US 471850 A
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H. BONIS. ELECTED THERAPEUTIC ELECTRODE.
No. 471,850. Patented Mar. 29, 1892.
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HARRY BONIS, or BLANCHARD, ONTARIO, CANADA.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 471,850, dated March 29, 1892.
Application filed August 10, 1891. Serial No. 402,221. (No model.)
To all whom iv may concern.-
Be it known that I, HARRY BONIS, a subject of the Queen of Great Britain, residing atjustable artificial resistance, and, secondly, to
aiford simple means of bringing the portion of the body between the two electrodes under the influence exclusively of either the positive or the negative pole of a voltaic battery.
When two ordinary electrodes are applied to the surface of the body and an electrical current made to pass from the positive to the negative pole through the intervening portion of the body, the portion of the body immediately under and adjacent to the positive electrode is said to be under the polar influence of the positive pole, while that part of the body under and adjacent to the negative pole is said to be under the polar influenceof the negative pole. A point in the body approximately midway between the positive and the negative pole is called the neutral point-that is, a point where there is no change either in the acidity or in the alkalinity of the part and where there is neither increased nor diminished irritability, neither catelectrotonus noranelectrotonus-in a word,
7 where the part is neither under the polar effect of either the positive or the negative pole of the battery. Now I am unaware that it is ever an advantage to have the body under the influence of both the positive and the negative pole at the same time, and it can be readily understood that in many cases it may be a great disadvantage. It then we can succeed in eliminating the effect of one pole while the other is being used therapeutically, it will surely mark an advance in the medical use of electricity. I claim that this desideratum may be attained by the adoption of my invention as herein described. 7
In the drawings, Figure 1 represents an enlarged view of my new electrode. Fig. 2 repa porous cap, head, diaphragm, or partition for closing the larger opening of the funnelshaped electrode. f is an opening for filling the electrode with fluid. 0 is a piston or cylinder fitting the larger caliber b of the handle A. cl is the conductor for connecting the elec trode with the battery. 6 is the inner termination of this conductor, the end of which enters the'small caliber 0t of handle A. This conductor e is preferably insulated except at the point. This point is composed of non-oxidizable material, such as platinum or carbon. The piston or cylinder 0 is made to fit snugly the tube 19, and, being'made adjustable, the point 6 may be adjusted to occupy any position in the small tube a. By means of this adjustment any desired resistance can be interposed in the circuit at pleasure. The funnelshaped electrode is filled with any desired electrolytic fluid-snch, for instance, as a solution of the bicarbonate of soda or potash. The opening at f is used for filling or emptying the electrode. The funnel B and the handle A maybe made in two pieces and screwed together, as represented in the drawings, or they may be in one piece. The cylinder or piston C may be secured in any desired position by means of the clamping-screw h or by any other well-known device.
Fig. 2 represents a portion of the living body traversed by a voltaic current when the ordinary electrodes are used. X represents the positive electrode, andY represents the negative electrode. The vertical line J K midway between these electrodes represents the neutral point. That part of the body between the positive pole and the neutral point is represented as being under the influence of the positive pole. This portion is said, in medical phraseology, to be in a state of anelectrotonus or condition of diminished irritability, and here the electro-negative or acid-forming elements produced by the electrolytic action of the current are collected. The part between the negative electrode and the neutral point 1s shown under the influence of thenegative pole. It is said to be in a state of catelectrotonus or condition of increased irritability,
and the electro-positive or base-forming elesented as being connected with the positivepole of the battery, while an ordinary electrode is connected with the negative pole.
My electrode is supposed to be filled with a solution of bicarbonate of soda, and the resistance is supposed to be equal to or greater than that of the body. The neutral point J K is represented as having shifted from a central point in the body to the porous diaphragm of my electrode,and the whole of the bodyinterveniug is represented as being under the influence of the negative pole.
For the porous cap or head or diaphragm closing the larger end of my electrode I propose to use either porous earthenware or animal membrane-as, for instance, the skin of an animal, or bladder. I do not confine myself to any particular method of securing the Same to the electrode, and I do not confine myself to the exact construction of the electrode herein described.
In the above specification my improved electrode is represented as being used at the positive pole. When it is used at the negative pole, the alkaline fluid is not used in the electrode. Instead of an alkaline solution, I use a mild acid solution in the latter case.
In using my improved electrode the point of electrolytic action is displaced outward from the part of the body immediatelyunderneath the electrode to the metal conductor in the electrode. This result is achieved, first, by using an electrolytic fluid not altogether dissimilar to that of the fluids of the body; secondly, in introducing into the circuit by means otsaid electrode artificial resistance between the porous partition and the metal conductor of the electrode equal to or greater than that of the body. By so doing the polar influence of the voltaic current on the portion of the body ad j acentis wholly eliminated, the neutral point is displaced outward, and the body may be said to be under the influence of the opposite pole of the battery.
1. In anelectro-therapeutic electrode, the
. combination, in one and the same electrode,
- combination, in one and the same electrode,
of an electrolytic fluid and the. means, substantially as described, for varying the resistance of said electrolytic fluid, as and forthe purpose specified.
An electro-therapeutic electrode with a funnel-shaped cavity for holding an electrolytic fluid, said cavity inclosed at the larger end by a porous cap or diaphragm and inclosed at the smaller end by a plug and said plug perforated and holding a wire conductor for making electrical connection between the electrolytic fluid and a voltaic battery, substantially as described, and for the purpose set forth.
at. A hollow funnel-shaped electro-therapeutic electrodeof non-conducting materialfor-holding an electrolytic fluid, inclosed at the larger end by a porous capyhead, or diaphragm and inclosed at the smaller end by a piston, and said piston composed of non-conducting material and perforated for the passage of a conductor for making electrical connection between said electrolytic fluid and a voltaic battery, and said piston fitting closely the hollow handle of the electrode, substantially as described.
5. A hollow funnelshaped electro-therapeutic electrode of non-conducting material for holding an electrolytic fluid, inclosed at the larger end by a porous cap, head, or diaphragm and inclosed at the smaller end by an adjustable piston supported by a hollow handle, said piston perforated for the passage of a conductor, said conductorterminating at its inner end in a non-corrosible conducting point or surface, and said conducting-surface passing into a narrow caliber at the inner end of the handle, and said surface and said narrow caliber being made adjustable with respect to each other, substantially as described, and for the purpose set forth.
6. A hollow electro-therapeutic electrode containing an electrolytic fluid, similar electrochemically in composition and conductively to that of the fluids of the body, and said electrode constructed so as to iuterpose artificial resistance into the circuit equal to or greater than that of the body, whereby electrolytic action shall be prevented at the surface of the body and underneath said electrode and whereby the polar action of thev battery at this portion ofthe body shal-l'be wholly or to a great extent eliminated.
7. A hollow electro-therapeutic electrode containing an electrolytic fluid, the resistance of said electrolytic fluid being made adjustable by means of a narrow cylinder and a movable conductor within said cylinder, whereby said electrode shall also constitute, a, rheostat.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses,
A. M. RosEBoUGHj, MARY A. MILLE