Improvement in battery-guns
US 47631 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
RICHARD J. GATLIG, 0F INDIANAPOLIS,1NDIANA.
IMPROVEMENT lN BATTERY-l-GUNS.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. @7,6311, dated May Si, 1865.
To all whom it may concern.'
`Be it known that I, RICHARD JORDAN GAT- LING, ot' Indianapolis, county of Marion andy State ot' Indiana, have made certain new and useful Improvements in Fire Arms, which I term a Battery-Gun, and I do hereby declare the tolloviing to bc a lull, clear, and eX- actdescription ot' the saine, reference being had to the annexed drawings, making part of this specification. in which- Figure l isa side elevation of the gun with its carriage and wheels. Fig. 2 is aV plan of' the same, or the mounted gun as viewed from above. Fig. 3 is a partial axial section on a horizontal plane, showing parts of the mechanism in plan.- It is taken on the line xx, Fig. 14. Fig. 4 is a vertical longitudinal axial section, the locks and main shaft being shown in elevation. It is taken in the line y y, Fig. let. Fig. 5 is a perpspective view of the ring furnished with inclined planes set spirally in relation to the axis ot' the gun and used for giving the longitudinal motions to the locks and breech-pins. Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the cockingring, which is used for drawing the lock-hammers hack and liberating them to explode the cartridges when the gun is being operated. Fig. 7 is a transverse vertical section, at right angles to the axis of the gun, on
the line .fr Fig. 3. Fig. 8 is an end view of the cylinder Within which the locks are inclosed, and showing the pcrtorations vin the heads ot' the said cylinder', which form guides for the locks. Fig. 9 is an elevation of said cylinder. Fig. 10 is a longitudinal sectional view ot one of the cartridge-boxes, from which the cartridges are fed into the gun, and is a section on line xx, Fig. 1], and shows the cartridges in place. cartridge-box. Fig. 12 is an elevation of one of' the locks. Fig. 13 is a longitudinal central section ot' one ot' the locks on the line ze, Fig. 12. cascabel and screw-cap, which closes the end of the chamber occupied by the rotating gears, Figs. 15, 16 are views of the cap which is used to close a cavity in the cartridgecarrier when temporarily disused.
Similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts in the several figures.
The main characteristic of my invention is a gun having, a series of barrels with a 'carrier and lock-cylinder rigidly fastened to the main shaft and rotating simultaneously'and Fig. ll is a top view ot' the.
Fig. 14 is a rear view ot'thc gun with the' continuously under the rotation of suitable gearing, the cartridges being fed into the cavities ot' the carrier. vdriven endwise into the barrels, then exploded, and the empty cartridgecases withdrawn without any pause in the operation.
l will now proceed to describe in detail the peculiarities, the construction, and the operation of my invention.
The nature ot my invention consists, first, in attaching the locklcylinder in which the locks reciprocate longitudinally, the carrier in whose cavities the cartridges are deposited consecutively and the barrels rigidly to a revolv- -ing shaft, so that each' lock shall at all times be in line with the cartridge-cavity in the carrier and with the barrel to which it appcrtains, and so that the operations of loading, tiring, and'extracting ofthe spent cartridge-cases m ay proceed under the impulse ofthe driving mechanism continuously, each barrel,cartridgecavity, and lock forming a gun in itself, which in the course of its rotation/is brought into contact with the requisite relational devices for manipulating and operating it and causing the various parts to perform their appropriate functions ot' receiving the cartridge from vthe feeder, thrusting it directly into the bore ofthe gun, cooking the hammer, exploding the cartridge, and finallyy extracting the spent cartridge-case,all ot' which several operations are effected without stopping the rotation of the barrels, locls&c., when the gun is being operated; secondly, in the construction ot' the locks, each of which consists ot' a breech-pin united t'o a buttpiece and having a sleeve and lug moving upon it, which, under theirnpulse of aspring, acts as ahammer to drivetheignltingpunchagainst the flange ot' the cartridge, the lock also a'ording attachment for the hook which slips over the flange of thecartridge and on the rearward motion of the lockwithdraws the spent cartridge-case; thirdly, in the camring which occupies a position at the rear of the lock-cylinder, and has within it two splral or cam shaped faces, one of them operating upon the butt-end of the lock mechanisms 1n each case to drive the cartridge from the cavity in the carrier into the bore of the gun, and
the other cam-face to act upon a lug on thev said lock mechanism to withdraw the breechpin, bringing with it the spent shell ory case and retreating so far as to open the cavity in the carrier for the deposition of another cartridge; fonrthly, in the cap or plug which is adapted to be laid over any such one of' the cavities in-tlie carrier as it niay be desired shall not receive the cartridge, owing to some disariangement of the parts or the bursting of the barrel, which niay render that section of the gun inoperative.
The gun, speaking ot' it in general terms, is mounted upon ils carriage, consisting ot' the wheels B B and the trail C, and is secured thereon by the usual cap,I),over thetruiiiiions F, which project laterally froin the frame H, by which the gun is supported and within which it revolves. The breech is raised and lowered by the elevating-screw E. The revolving portion, consisting ot' the lock-cylinder carrying the loading andtiring mechanism, the cartridge-carrier` and the barrels, is attached to and supported by an axial or main shaft. N, whose forward end is journaled in the end piece of the frame H, and the rea-r end ina diaphragm or partition, I, within the casing J, which is supported by tlanges ou the frame H. The rotation ofthis sli-aft and the devices re cited above, which are rigidly attached thereto, is accomplished by means of a hand-crank, K, Whose shaft L carries a bevel-pinion. M, which gearsintoabevel-wheelontheshaftN. (Shown clearly in Fig. ]4.) The gearingis located in a chamber occupying the rear of the casing J, whose end is closed by a screw-cap, O, with an attached cascabel. y
lt has been stated that the cylinder P, which carries the loading and tiring inechanisin,the cartridge-carrier Q, and the barrels Rare attached tothe axial shaft N by afeather fitting into them and a groove in the shaft N, so as to revolve with it. The barrels are secured thereon by means ot two disks or heads, S S', which are fast on the shaft and in which they are secured, the rear disk, S', being clamped between the sleeve'l and the carrier Q, to be hereinafter described. 'lbe barrels R are secured in the said disks in any suitable way, and aie shown as secured into the rear disk and passing through the forward disk, being htted thereon, so as to be sufliciently tight to hold the contents ot' the casing U, which surrounds the barrels and holds water, plaster-of-paris, or other material to preserve the barrels from injuriousexpansion by excessive heating. The said Huid is inserted and withdrawn through the oritice U', other provision, not necessary to describe, being made for more solid contents, should it be required.
The cartridge-carrier Qis fitted between the disk S and the cylinder P, and has a number of grooves in its periphery which are parallel with the axis of revolution, are in line with and agree in number with the barrels, which may be of any desired number. I have shown in my drawings but four, but the invention has no reference to specitic number. These 'grooves are shown very clearly in Fie. 7, and are adapted as the carrier passes under the box containing the cartridges to/receive each of them a cartridge to be thrust into the bore of the gun by `the suitable niechanism,which will be described in detail presently, when the action will be more properly treated ot' under that general head lotl this specification which is devoted to describing the operation.
Immediately in the rear of the cartridgecarrier Q is a cylindrical chamber, P, likevi'ise att-ached by feather or other suitable device toA the axial-shaft N, and lsupported at the rear by the nut V, which screws upon the threaded portion ofthe shaft N. This cylinder is shown by a rear end elevation in Fig. Sand side elevation at Fig. 9, as well as being showninits place by the two longitudinal general sections, Figs. 3 and 4;
in each end, the purpose'of which' slotsand orifices will he presently explained, the sections, Figs. 3 and 4, only show the detached parts which areI cnt by the section, and do not give so correct an impression of its forni and character as Figs. 8 and 9.
In the rear immediate neighborhood of 'the cylinder P, but not in connection therewith, is a cani-ring, \V. (Shown in perspective in Fig. 5, and also in its place in the sections Figs. 3 and 4.) This camringW abuts at its rear upon and is bolted to the diaphragm I, which is a part of and a partition in the stationary casing,r J. The exterior cylindrical portion of this stationary ring ris embraced by the casing J, and the inside is provided with two cam-surfaces, W NV. which alternately advance and retract the loading mechanism, which will be presently described, and in connection therewith l shall take occasion to describe niore explicitly the action of these cams to which I now merely refer.
Around the anterior portion of the cylinder P is another stationary ring, X, which I call the cooking-ring,77 Fig. 6, whose forward edge is inthe plane of revolution of the barrels, but its rear edge forms a spiraly or cam surface, which impinges upon a lug on the lock-haininer, and withdraws it toward the rear until it reaches'the end of the incline plane or camsurface X', when it drops oft', and is thereby' suddenly released to the influence ofthe spring and caused to strike the collar attached to the igniting-punch, as will be more fully explained in the next paragraph, which will explain in detail the construction of the moving parts, which load and explode the cartridge and withdraw the spent capsule or case.,
The loading, tiring, and cartridge-case-extracting device is shown in its place in Figs. 3 and 4, and. is more particularly exhibited on a larger scale in Figs. 12 and 13, in the former of which it is shownin elevation and in the latter in section. It vconsists of'a butt-piece, a, with lugs ac", and united to the breechpin b by the rounded shank b' of the latter,
which forms a mandrel for the traversing ot the sleeve c of the hammer, which has a longitudinal reciprocating motion upon it, and has a lug, c', for a purpose to be explained.
-d is a collar and punch, the former of which but as it is a `incre shell with 'y longitudinal slots in its periphery and oritices slides upon the mandrel c, and the latter-the punell-slides in a slot in the breech-pin Z1. e is the retractor, with a hook, e, at its end, which slips over the flange ofthe cartridge as the breech-pin I) drives the cartridge into the bore ofthe gun. The shank ot the retraetor is pinned to the breech'pin, and the butt of the retractor is also dovetailed into the collar j, which is a part of or fastened to the breechpin b. d is a spiral spring, which abuts against the forward end ot" the butt-piece a and against the shoulder of the sleevehammer c, so as lto simultaneouslyact upon each of these fares. To avoid prolixity I shall defer an explanation of the various offices performed bythe devices recited in this paragraph to that section ot this specitication which treats ofthe operation of the gun,'as it naturallyr calls for lucid and consecutive statement in that place, and I de= sire to avoid needless repetition.
Figs. 10 and ll show the cartridge-box into. which thecartridges are packed for transportation,and outot' which theyare ted by their own gravity, one by one, into the cavities ofthe carrierQas it revolves beneath them. These boxes are rectangular sheet-metal cases, adapted to the size of the cartridge, which, it is hardly necessary to say, are adapted to the bore of the gun. The sectional view, Fig. 10, shows the appearance of thc cartridges Z iu the case Y, and Y shows the cap by which they are retained in the case during transportation. These views, Figs. ltland 11, are on a larger scale than the view Fig. 7, but the latter gives the best view of the position of the cartridgebox Y as it is in place, viewed from the rear, showing a section on the line .fr Fig. 3, except that the tianged ends ot' the cartridges are shown.
The rest or holdcrA, which forms a cap over the cartridge -carrier Q, and retains the cartridges in theircavities until they are projected into the bore of the gun, is hinged to an elbowpiece, A', which is suitably fastened by bolts to the frame H of the gun. This holder, which is shown most effectively in Fig. 2, has an inclined ledge, in which the box of cartridges tits, so as to allow them to pass out consecutively into the cavities of the carrier. l The slot in the cap ot the rest allows them toiloe seen as they pass, while the curved under side of the cap retains them in their places.
The usual sights, B 13"', are placed over the breech and muzzle ofthe 'un, and need no particular description, as they do not dier from those in ordinary use.
Fixed metallic cartridges arensed in this gun, and are contained in cases, ot which a number are kept on hand and refilled as occasion may require.
Metallic capsor covers, Figs. 15, 16, may be placed over such one or more ot' the cavities in the carrier as may be rendered necessary by the temporary disablement ot' the barrel or lock mechanism appertaining to the said cavity. This has the el'ect of shutting oft' the feed of the cartridges into one or more of the barrels which are incapacitated t'or service, and
admits of the use of the remaining barrels without cessa-tion other than to fit the cap over that cartridge-cavity withdrawn from service.
The gun can be so constructed as to revolve to the right or let't or back andi'orth, as may be desired. This mo'ditication can be effected by adding to or changing the spiral cam-faces W W and stationary cocking-ring X, so as to produce such results.
The operation of my gun is as follows: The gun, being mounted on the carriage or on a rotary platform or turntable in such a manner as may best suit the purpose ot' defense or ot'- fense t'or which itis designed, is trained and sighted, and an attendant deposits a box of cartridges,with the uncovered end downward,
yupon the inclined ledge of the holder A. The
gunner then seizes the hapdle ot' the crank K and revolves the pinion M, which rotates with it the axial or main shaft N.
While desiring to avoid repetition I must here repeat that the cylinder which contains the loadiig, cocking, and tiring mechanism is fast to the shaft, as are also the cartridge-carriers Q and the barrels R, the latter through the intervention ot' the disks S S', into which the'rear and torward ends, respectively, ot the barrels arc secured. secutive motions and show the action ot' the various parts by which one cartridgeis rammed toits place, exploded, and the empty shell retracted, and vthis will serve as a full description when it is stated that each barrel and its attendant devices are a complete gun in themselves and the series is but a repetition in duplicate, triplicate, or quadruplicate, as the ease may be, ot the operation of a single gun, this multiplication of parts constituting a coinpound gun with a number only limited bythe question of convenience and utility, the specitic number being indeterminate and not included within the scope ot' my claims.
'lo resuine. The shaft and attendant machinery beingrevolved by the gearing,one ofthe hollows in the cartridge-carrier Q, passing nnder the open end ot' the cartridge-box, receives a cartridge and carries it over, the loading and tiring plunger(Fig. l2) revolving with it until4 the rear end ot' the butt-piece a comesy in contact with and commences to ascend the inclined plane or cam-face W ot' the stationary ring W. As it ascends this inclined plane the breech-pin b is moved forward, thrusting the cartridge into the barrel, while the direct longitudinal motion ofthe loader is secured bythe traversing ot' the lug et in the longitudinal slot ofthe cylinder P, Fig. 9. As the plungery moves forward it carries the sleeve-hammer c with it until theu lug e on the hammer comes in contact with the rear or cam face of the stationary cooking-ring X, Fig. 6. By means of this ring the hammer is drawn toward the rear, compressing the spring d', which in no wise interferes with the action ot' the plunger, which continues its forward motion until the rear of the butt-piece a arrives on the dat p0r- I will now trace the con-e 4 amaai tion of the came-face W' to a point marked with a red star in Fig. 5', which indicates the firing-point, and is at or near the lowest point reached by the barrel in its rotation on the central axis. This endwise motion of thel plunger has brought the forward end of the breech-piece close against the tlange of the cartridge, which is tirinlylield in the chainbei ed recess at the rear of the barrel, the exploding-punch, whose point protrudes a little beyond the eiid of the breech-pin, being forced back eveii with the same by the pressure upon the fiange ofthe cartridge. This leaves a small space between the collar d of the rpunch and the angefof the breech-pin, as may be seen iii the lower one of the two anges as represented in Fig. 4.
- It is proper to mention at this point that at some period of the contact of the breech-pin b with the rear end of the cartridge the hook e is slipped over the flange, and when the cartridge is rammed home occupies a recess in the edge of the bore.
To proceed with the description of the ino tion, after this apparent digressioii, iii which the status of the different parts at the point of flring has been considered, we shall find that the luge of the hammer has been withdrawn rearwardly to the end of the cam on the cooking-ring X X', Fig. 6, when by the continued revolution it is freed to the action of Y the spring d', and the. hammer c forcibly 4driven against the collar d of the exploding-punch, closing the space between d and f, and causing the point of the punch to indent the tiange of the cartridge, which contains the fulminate, and explodes the charge. The two surfaces which come together with force in this percussive action consist of the annular collar and the flange of the breech-pin, and their eX- teiided surfaces receiving the blow are a safeguard against injury by battering or upsetting. The dat portion which terminates the came-face W is intended to hold the breechpiece tirnily against the rear of the cartridge for a short space of time asa precaution in case of a cartridge hanging tire, and it will be observed that the rlrearward force-of the discharge is received upon the end of the breechpin and biitt-piece,which I have called occasionally a plunger77 for ttie sake of convenience, andk this is supported in the rear by the cam-surface of the ring W, which is tirinly secured in the diaphragm I and casing J.
The plunger -is of a determinate adjusted length, and occupies the whole space, when red, between the iiat portieri ofthe cam-surface W. and the rear of the barrel. The load having been discharged, the rear of the buttpiece, under the continued rotation, passes heyond the surface W', and the lug a. is engaged by the pointed end of the cam-surface W, which isalso inside of the ring W. This ineline has the e'ect of withdrawing the plunger,l which in turn, by the engagement ot'rthe hook e' with the flange of the cartridge-case or spent capsule, retracts the latter from the bore and allows it to drop out of the cavity of the carrier Q toward the ground. l
At the risk of tedius repetition I would here repeatv that while the reciprocating motions of the parts are ot' course intermittent, as there are periods during which they pause for a fraction of a second, and cannot'be strictly considered as incessant, yet the revolving motion of the barrels and attendant mechanism is absolutely continuous while lthe. guns pass through the various stages of loading, firing,
oi' retracting cartridge-cases and withdrawing the plunger to make room for anothercartridge to occupy the groove in the carrier, thus bringing the succession of guus to the loading and tiring points, and causing them to follow cach other iu a coiistantly-recurring cycle of operations, all the balls being discharged atV one point and following in the wake of each other with precision unless by the training of the gun in a horizontal or other plane the sheet of balls is made to sweepa section of the eirelewithin its range.
The gun described, which has four barrels, can be discharged at the rate of two hundicd shots per minute, and guus on the same principle with a larger number of barrels can be ,in-.ide to discharge three hundred shotsper minute.
Having thus fully, clearly, andexactly described the construction and operation ot' my invention, the following is what I claim as new therein and desire. to secuieby Letters Patent:
1. Making the series of barrels with their appropriatelocks and cartridge-cavities to revolve ou an axis, while the requisite motions to perform the loading directly into the lrear end of the barrel, exploding, and the cartridge-caseretracting operations are obtained by the impingeinent of points on the revolving mechanism upon xed spirals, cams, oriiiclined planes, these several operations heilig performed consecutively without stopping the rotation of the barrels when the gun is in operation.
,2. The locks, Figs. 12 and 13, which revolve with the barrels and breech, and are operated by the cam-faces and sprin gs during their-revolution. .v
3. The cani-ring, Fig. 5, which is rigidly attaclied to the diaphragm ofthe stationary casing, and which by means of its cam-faces controls the longitudinal reciprocating motions of the locks by means of thelugsand the impingement of the butt-ends ofthe lock upon it,.
substantially as described. f
4. The caps to be placed over the cavity in the carrier to shut ot' the feed-,substantially as described.
nicHARD J.- GATLING.
JOHN GONDELL, A EDWARD H. DWIGHT.