|Publication number||US4755386 A|
|Application number||US 06/821,358|
|Publication date||Jul 5, 1988|
|Filing date||Jan 22, 1986|
|Priority date||Jan 22, 1986|
|Also published as||CA1299105C, CA1299106C, EP0255827A1, EP0255827B1, WO1987004342A1|
|Publication number||06821358, 821358, US 4755386 A, US 4755386A, US-A-4755386, US4755386 A, US4755386A|
|Inventors||Chiin H. Hsiao, Janice L. Cacace|
|Original Assignee||Schering Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Non-Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (87), Classifications (11), Legal Events (6) |
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
US 4755386 A
A buccal formulation for administering a medicament includes about 1-20% by weight of a soluble, pharmaceutically acceptable adhesive, about 1-10% by weight of a pharmaceutically acceptable disintegrant and a soluble, directly compressible tablet excipient.
What is claimed is:
1. A buccal composition for administration of an active ingredient comprising;
(a) about 1 to about 20% by weight of a soluble, pharmaceutically acceptable polymeric adhesive;
(b) about 1 to about 10% by weight of a pharmaceutically acceptable table disintegrant;
(c) a soluble, directly compressible table excipient; and
(d) a therapeutically useful amount of active ingredient.
2. The composition of claim 1, wherein said adhesive is selected from the group consisting of a carbomer, partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene oxide, polyacrylate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose.
3. The composition of claim 2, wherein the adhesive is a carbomer.
4. The composition of claim 3, wherein the adhesive is carbomer 934 P.
5. The composition of claim 1, wherein said disintegrant is selected from the group consisting of crospovidone, cross-linked carboxylic methylcellulose, alginic acid and sodium carboxymethyl starch.
6. The composition of claim 5, wherein said disintegrant is cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone.
7. The composition of claim 1, wherein the amount of adhesive is about 2 to about 10% by weight.
8. The composition of claim 1, wherein the amount of disintegrant is about 3 to about 6% by weight.
9. The composition of claim 1, wherein said excipient is a sugar.
10. The composition of claim 1, wherein said active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of an estrogen, a progestin, an androgen, an anabolic steroid, propranolol, insulin, ACTH, physostigmine, scopolamine, verapamil, and gallopamil.
11. The composition of claim 10, wherein the active ingredient is estradiol or a pharmaceutically acceptable derivative thereof.
12. The composition of claim 11, wherein the amount of estradiol is about 50 micrograms to 2 mg.
13. A buccal composition for administration of an estrogen, comprising:
(a) about 2 to about 10% by weight of carbomer 934P;
(b) about 3 to about 6% by weight crospovidone;
(c) sugar; and
(d) a therapeutically useful amount of an estrogen.
14. The composition of claim 13, wherein the estrogenis estradiol, in the amount of about 50 micrograms to 2 mg.
15. A buccal composition for transmucosal administration of an effective amount of an active ingredient comprising:
(a) about 1 to about 20% by weight of a soluble, pharmaceutically acceptable polymeric adhesive;
(b) about 1 to about 10% by weight of a pharmaceutically acceptable table disintegrant admixed with said polymeric adhesive;
(c) a soluble, directly compressible table excipient, and
(d) a therapeutically useful amount of an active ingredient.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This application is directed to a formulation for the buccal administration of an active ingredient. Buccal administration (in the pouch of the cheek of the subject) is particularly useful for active ingredients which show poor bioavailability upon administration through other non-parenteral modes. This poor availability can be attributed to low solubility, degradation by enzyme or destruction by acid upon passing through the intestinal tract, or first pass destruction by the liver after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Examples of such medicaments include: steroids such as estrogens, e.g. estradiol and derivatives such as the salt and valerate, cypionate or propionate forms; progestins, e.g. progesterone and related compounds, androgens and anabolic steroids; propranolol; thyroid hormones; pH sensitive peptides and small proteins such as insulin and ACTH; physostigmine; scopolamine; verapamil; and gallopamil. It is also possible to administer compounds having good oral bioavailability buccally, but normally such medicaments would be administered orally for convenience.
Buccal administration of estradiol gives an early peak in the blood level followed by decreasing concentration. This tracks the natural occurrence of estradiol in the body, and thus is an improvement over transdermal administration, which provides a relatively constant blood level. Oral administration of estrogens such as estradiol is impractical in view of the destruction of the active ingredient in the liver shortly after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
It is necessary for a buccal formulation to remain in contact with the oral mucosa for a time sufficient for absorption of the medicament to be administered. If the formulation falls apart too quickly. the active ingredient is swallowed, and an insufficient amount of medicament is delivered. If the formulation does not fall apart quickly enough, patient compliance difficulties can result, since the patient should not eat or drink while using the buccal formulation. The formulation should be of a small size to avoid discomfort to the patient and it is desirable that as much of the formulation as possible be soluble in saliva so that discomfort in the form of insoluble grit in the mouth can be avoided.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In a first aspect, this invention is directed to a buccal composition for administration of a medicament, comprising: about 1 to about 20% by weight of a soluble, pharmaceutically acceptable polymeric adhesive; about 1 to about 10% by weight of a pharmaceutically acceptable table disintegrant; a soluble, directly compressible table excipient; and a therapeutically useful amount of medicament.
According to a further aspect, this invention is directed to a buccal composition for administration of an estrogen, comprising about 2 to about 10% by weight of carbomer 934 P; about 3 to about 6% by weight crospovidone; sugar; and about 50 micrograms to 2 mg of estradiol.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
According to the present invention, a useful buccal formulation includes four components: a soluble, pharmaceutically acceptable polymeric adhesive; a pharmaceutically acceptable disintegrant; a soluble, directly compressible tablet excipient; and active ingredient.
The soluble, pharmaceutically acceptable polymeric adhesive is used to provide tackiness to the buccal formulation so that it will be held in place upon administration. The amount of adhesive in the formulation is about 1-20% by weight, preferably about 2-10%. Use of amounts less than 1% may result in insufficient adhesive properties or the formulation falling apart too quickly, while excessive amounts may result in the formulation lasting for a longer period than is desirable. The adhesives desirably are sticky when moist, but not when dry, for convenience in handling. The amount of adhesive which can be used increases with the solubility of the active ingredient.
One particularly desirable group of adhesives are high molecular weight polymers of acrylic acid known as carbomers. Molecular weights of 450,000 to 4,000,000 are useful, with a molecular weight of about 3,000,000 (carbomer 934 P) being preferred. These substances are sold by B. F. Goodrich under the trademark Carbopol®. The adhesives have been found to allow use of minimal amounts to provide the desired adhesive characteristics to the formulation, which is advantageous since increasing amounts of adhesive may impede the dissolution of the active ingredient. Other suitable hydrophilic polymers include partially (87-89%, for example) hydrolyzed polyvinylalcohol (molecular weight 10,000 to 125,000, preferably 11,000 to 31,000), polyethylene oxide (molecular weight about 100,000 to about 5,000,000, preferably 400,000) and polyacrylates, such as that sold by GAF under the trademark Gantrez®, particularly those designated as high molecular weight polyacrylates. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, having a molecular weight of 13,000 to 140,000 (sold under the trademark Methocel® by Dow), and hydroxypropyl cellulose, having a molecular weight of 60,000 to 1,000,000 (sold under the trademark Klucel®) also are useful adhesives. Material toward the high end of each of the molecular weight ranges are preferred. The term "soluble" is used throughout this application as an indication that the material is soluble in water or saliva.
Upon administration, the adhesive forms a gel-like substance which is gradually broken up by a pharmaceutically acceptable disintegrant which swells upon administration, thus exposing more of the formulation to saliva. This causes the formulation to break up gradually. The amount of disintegrant in the formulation is about 1 to 10% by weight, preferably 3-6%. Excessive amounts of disintegrant actually may unduly delay disintegration, as by formulation of an insoluble gel, instead of aiding dissolution of the formulation by expansion. One useful disintegrant is the material crospovidone, which is a cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone product. This material is sold under the trademark Polyplasdone XL by GAF. Other useful disintegrants include Ac-di-sol® (FMC's trademark for croscarmellose, a cross-linked carboxylic methylcellulose), alginic acid and sodium carboxymethyl starch such as that sold as Explotab® by Edward Mendell Co., Inc.
The formulation also includes a soluble, directly compressible tableting excipient such as a sugar. One such useful tableting excipient is a co-crystallization of 97% sucrose-3% highly modified dextrins sold under the trademark Di-Pac® by Amstar. Other such excipients known to those skilled in the art, such as lactone, also may be used. The amount of excipient used is such that the resulting formulation is big enough to be handled conveniently, yet small enough to dissolve properly. Other ingredients which may be used include lubricants such as magnesium stearate in the amount of up to about 1% by weight, preferably 0.5%, and coloring or flavoring agents.
The active ingredients useful with this invention include those mentioned in the Background of the Invention. Of course, the amount will vary depending upon the dosage desired for a given treatment. Estradiol, when used as the active ingredient, is present in the amount of about 50 micrograms to 2 mg.
The formulations of the present invention can be prepared by simply mixing the ingredients together and compressing desired amounts of the mixture into tablet form. The final formulations desirably have a diameter of about a quarter inch (0.635 cm) and a thickness of about 0.05 inches (0.127 cm), and upon administration disintegrate in about 2-20 minutes, preferably about 4-12 minutes.
The present invention is illustrated by the following non-limiting examples.
The following ingredients are charged into a blender and mixed for ten minutes.
______________________________________% BY WEIGHT INGREDIENT AMOUNT______________________________________0.2 Estradiol, USP 2.0 g (Micronized)89.3 Di-Pac 893.0 g (Compressible Sugar, NF)5.0 Carbomer 934P, NF 50.0 g (Carbopol ® 934P)5.0 Crospovidone, NF 50.0 g (Polyplasdone ® XL)0.5 Magnesium Stearate, NF 5.0 g100.0 1,000.0 g______________________________________
Tablets weighing about 0.05 gm./tablet are formed using a compression force of about 1000 PSI. The batch yields about 20,000 tablets which upon administration disintegrate in about 10-15 minutes. The tablets are about 1/4 inch in diameter.
Following the procedures of Example 1, the following is mixed and formed into tablets.
______________________________________% BY WEIGHT INGREDIENT AMOUNT______________________________________0.4 Estradiol, USP 4.0 g (Micronized)89.0 Di-Pac 890.0 g (Compressible Sugar, NF)5.0 Carbomer 934P, NF 50.0 g (Carbopol ® 934P)5.0 Crospovidone, NF 50.0 g (Polyplasdone ® XL)0.5 Magnesium Stearate, NF 5.0 g0.1 FDC Yellow #6 Lake 1.0 g100.0 1,000.0 g______________________________________
Results similar to those of Example 1 are obtained.
Although a detailed description has been provided above, the present invention is not limited thereto, but rather is defined in the following claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4059686 *||Sep 22, 1975||Nov 22, 1977||Nippon Kayaku Kabushiki Kaisha||Pharmaceutical preparation for oral cavity administration|
|US4226848 *||Mar 2, 1979||Oct 7, 1980||Teijin Limited||Method and preparation for administration to the mucosa of the oral or nasal cavity|
|US4292299 *||Jul 7, 1980||Sep 29, 1981||Teijin Limited||Slow-releasing medical preparation to be administered by adhering to a wet mucous surface|
|US4572832 *||Oct 7, 1983||Feb 25, 1986||Grelan Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.||Soft buccal|
|GB1380171A *|| ||Title not available|
|1|| *||Khan et al., (I), Mfg. Chemist: 25 26, Jan. 1976.|
|2||Khan et al., (I), Mfg. Chemist: 25-26, Jan. 1976.|
|3|| *||Khan et al., (II), J. Pharm. Pharmac. 28: 633 636 (1976).|
|4||Khan et al., (II), J. Pharm. Pharmac. 28: 633-636 (1976).|
|5|| *||Kornblum et al., (II) J. Pharm. Sci. 62(1): 43 49, Jan. 1973.|
|6||Kornblum et al., (II) J. Pharm. Sci. 62(1): 43-49, Jan. 1973.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4886669 *||Nov 25, 1987||Dec 12, 1989||Zyna Sa||Galenical formulation|
|US5073374 *||Nov 30, 1988||Dec 17, 1991||Schering Corporation||Fast dissolving buccal tablet|
|US5112616 *||Oct 8, 1991||May 12, 1992||Schering Corporation||Fast dissolving buccal tablet|
|US5458888 *||Mar 2, 1994||Oct 17, 1995||Andrx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.||Controlled release tablet formulation|
|US5484602 *||Jan 20, 1995||Jan 16, 1996||University Of Utah Research Foundation||Methods and compositions for noninvasive dose-to-effect administration of drugs with cardiovascular or renal vascular activities|
|US5547948 *||Jan 17, 1995||Aug 20, 1996||American Home Products Corporation||Controlled release of steroids from sugar coatings|
|US5672356 *||Sep 21, 1994||Sep 30, 1997||Adir Et Compagnie||Bioadhesive pharmaceutical composition for the controlled release of active principles|
|US5725843 *||Sep 27, 1996||Mar 10, 1998||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Methods for bleaching teeth surfaces|
|US5733574 *||Jun 7, 1995||Mar 31, 1998||Dam; Anders||Nicotine containing stimulant unit|
|US5746598 *||Sep 27, 1996||May 5, 1998||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Dental bleaching compositions including a sticky matrix material|
|US5759037 *||Sep 26, 1996||Jun 2, 1998||Ultradent Products Inc||Methods for manufacturing dental trays having thin walls for increased comfort|
|US5759038 *||Sep 26, 1996||Jun 2, 1998||Fischer; Dan E.||Dental kit for applying sticky dental bleaching compositions to a person's teeth|
|US5759576 *||Apr 10, 1996||Jun 2, 1998||American Home Products Corporation||Controlled release of steroids from sugar coatings|
|US5759577 *||Apr 24, 1996||Jun 2, 1998||American Home Products Corporation||Controlled release of steroids from sugar coatings|
|US5770105 *||Sep 30, 1996||Jun 23, 1998||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Methods for manufacturing sticky bleaching compositions|
|US5770182 *||Jan 25, 1995||Jun 23, 1998||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Methods for treating teeth with anticariogenic and antimicrobial dental compositions|
|US5851512 *||May 30, 1997||Dec 22, 1998||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Dental compositions having a sticky matrix material for treating sensitive teeth|
|US5855870 *||May 30, 1997||Jan 5, 1999||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Method for treating sensitive teeth|
|US5985249 *||Oct 14, 1997||Nov 16, 1999||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Sticky dental compositions for adhering a passive-type dental tray over a person's teeth|
|US6036943 *||Oct 14, 1997||Mar 14, 2000||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Methods for treating a person's teeth using sticky dental compositions in combination with passive-type dental trays|
|US6063404 *||Jul 29, 1998||May 16, 2000||Jenapharm Gmbh & Co. Kg||Bioadhesive tablet|
|US6086855 *||Feb 26, 1999||Jul 11, 2000||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Methods for making scalloped dental trays for use in treating teeth with sticky dental compositions|
|US6110495 *||Nov 17, 1997||Aug 29, 2000||Dam; Anders||Nicotine containing stimulant unit|
|US6117446 *||Jan 26, 1999||Sep 12, 2000||Place; Virgil A.||Drug dosage unit for buccal administration of steroidal active agents|
|US6180682||Jan 26, 1999||Jan 30, 2001||Virgil A. Place||Buccal drug delivery system for use in male contraception|
|US6183251||Feb 26, 1999||Feb 6, 2001||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Scalloped dental trays for use in treating teeth with sticky dental compositions|
|US6200593||Jul 27, 2000||Mar 13, 2001||Virgil A. Place||Contraceptive method employing buccal delivery of steroidal active agents|
|US6221379||Jul 27, 2000||Apr 24, 2001||Virgil A. Place||Buccal drug administration in female hormone replacement therapy|
|US6241529||Jul 27, 2000||Jun 5, 2001||Virgil A. Place||Method for facilitating transmucosal delivery of steroidal active agents|
|US6242003||Apr 13, 2000||Jun 5, 2001||Novartis Ag||Organic compounds|
|US6284262||Jan 26, 1999||Sep 4, 2001||Virgil A. Place||Compact dosage unit for buccal administration of a pharmacologically active agent|
|US6284263||Jul 27, 2000||Sep 4, 2001||Virgil A. Place||Buccal drug administration in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction|
|US6306370||Nov 12, 1998||Oct 23, 2001||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Compositions and methods for whitening and desensitizing teeth|
|US6309625||Nov 12, 1998||Oct 30, 2001||Ultradent Products, Inc.||One-part dental compositions and methods for bleaching and desensitizing teeth|
|US6368576||Oct 23, 2000||Apr 9, 2002||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Methods for bleaching, opacifying and desensitizing teeth|
|US6432447||May 17, 2001||Aug 13, 2002||Novartis Ag||Organic compounds|
|US6551579||May 29, 2001||Apr 22, 2003||The Procter & Gamble Company||Delivery systems for a tooth whitener|
|US6582708||Jun 28, 2000||Jun 24, 2003||The Procter & Gamble Company||Tooth whitening substance|
|US6656929||Mar 16, 1999||Dec 2, 2003||Laboratoires Besins Iscovesco||Pharmaceutical composition with a synthetic natural progesterone and oestradiol base and its preparation process|
|US6884426||Dec 17, 2002||Apr 26, 2005||The Procter & Gamble Co.||Methods for whitening teeth|
|US6949240||May 23, 2002||Sep 27, 2005||The Procter & Gamble Company||Tooth whitening products|
|US7018622||Oct 24, 2002||Mar 28, 2006||The Procter & Gamble Company||Structures and compositions increasing the stability of peroxide actives|
|US7122199||Apr 6, 2005||Oct 17, 2006||The Procter & Gamble Company||Methods for whitening teeth|
|US7276246||May 7, 2004||Oct 2, 2007||Cephalon, Inc.||Dissolvable backing layer for use with a transmucosal delivery device|
|US7306812||May 7, 2004||Dec 11, 2007||Cephalon, Inc.||Dissolvable backing layer for use with a transmucosal delivery device|
|US7579019||Mar 1, 2005||Aug 25, 2009||Arius Two, Inc.||Pharmaceutical carrier device suitable for delivery of pharmaceutical compounds to mucosal surfaces|
|US8022053||Nov 1, 2005||Sep 20, 2011||Bayer Schering Pharma Aktiengesellschaft||Oral solid dosage forms containing a low dose of estradiol|
|US8303987||Jul 13, 2010||Nov 6, 2012||Novartis Ag||Pharmaceutical compositions comprising fluvastatin|
|US8470363 *||Jun 17, 2010||Jun 25, 2013||Shihuida Pharmaceuticals Group (Jilin) Ltd.||Antihypertensive pharmaceutical composition|
|US8703177||Aug 20, 2012||Apr 22, 2014||Biodelivery Sciences International, Inc.||Abuse-resistant mucoadhesive devices for delivery of buprenorphine|
|US8796416||Oct 25, 2011||Aug 5, 2014||Questcor Pharmaceuticals, Inc||ACTH prophylactic treatment of renal disorders|
|US8936778||Apr 10, 2007||Jan 20, 2015||Ultradent Products, Inc.||Methods for bleaching and desensitizing teeth|
|US8940330||Sep 18, 2012||Jan 27, 2015||Orexo Ab||Abuse-resistant pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of opioid dependence|
|US8980305||Mar 13, 2013||Mar 17, 2015||Orexo Ab||Non-abusable pharmaceutical composition comprising opioids|
|US20020132801 *||Jan 11, 2001||Sep 19, 2002||Schering Aktiengesellschaft||Drospirenone for hormone replacement therapy|
|US20040224007 *||May 7, 2004||Nov 11, 2004||Cephalon, Inc.||Dissolvable backing layer for use with a transmucosal delivery device|
|US20040224008 *||May 7, 2004||Nov 11, 2004||Cephalon, Inc.||Dissolvable backing layer for use with a transmucosal delivery device|
|US20040259817 *||Jul 23, 2004||Dec 23, 2004||Waldon R. Forrest||Methods and formulations for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction|
|US20110263660 *||Jun 17, 2010||Oct 27, 2011||Shihuida Pharmaceuticals Group (Jilin) Ltd||Antihypertensive pharmaceutical composition|
|USRE42126||Jun 30, 2000||Feb 8, 2011||The Procter & Gamble Company||Delivery system for oral care compositions comprising organosiloxane resins using a removable backing strip|
|EP1150629A1 *||Jan 21, 2000||Nov 7, 2001||Virgil A. Place||Drug dosage unit for buccal administration of steroidal active agents|
|EP1411899A2 *||Aug 1, 2002||Apr 28, 2004||Bristol-Myers Squibb Company||Taste masking composition|
|EP2443929A1||Dec 28, 2006||Apr 25, 2012||Pharmacyclics, Inc.||Inhibitors of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase|
|EP2526771A1||Dec 28, 2006||Nov 28, 2012||Pharmacyclics, Inc.||Inhibitors of bruton's tyrosine kinase|
|EP2526933A2||Dec 28, 2006||Nov 28, 2012||Pharmacyclics, Inc.||Inhibitors of bruton's tyrosine kinase|
|EP2526934A2||Dec 28, 2006||Nov 28, 2012||Pharmacyclics, Inc.||Inhibitors of bruton's tyrosine kinase|
|EP2529621A1||Dec 28, 2006||Dec 5, 2012||Pharmacyclics, Inc.||Inhibitors of bruton's tyrosine kinase|
|EP2529622A1||Dec 28, 2006||Dec 5, 2012||Pharmacyclics, Inc.||Inhibitors of bruton's tyrosine kinase|
|EP2530083A1||Dec 28, 2006||Dec 5, 2012||Pharmacyclics, Inc.||Inhibitors of bruton's tyrosine kinase|
|EP2532234A1||Dec 28, 2006||Dec 12, 2012||Pharmacyclics, Inc.||Inhibitors of bruton's tyrosine kinase|
|EP2532235A1||Dec 28, 2006||Dec 12, 2012||Pharmacyclics, Inc.||Inhibitors of bruton's tyrosine kinase|
|EP2650294A1||Oct 12, 2010||Oct 16, 2013||Pharmacyclics, Inc.||Inhibitors of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase|
|WO1999045932A1 *||Mar 8, 1999||Sep 16, 1999||Benoit Agnus||Pharmaceutical composition based on natural synthesis progesterone and oestradiol and preparation method|
|WO2000042942A2 *||Jan 21, 2000||Jul 27, 2000||Virgil A Place||Buccal drug delivery system for use in male contraception|
|WO2000042955A1||Jan 21, 2000||Jul 27, 2000||Virgil A Place||Drug dosage unit for buccal administration of steroidal active agents|
|WO2000042959A1 *||Jan 21, 2000||Jul 27, 2000||Virgil A Place||Compact dosage unit for buccal administration of a pharmacologically active agent|
|WO2002051420A2 *||Dec 21, 2001||Jul 4, 2002||Endeavor Pharmaceuticals||Methods and formulations for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction|
|WO2007062266A2||Nov 28, 2006||May 31, 2007||Marinus Pharmaceuticals||Ganaxolone formulations and methods for the making and use thereof|
|WO2008021368A2||Aug 13, 2007||Feb 21, 2008||Norman Haughey||Compositions and methods for neuroprotection|
|WO2008039218A2||Dec 28, 2006||Apr 3, 2008||Pharmacyclics Inc||Inhibitors of bruton's tyrosine kinase|
|WO2010068311A1||May 22, 2009||Jun 17, 2010||Amira Pharmaceuticals, Inc.||5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitor|
|WO2010071866A2||Dec 19, 2009||Jun 24, 2010||Nuon Therapeutics, Inc.||Combination therapy for arthritis with tranilast|
|WO2011139489A2||Apr 11, 2011||Nov 10, 2011||Calcimedica Inc.||Compounds that modulate intracellular calcium|
|WO2012078593A2||Dec 6, 2011||Jun 14, 2012||Amira Pharmaceuticals, Inc.||Lysophosphatidic acid receptor antagonists and uses thereof|
|WO2012078805A1||Dec 7, 2011||Jun 14, 2012||Amira Pharmaceuticals, Inc.||Polycyclic lpa1 antagonist and uses thereof|
|WO2012138797A1||Apr 4, 2012||Oct 11, 2012||Amira Pharmaceuticals, Inc.||3- or 5 - bi phenyl - 4 - ylisoxazole - based compounds useful for the treatment of fibrosis, pain, cancer and respiratory, allergic, nervous system or cardiovascular disorders|
|WO2012166415A1||May 21, 2012||Dec 6, 2012||Amira Pharmaceuticals, Inc.||Heterocyclic autotaxin inhibitors and uses thereof|
|Jan 22, 1986||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: KEY PHARMACEUTICALS, INC., 4400 BISCAYNE BOULEVARD
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:HSIAO, CHIIN H.;CACACE, JANICE L.;REEL/FRAME:004552/0171
Effective date: 19860121
Owner name: KEY PHARMACEUTICALS, INC., FLORIDA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HSIAO, CHIIN H.;CACACE, JANICE L.;REEL/FRAME:004552/0171
Effective date: 19860121
|Jan 10, 1989||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Dec 9, 1991||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Feb 13, 1996||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jul 7, 1996||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Sep 17, 1996||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 19960710