 1993Micromedics, Inc.Middle meatal antrostomy ventilation tube
US5425761 *Nov 21, 1990Jun 20, 1995Lundgren; DanImplant with a through passage
US5456723 *Aug 17, 1992Oct 10, 1995Institut Straumann AgA screw having a rough porous surface by treating with a reducing acid for improving the bonding with the bones
US5496329 *Sep 8, 1993Mar 5, 1996Alpha Surgical, Inc.Method and apparatus for implanting a medical ventilation tube
US5693097 *Sep 4, 1996Dec 2, 1997Helix Medical, Inc.Voice prosthesis-cartridge assembly
US5746691 *Jun 6, 1997May 5, 1998Global Therapeutics, Inc.Method for polishing surgical stents
US5746725 *Dec 15, 1995May 5, 1998Metaphase Technology Access, Ltd.Check valve and method for facilitating pressurization of a patient's middle ear
US5951601 *Mar 24, 1997Sep 14, 1999Lesinski; S. GeorgeAttaching an implantable hearing aid microactuator
US6022359 *Jan 13, 1999Feb 8, 2000Frantzen; John J.Stent delivery system featuring a flexible balloon
US6083259 *Nov 16, 1998Jul 4, 2000Frantzen; John J.Axially non-contracting flexible radially expandable stent
US6086455 *Feb 11, 1998Jul 11, 2000Cook IncorporatedApparatus for polishing surgical stents
US6183353May 24, 2000Feb 6, 2001Cook IncorporatedApparatus for polishing surgical stents
US6187034Jan 13, 1999Feb 13, 2001John J. FrantzenSegmented stent for flexible stent delivery system
US6293966Apr 20, 1998Sep 25, 2001Cook IncorporatedSurgical stent featuring radiopaque markers
US6309419 *Mar 26, 1999Oct 30, 2001Johns Hopkins UniversityTympanic membrane prosthesis with mechanical fixation
US6344053Apr 5, 1999Feb 5, 2002Medtronic Ave, Inc.Endovascular support device and method
US6361526 *Apr 12, 1999Mar 26, 2002Medtronic Xomed, Inc.Antimicrobial tympanostomy tube
US6491723Mar 1, 1999Dec 10, 2002Implant Innovations, Inc.Removing oxides from titanium implant by etching with hydrogen fluoride
US6537202May 5, 1998Mar 25, 2003Cook IncorporatedMethod for polishing surgical stents
US6656219Nov 22, 2000Dec 2, 2003Dominik M. WiktorIntravascular stent
US6663661Oct 31, 2001Dec 16, 2003Medtronic Ave, Inc.Endovascular support device and method
US6689302Mar 26, 2002Feb 10, 2004Medtronic Xomed, Inc.Method of making an antimicrobial tympanostomy tube
US6695833Sep 27, 2000Feb 24, 2004Nellix, Inc.Vascular stent-graft apparatus and forming method
US6827733Sep 24, 2003Dec 7, 2004Medtronic Ave, Inc.Endovascular support device and method
US6923828Nov 22, 2000Aug 2, 2005Medtronic, Inc.Intravascular stent
US6969474Nov 5, 2003Nov 29, 2005Implant Innovations, Inc.Implant surface preparation
US7169317Jul 1, 2005Jan 30, 2007Implant Innovations, Inc.Implant surface preparation
US7250059 *Sep 14, 2004Jul 31, 2007Clarity CorporationMyringopexy type titanium prosthesis
US7547399Jan 9, 2007Jun 16, 2009Biomet 3I, LlcImplant surface preparation
US7550091Feb 19, 2008Jun 23, 2009Biomet 3I, LlcImplant surface preparation
US7658764 *Aug 4, 2006Feb 9, 2010Clarity CorporationMyringopexy type titanium prosthesis
US7857987Feb 13, 2008Dec 28, 2010Biomet 3I, LlcImplant surface preparation
US7887587 *Jun 4, 2004Feb 15, 2011Synthes Usa, LlcSoft tissue spacer
US8110088 *Sep 22, 2009Feb 7, 2012Biotronik Vi Patent AgImplant and method for manufacturing same
US8221499Jan 25, 1999Jul 17, 2012Biomet 3I, LlcInfection-blocking dental implant
US8251700May 12, 2004Aug 28, 2012Biomet 3I, LlcSurface treatment process for implants made of titanium alloy
US8740839 *Sep 15, 2010Jun 3, 2014Intersect Ent, Inc.Device and methods for treating paranasal sinus conditions
US8763222Jul 30, 2009Jul 1, 2014Intersect Ent, Inc.Methods and devices for crimping self-expanding devices
US8790345 *Aug 21, 2007Jul 29, 2014Zimmer, Inc.Titanium alloy with oxidized zirconium for a prosthetic implant
US8801768Jan 23, 2012Aug 12, 2014Endologix, Inc.Graft systems having semi-permeable filling structures and methods for their use
US8802131Aug 14, 2009Aug 12, 2014Intersect Ent, Inc.Devices and methods for delivering active agents to the osteomeatal complex
US20090054985 *Aug 21, 2007Feb 26, 2009Anderson Jeffrey PTitanium alloy with oxidized zirconium for a prosthetic implant
US20110004194 *Sep 15, 2010Jan 6, 2011Eaton Donald JDevice and methods for treating paranasal sinus conditions
CN101027016BJun 3, 2005Jan 30, 2013芯赛斯公司Soft tissue spacer
EP1287851A1 *Aug 28, 2002Mar 5, 2003Mark L. RobinsonMethod of producing textured surfaces on medical implants
Classifications
U.S. Classification623/10
International ClassificationA61F2/30, C23F3/06, A61F11/00, A61L27/00
Cooperative ClassificationC23F3/06, A61F11/002, A61F2/30767
European ClassificationA61F11/00B, A61F2/30L, C23F3/06
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
May 15, 2013ASAssignment
Effective date: 20130419
Owner name: GYRUS ACMI, INC., MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BANK OF SCOTLAND;REEL/FRAME:030422/0113
Dec 29, 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: THE GOVERNOR AND COMPANY OF THE BANK OF SCOTLAND,
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GYRUS ENT L.L.C.;REEL/FRAME:014805/0598
Effective date: 20030930
Owner name: THE GOVERNOR AND COMPANY OF THE BANK OF SCOTLAND 3
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GYRUS ENT L.L.C. /AR;REEL/FRAME:014805/0598
Aug 7, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: GYRUS ENT L.L.C., TENNESSEE
Free format text: CHANGE OF ADDRESS;ASSIGNOR:ENT L.L.C.;REEL/FRAME:013158/0928
Effective date: 20011106
Owner name: GYRUS ENT L.L.C. 2925 APPLING ROADBARTLETT, TENNES
Free format text: CHANGE OF ADDRESS;ASSIGNOR:ENT L.L.C. /AR;REEL/FRAME:013158/0928
Dec 4, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: GYRUS ENT L.L.C., ENGLAND
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:ENT L.L.C.;REEL/FRAME:012333/0492
Effective date: 20011106
Owner name: GYRUS ENT L.L.C. 410 WHARFDALE ROAD WINNERSH WOKIN
Owner name: GYRUS ENT L.L.C. 410 WHARFDALE ROAD WINNERSHWOKING
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:ENT L.L.C. /AR;REEL/FRAME:012333/0492
May 7, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: ENT, L.L.C., TENNESSEE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SMITH & NEPHEW, INC.;REEL/FRAME:011783/0482
Effective date: 20001231
Owner name: ENT, L.L.C. 1450 BROOKS ROAD MEMPHIS TENNESSEE 381
Owner name: ENT, L.L.C. 1450 BROOKS ROADMEMPHIS, TENNESSEE, 38
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SMITH & NEPHEW, INC. /AR;REEL/FRAME:011783/0482
Apr 26, 1999FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12
Apr 20, 1995FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Apr 19, 1991FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Aug 10, 1990ASAssignment
Owner name: SMITH & NEPHEW RICHARDS, INC.
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:RICHARDS MEDICAL COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:005614/0913
Effective date: 19891020
Owner name: SMITH & NEPHEW RICHARDS, INC., TENNESSEE
Apr 15, 1985ASAssignment
Owner name: NEC CORPORATION 33-1, SHIBA 5-CHOME, MINATO-KU, TO
Owner name: RICHARDS MEDICAL COMPANY A CORP OF DE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:BASWELL, IMOGENE;WALSH, KIMBERLY;RENZ, ERIC;REEL/FRAME:004395/0456
Effective date: 19850411
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BASWELL, IMOGENE;WALSH, KIMBERLY;RENZ, ERIC;REEL/FRAME:004395/0456
Owner name: NEC CORPORATION, JAPAN
Owner name: RICHARDS MEDICAL COMPANY, TENNESSEE