|Publication number||US474006 A|
|Publication date||May 3, 1892|
|Filing date||Nov 3, 1891|
|Publication number||US 474006 A, US 474006A, US-A-474006, US474006 A, US474006A|
|Inventors||William J. Fryer|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
W. J. JERYERI CLAY PIPE.
No. 474,006. Patented .May 3,1892.`
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
WILLIAM J. FRYER, OF NEW YORK, N.Y.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent N o. 474,006, dated May 3, 1892. Application filed November 3, 1891. Serial No. 410,764. (No model.)
To @ZZ whom it may concern.:
Be it known that I, WILLIAM J. FEYER, consulting engineer, residing in the city and county of New York, in the State of New York, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Pipes, of which the following is a specification.
My pipe is made in convenient lengths applied together by hub and socket ends. It is intended mainly for use in the interior of flhes, either for smoke or for ventilation. The body and bell are made of what is sometimes known as porous terracotta, as set forth in the patent to Gilman, dated October 11,1881, No. 248,094. It is, briefly, a cheap terra-cotta clay thoroughly kneaded with a sufficient quantity of Water and with a liberal addition of wood sawdust. The sawdust maybe pine or other soft Wood of the coarse quality produced by ordinary splitting-saws in the manufacture of lumber in sawmills. In the long and intense heat to which the pipes are exposed in the kiln the wood ber is burned out and the clay portion is left in a well-burned and porous condition.
I can manufacture the bodies of the pipes by hand or by many or all of the various machines for pressing out clay pipes and producing bell ends or hubs thereon. The surface of the interior is made tight by coating with a liner clay, which is so incorporated as to become a part of the structure or by glazing the entire interior with salt glaze or other permanent glaze, or by both these methods coinbined. The porous condition of the main body contributes to its lightness, and the roughness of the exterior, due in part or entirely to the porous character, promotes the adhesion of lime mortar or other plastic material applied in the construction of the flue.
My improved pipe can be sawed either squarely across or obliquely at. various degrees to produce angles in the iiues when required.
The accompanying drawings form a part of this specification and represent What I consider the best means of carrying out the in- Vention.
Figure l is a perspective view of a portion of a building in the course of construction with my invention applied. The remaining figures are on a larger scale. Fig. 2 is a vertical section through one length of my pipe andV also a portion of 'another length with the connecting-pipe. Fig. 3 is a horizontal sec- .tion of a portion of my pipe on a still larger scale.` Fig. 4 represents the apparatus for applying the tine-clay lining. It isavertical section partly in elevation. Fig. 5 is avertical section on the same scale as Fig. 2, showing a modification in thejoint connecting two lengths together.
Similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts in all the figures where they appear.
A is the main body formed with the ordinary bell or hub. This body is molded by forcing through a suitable die with any ordinary means for producing the bell and rim, or it may be produced in any other Way. It is essential that it shall be made of a tough clay; but it may be very coarse, and may contain elements which discolor and otherwise render it illy adapted for tine Wear. Vith the clay I mingle coarse sawdust, preferably from soft wood, and a sufficient quantity of water, thoroughly kneaded together in a pug-mill or by other suitable means. Vith one hundred pounds of clay there may be about iifty pounds of sawdust, dry Weight; but the proportions may be varied Within wide limits. When the bodies A, molded from this material, are partly dry, the interior is bathed with a slip of the same or a different clay B, mixed with a larger proportion of water and without any sawdust or any other material to make it porous. This may be applied by setting each length in succession upon an approximately tight-fitting cone, or upon a plain table and letting in the semi-fluid slip B, from an aperture in the bottom, through which it is forced by a hand-pump or any other suitable means. It is allowed to escape again through the same or any other aperture after having thoroughly bathed the interior and remained sufcientl long in contact to penetrate and slightly soften and amalgamate with the partly-dried material A inclosing it. Now the pipes are dried again with the fine-clay coating, forming a tight inner face to the otherwise porous body. Next their interiors are washed with a salt glaze or with other proper glaze O, which may be applied by the same means as just described for the application of the fine-clay ICO lining, or a sufficient quantity of glaze may be applied by jetting it from a central pipe outward in all directions to thoroughly wet the Whole of the interior. Care should be taken not to glaze the exterior, because it is important not only that the main thickness of the bodies be porous and light, but also that the exteriors be rough to engage strongly with mortar or other cementin g material when they are placed in flues.
The roughness of the exterior may be promoted by applying scratching-points or other devices to the dies, or by otherwise roughening the surfaces; but I do not consider such generally necessary. The liberal admixture of coarse sawdust insures that the exterior of the body and bell shall be rough.
My flue-pipes are strong and eminently light. Lightness in this class of structures is important, not only in transportation, but in enabling the loWermost lengths in a tall flue to sustain the incumbent Weight. Such Will never be subjected to excessive crushing strain, either in the erection of the flue and the insertion of the successive lengths With green mortar around them, or at any subsequent stage. The lining of fine clay Bis suficiently incorporated to become reliably and permanently united with the porous portion. The glazing applies better on the ne lining than itwould on the porous materialdirectly; but I can, if preferred in any case, apply the glazing C directly upon the interior of the porous material A Without the preliminary coating With clayB. The smooth and tight character of the interior induced by my lining lengths are made with plain ends adapted to abut, and are joined by rings D of the section shown. These may be preferable for some situations.
The pipes may be sawed off, when required, either squarely or at any desired angle, a saw being appropriated for the purpose, as the glazing is likely to injure tine tools.
I claim as my invention- The pipe described, composed of the porous terra-cotta body A, the lining of denser clay B, thoroughly incorporated as a unit there- Withrand the glazing C, surfacing the interior ,of the latter, combined and adapted to serve as herein specified.
In testimony that I claim the invention aboveI set forth I afix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
WM. J. FRYER.
M. F. BoYLE, H. A. JoHNsToNE.
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