|Publication number||US4765941 A|
|Application number||US 07/031,170|
|Publication date||Aug 23, 1988|
|Filing date||Mar 26, 1987|
|Priority date||Aug 30, 1984|
|Publication number||031170, 07031170, US 4765941 A, US 4765941A, US-A-4765941, US4765941 A, US4765941A|
|Inventors||John D. Anthony, Jr., Kenneth W. Leffew, Joseph D. Trentacosta|
|Original Assignee||E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Referenced by (10), Classifications (25), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation, of application Ser. No. 646,175 filed Aug. 30, 1984, abandoned.
This invention relates to a control system for an extrusion coating apparatus using a heat responsive element to modulate the coating die slot dimension and, in particular, to a control system wherein the thickness of the extrudate is used as the basis to generate a temperature set point for the heat responsive element.
An extrusion coating apparatus is a device wherein a composition is forced under pressure through an opening, or slot, defined between a confronting pair of relatively massive members called dies. One die includes a relatively flexible flange, or lip, which extends transversely of the die while the other of the dies carries a fixed lip also extending transversely of the die. The slot dimension is defined by the perpendicular distance between corresponding points on the lips of the confronting dies and it is this slot dimension which determines the thickness of the extrudate emanating from the apparatus.
In practice the extrudate may be deposited onto a suitable substrate or may form a film which is carried by a suitable conveyor arrangement. The thickness of the extrudate, whether deposited on a substrate or extruded in film form, is monitored downstream of the dies by a suitable gauge. Depending upon the measured thickness the slot dimension is appropriately modified.
One well known device for controlling the slot dimension involves the use of a plurality of heat responsive expansion bolts arrayed in spaced apart relationship across the transverse dimension of one die. Typical of such expansion bolts are those manufactured and sold by Thermac Corp. Each bolt operates against a localized portion of the flexible lip of the die on which the bolt is mounted. Dependent upon the duration of the excitation signal applied thereto the heat responsive bolt either expands or contracts from its previous condition to thereby respectively close or open the dimension of the slot in the vicinity of the bolt. Each bolt, therefore, is operative to modify the slot dimension in one of a corresponding plurality of contiguous lanes extending transversely across the width of the die.
The duration of the excitation signal applied to each bolt is functionally related to the thickness of the extrudate emanating from the die in the section of the film affected by that bolt as monitored by the thickness gauge. However, commercially available equipment such as defined above uses minimum sample control intervals on the order of two minutes. This results in a characteristic response time of approximately sixty minutes. The duration of these sample intervals and response times is believed to be unable to provide the degree of thickness control necessary for more critical and precise extruding operations.
The present thickness control scheme has other perceived disadvantages. One relates to the inability to control the thickness of the extrudate deposited in the lanes contiguous to the lateral boundaries of the die. Extruding near these boundaries results in a phenomenon known as "neck-in" in which the extrudate bends inwardly, i.e., away from the edges, and occasions a relatively thicker bead of extrudate forming in these regions. Another perceived disadvantage is the failure to accurately relate monitored thickness of the extrudate to the portion of the die (i.e., the lane) from which that extrudate emanated. Another disadvantage lies in the failure to provide a suitable system backup in the event of controller malfunction. Currently, a controller malfunction would result in the cessation of manipulation over the expansion bolts. Thus, over time after a malfunction, the die slot could achieve an arbitrary form which would lead to undesirable thickness nonuniformity across the web. As a corollary, when system control is restored the controller must readjust the dies to accommodate the deviations introduced during controller down time before thickness control may be reestablished.
In view of the foregoing it is believed advantageous to provide a control system in which increased sample frequency and decreased response times are available. Further, a system for reducing the effects of neck-in is also believed to be of advantage. Yet further, a system which accurately monitors and relates extrudate thickness to the portion of the die from which the extrudate emanated would be advantageous. Still further, a control system which provides a back up control scheme in the event of malfunction is also believed to provide an improvement over prior control systems.
The present invention relates to an extrusion coating apparatus of the type having a first and a second die, one of the dies having a flexible lip thereon while the other of the dies carries a rigid lip. The lips are spaced apart to define an elongated, transversely extending extrusion slot. An array of heat responsive elements is transversely spaced across the die having the flexible lip to provide localized slot control over each one of a plurality of transversely contiguous lanes. A thickness gauge is disposed downstream of the dies in a location where the thickness of the extrudate from each lane may be monitored. Preferably, a scanning-type gauge is used. Each heat responsive element includes, in the preferred case, a bolt having a heating element arranged in a heat transmissive association therewith.
In accordance with the present invention the thickness control system comprises a nested temperature control network for maintaining the temperature of the heat responsive element associated with a given lane within a predetermined range of a predetermined temperature set point. The temperature set point is generated in response to the monitored thickness of the extrudate. In the preferred embodiment the temperature control network includes a temperature sensing element, such as a thermocouple, physically disposed in a temperature monitoring relationship with the heat responsive element. The monitored temperature is used by the temperature control network to maintain the temperature of the heat responsive element at the predetermined temperature set point derived in accordance with the monitored thickness of the extrudate. Since the temperature control network responds faster to correct deviations from the predetermined temperature set point than the thickness control loop in which it is nested, more effective control of the slot dimension is afforded than is available in prior art systems which manipulate the slot dimension directly on the basis of monitored extrudate thickness. Also included is an arrangement which accurately correlates the monitored thickness of the extrudate with the portion of the die (i.e., the lane) from which that portion of the extrudate emanated so that the appropriate heat responsive elements are controlled to manipulate the appropriate portion of the slot.
The thickness control system also includes an arrangement which adjusts the temperature set point of the heat responsive elements lying within a predetermined range of contiguity to the lateral boundaries of the die based on the change in temperature set point of a selected one of the more laterally interior heat responsive elements. Such an arrangement serves to reduce the deleterious effects of extrudate neck-in.
The thickness control system further includes an arrangement which monitors the duration of the excitation signal (i.e., duty cycle) for each heat responsive element and maintains a running average thereof which is updated at predetermined intervals. In the event of system malfunction the current duty cycle signal for each element, based on the historical trend of temperature control for that element, is used as the control output until real-time control is restored.
Preferably the thickness control system is implemented by a distributed computer system. A host computer is used to calculate updated temperature set points based on monitored thickness measurements and the corresponding heater duty cycle time required to maintain the actual temperature at the set point. Each bolt has a dedicated software control loop executed by the host. The distributed control system also includes a primary and auxiliary microcomputer. The primary microcomputer serves to control the required duty cycle of the heaters for all the heat responsive elements. The auxiliary microcomputer tracks the duty cycle of the elements, generates the historical trend in the form of running averages and, in the event of host failure, supplies this information to the primary microcomputer to use for the heater control until host operability is restored.
The invention will be more fully understood from the following detailed description thereof taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this application and in which:
FIG. 1 is a stylized pictorial presentation of an extrusion coating apparatus with which a thickness control system in accordance with this invention may be used;
FIG. 2 is a detailed view of the physical mounting of a heat responsive expansion bolt and a temperature monitoring element associated therewith in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 3 is functional block diagram of the thickness control system in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a block diagram of the distributed computation arrangement used in the thickness control system of the present invention;
FIGS. 5A and 5B are a program timing and data flow diagram for the program used in a thickness control system of the present invention;
FIGS. 6A, 6B and 7A, 7B are respectively flow diagrams of the programs implementing thickness control algorithm and the temperature control algorithm (including the adaptive algorithm) used in the control system of the present invention; and
FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9 and 10 are, respectively, a flow diagram for the primary microcomputer program, a flow diagram for the program that generates a historical trend of previous heater duty cycle control signals, and a flow diagram for the auxiliary microcomputer heater control program.
Throughout the following detailed description similar reference numerals refer to similar elements in all Figures of the drawings.
With reference to FIG. 1 shown is a generalized schematic representation of an extrusion coating apparatus generally indicated by reference character 10 with which a thickness control arrangement indicated by reference character 12 may be used. The coating apparatus 10 includes a body having an upper die member 14 and an opposing lower die member 16 separated by a shim 18 to define a transversely extending slot, or opening, 20 having a thickness, or width, dimension 22. The thickness dimension 22 is defined as the perpendicular distance between corresponding confronting points on the surfaces of the dies 14, 16. A composition to be extruded is introduced into the apparatus 10 from an extruder 24. A flat film sheet 26 of extrudate emanates from the spaced apart dies 14, 16. The film 26 may be beaded in the vicinity of its lateral edges 27 due to the effects of neck-in. The film 26 may be deposited on a suitable substrate or conveyer, both omitted from the Figure for clarity. It should be understood that the invention may also be used to control an annular extrusion die operative to produce a tubular film as long as suitable means are provided for locally adjusting the annular dimension of the slot. It should also be understood that the thickness control arrangement 12 is able to control the thickness of a single film extrudate or the total thickness of a multiplicity of films extrudate, including the control of overall thickness where a single or multiple film extrudate is extruded onto a substrate. Suitable dies are available, for example, from Extrusion Dies, Inc., Chippeiva Falls, Wis.
As seen in FIG. 2, each die 14, 16 includes a forwardly extending lip 14', 16' respectively. One of the lips, e.g., the lip 14', is flexible and adjustable with respect to the other while the other of the lips 16' is rigid. Of course, the relative positions of the flexible and rigid lips may be reversed. Also, both of the lips could be flexible and controlled as discussed herein.
An array of heat responsive elements 30 is arranged longitudinally across the transverse dimension of the upper of the dies 14 having the flexible lip 14' thereon. Each element 30 is operatively associated with the adjustable lip 14' and is arranged, as set forth herein, to modulate the thickness dimension 22 of the portion of the slot 20 in the vicinity of the element. Consequently each element 30 may be viewed as controlling the thickness 22 of one of a plurality of N transversely contiguous lanes 32A through 32N arrayed across the transverse dimension of the film 26. It should be understood that any predetermined convenient number N of such lanes may be used. Throughout this application, the use of an alphabetic suffix for any element or function indicates that element or function which corresponds with the lane with which the suffix is associated.
Each of the heat responsive elements 30 is preferably a heat expansion bolt 36 mounted in a block 38 formed of a heat conductive material. The blocks 38 are received in any appropriate receptacle formed in the die 14. A cartridge electrical heater 40 is mounted in a heat transmissive relationship within a suitable recess formed in the block 38. The foot 36' of each of the bolts 36 is abutted against the flexible lip 14L of the die 14. The bolt 36 expands or contracts and thereby reduces or expands the thickness dimension 22 of the portion of the slot 20 in the vicinity thereof. The expansion or contraction of the bolt 36 is controlled by the temperature of the block 38 which temperature is, in turn, dependent upon the magnitude of the electric power applied thereto due to the flow of an electric current in a closed loop including the heater 40 and a source 42. A relay diagrammatically indicated at 44, preferably a solid state relay, controls the application of the current to the heater 40 under the control of the network 12 as discussed herein. Alternatively, the bolt 36 may be provided with an internal heater, if desired.
In accordance with this invention a temperature monitoring device, such as a thermocouple 46, is physically mounted in a temperature sensing relationship with the block 38 within a suitably located aperture 47 therewith. The aperture 47 may be located at any convenient position within the block 38. The aperture 47 may alternatively be formed as a hollow in the bolt 36 with the thermocouple sensor 46 disposed therein. The signal developed by each of the thermocouples 46 is separately conveyed by an associated line 48 to the control network 12. The thickness dimension 22 of the slot 20 in the vicinity of each heat responsive element 30 is, as may be appreciated, functionally related to the temperature of the block 38 and representative of the temperature of the bolt 36.
The bolts 36 are cooled in any convenient manner, as by flowing air thereover. Alternatively the bolts may be provided with threads or external fins to provide cooling surfaces.
Disposed a predetermined distance from the extrusion apparatus 10 is a thickness measurement gauge 50 arranged to scan transversely in the direction of the arrow 52 and to monitor the thickness of the film 26 in each of the transverse lanes 32A through 32N, respectively. The electrical signal representative of the monitored film thickness is applied via a line 54 to the control system 12. Suitable for use as the gauge 52 is a device sold by LFE Incorporated, Waltham, Mass., under model number 5001. The signals 54A through 54N representative of the thickness of the extrudate in the corresponding lane is derived by a scheme that, once knowing the transverse location of the film edge beads 27, apportions data from the thickness scan to each bolt lane in accordance with observed neck-in characteristics for that region of the die. An essential part of this process is the identification of the edge beads 27. The program which implements this function is set forth in full in the Appendix at pages A-37 to A-40.
The thickness control system 12 in accordance with the present invention is shown in block diagram form in FIG. 3. The system 12 is operative to maintain the thickness of the extrudate within a predetermined range of the thickness reference as selected by an operator and applied to the system 12 as an appropriate reference signal on the line 56. The control system 12 is responsive to the signal representative of the temperature each of the heat responsive elements 30 as derived from the thermocouple 46 associated therewith and applied over the appropriate line 48 and to the signal representative of the thickness dimension 22 of the portion of the slot 20 in the lane corresponding to the element 30 as applied from the gauge 52 over the line 54. The control function is implemented by a control signal applied on a line 58 connected to the relay 44 corresponding to the element 30.
The control system 12 which controls the thickness of the extrudate in each of the lanes 32A through 32N includes, for each lane, an outer thickness control loop 60 and a nested, inner, temperature control loop 62.
A physical process, schematically indicated by the functional block 64, results in the creation of a extrudate having a thickness to be controlled. The physical process is implemented by the coating apparatus 10 described above. The thickness of the extrudate is measured by the gauge 50 and information representative thereof applied over the line 54 where it is subtracted at a junction 66 from the thickness set point signal selected by an operator and applied on the line 56. A thickness control algorithm represented by the functional block 70 (a program implementing the same being shown in flow diagram form in FIGS. 6A and 6B) generates on a line 72 a required change in the temperature set point (i.e., the temperature reference) to produce an updated temperature reference signal. This updated temperature reference signal is used to generate a reference for the inner temperature control loop 62. Thus, in accordance with this invention means are provided for converting the thickness measurement signal into a temperature reference signal.
The physical process by which each heat responsive element 36 associated with each lane 32 is heated (e.g., by the passage of current) is indicated by the functional block 71. The temperature of each element 36 is monitored by its associated thermocouple 46 and is applied over the appropriate line 48 to a junction 74 where it is compared to the updated temperature reference. The information on the line 76 represents the difference, or error, of the temperature set point and the measured temperature and is applied to a temperature control algorithm indicated by the functional block 78. The temperature control algorithm is implemented by the program shown in flow diagram form in FIGS. 7A and 7B. The output of the temperatue control algorithm 78 is applied as a switch control signal output from a duty cycle controller indicated by the functional block 80 to the relay 44. The proportion of a predetermined time window (e.g., 1.666 seconds) that the switch control signal on the line 58 is in a selected state represents the duty cycle of a heater, i.e., the percentage of the predetermined time window in which the heater is asserted. That is, the percentage of the time that power is applied to the heaters during the predetermined time window. Any suitable heater time window duration may be used. The electrical heater is thus actuated in accordance with the difference or error to control the temperature of the bolt to cause the bolt temperature to reach the reference temperature.
The thickness measurement which serves as the basis of the temperature set point as described above is made at a predetermined thickness sample rate on the order of fifty seconds (although any suitable thickness sample rate may be used). However, temperature control is effected by the nested inner temperature control loop 62 at an increased temperature sample rate, on the order of seven seconds (although any other suitable rate may be used) thereby providing the system 12 with the ability to more quickly and efficiently bring the temperature of the element 36 to a desired level and maintain it at that level. It is in this manner that the thickness of the extruded film 26 is maintained at a predetermined uniform dimension.
The inner temperatue control loop 62 includes a control parameter adapter algorithm indicated by the functional block 82 (implemented by the program disclosed in flow diagram disclosed in FIG. 7B) implemented in an on-line process identification technique. The actual temperature of a given bolt 36 is applied over a line 48' from the thermocouple 46 and is applied along with the duty cycle signal on the line 58 to a model parameter estimator indicated by the functional block 86. The estimated model parameters calculated in the functional block 86 are applied over the line 88 to the control parameter adapter algorithm represented by the functional block 82. The functional blocks 82 and 86 function, in combination, to provide an adaptive temperature control arrangement. As a result control parameters are output on the line 90 to the temperature control algorithm indicated by the functional block 78. A functional block 78 operates on the temperature error signal on the line 76 to adjust the analog signal applied to the duty cycle controller 80 and thereby to the relay associated with the bolt to adjust the duty cycle in a manner which acts to eliminate the temperature error associated with that bolt. Typically the operation of the inner loop 62 results in a duty cycle modification once every seven seconds. Of course any other predetermined rate may be selected. It is noted that because of the adaptive nature of the algorithm decoupling of the output of the thickness controller 70A through 70N is not needed.
As best seen in FIG. 4 the thickness control system 12 is physically implemented in the preferred embodiment using a distributed computer processing network comprising a host computer 92 connected with a microprocessor based relay controller 94. The controller 94 includes a primary microcomputer 96 and an auxiliary microcomputer 98. Suitable for use as the host 92 is a Hewlett-Packard HP-1000L minicomputer. The primary microcomputer 96 and the auxiliary microcomputer 98 are implemented using an Intel 8748 single chip microcomputer. Of course,any suitable components may be used to implement the network 12 and remain within the contemplation of the present invention.
The host 92 communicates with the controller 94 over a data link 100 connected directly to the primary microcomputer 96. The primary microcomputer 96 is connected to the auxiliary microcomputer 98 over a data link 101 and a control link 102. Each of the microcomputers 96, 98 is respectively connected to a data switch 104 via a data link 105 or 106. The switch 104 is asserted in accordance with the state of a data control line 108 to apply the switch control signal representative of a heater duty cycle on either the lines 105 or 106 to the solid state relay 44 associated with that heater. The state of the line 108 is determined by monitoring the data line 100 from the host 92 to the primary microcomputer 96. For example, if the primary microcomputer 96 is receiving data from the host 92 the switch 104 is closed by the signal on the line 108 to connect the lines 105 and 58. Otherwise the switch 104 is controlled to connect the lines 106 and 58 when data transmissions are not received by the primary microcomputer 96 from the host 92.
The host 92 interfaces with the thermocouples 46A through 46N through an interface 110 via a bus 112. The thickness gauge 50 is connected through a buffer 114 and a bus 116 to the host 92.
The operation of the thickness control system 12 in accordance with the present invention may be understood from the overall system timing and data flow diagram shown in FIGS. 5A and 5B. The discussion is set forth in terms of a twenty-four channel apparatus (N equal twenty four) and timing is defined in terms of clock intervals (BCLOK) defined by the master clock of the host 92.
After an initialization sequence as indicated by the computational block 120 the control program is initiated by an output from a schedule control computational block 122 under control of the operating system time list 124. During the first computational block 126 defined by the host clock intervals one to twenty-seven (BCLOK=1 to 27) the host 92 interrogates the outputs of the thermocouples 46 as applied through the interface buffer 110. The host uses this information of the monitored temperatures to derive the value of the corresponding actual temperatures of each of the expansion bolts 36.
The next program sequence indicated by the computational block 128 implements the temperature control function indicated schematically in the functional block 78 to derive an updated heater control signal. This computation is based upon the temperature set points prescribed as a result of the last-preceding thickness monitoring and the current value of the measured temperature control algorithm indicated by the functional block 78, using updated control parameters 90 derived from the adaptive algorithm represented by the functional block 82. The flow diagram of the temperature control program (including the adaptive algorithm 82) is set forth in FIGS. 7A and 7B.
During the computational block 130 defined by the host time interval corresponding to BCLOK=52 the host 92 checks the interface 114 to ascertain if an updating of the thickness measurement has occurred. If not, host computational activity is suspended until time interval corresponding to BCLOK=78 shown in the computational block 132. At this time (BCLOK=78) the updated heater control outputs computed during the computational block 128 are applied to the relay controller 94 which applies the updated heater duty cycle signal on the line 58 to the relay 44 of the particular bolt 36. The updating action of the temperature control loop 62 as described in connection with functional blocks 78, 80, 82 and 86 (FIG. 3) as implemented during computational blocks 126 and 128 (FIG. 5A) occurs at a repetition rate faster than the thickness computation rate to be described. Preferably the inner temperature control loop 62 is executed approximately once every seven seconds.
If the thickness monitoring has occurred when queried in the computational block 130 the host retrieves this information. The raw information, which contains data of all N lanes, is used to compute corresponding film thickness for all lanes.
The computational block 134 defined in host time interval corresponding to BCLOK=53 to 77 implements the thickness control depicted in the functional block 70 and computes a new temperature set point (the signal on the line 72) for each lane. The flow diagram of this program is set forth in FIGS. 6A and 6B. The new temperature set point derived as described is used during each succeeding temperature control loop (computational blocks 126 and 128) that occurs intermediate successive thickness monitorings. The thickness control loop 60 corresponding to the computational blocks 130 and 134 occurs once every fifty seconds in the preferred case.
With particular reference to the thickness control program shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B as executed during the computational block 130 (FIG. 5A) to implement the functional block 78 (FIG. 3) it is noted that the updated heater set points for the heating elements within a predetermined range of contiguity of the lateral edges of the film 26 are determined based upon the thickness of the extrudate at a predetermined one of the inner lanes. For example, the temperature set points 72A, 72B, 72C respectively developed for the heat responsive elements associated with the lanes 32A, 32B and 32C may be based upon the thickness of the extrudate monitored for the lane 32D. Similarly, the temperature set points for the heaters associated with the lanes 32N, 32(N-1) and 32(N-2) are derived from the thickness of the extrudate monitored in the lane 32(N-3). As a result the control of the thickness of the extrudate in the lanes contiguous to the lateral edges of the film 26 is improved, thereby reducing the wastage present in the edge portions 27 of the film. It is noted that temperature control (once a temperature set point is derived) loop is the same for all heaters. But the temperature set point for the laterally outer lanes are derived from the thickness of the extrudate in a predetermined inner lane.
Once the appropriate heater duty cycle for each heat responsive element is applied to the controller 94 for that element the actual control of the heater is implemented by the primary microcomputer 96 over the line 105 connected through the switch 104. The microcomputer 96 controls each of the heaters 40 by regulating the duty cycle of the relays 44 which closes the circuit including that heating element for a predetermined duration of a predetermined time window. For example, a typical time window has a duration of 1.666 seconds. Using conventional power control circuitry this window affords one hundred opportunities at which current to the heater 40 may be interdicted. Thus, by controlling the point at which the power to the heater 40 is interrupted by opening of the relay 44, the duty cycle of the heater 40 is controlled. The primary microcomputer 96 also performs a "watch dog" function (shown in FIG. 8A) in that it monitors the data line 100 from the host 96 to verify that the host is transmitting data to the primary microcomputer 96. The heater control program executed by the primary microcomputer 100 is set forth in FIG. 8B.
In addition, the primary microcomputer 96 is associated with the auxiliary microcomputer 98. The auxiliary microcomputer 98 serves to generate and to store a continuously updated duty cycle control signal for each heater based upon a predetermined number of preceding duty cycle values. In the event of the loss of host control (as evidenced by the failure of the primary microcomputer 96 to receive data over the link 100) the switch 104 switches and a duty cycle set point based upon the stored historical trend of duty cycle values is applied over the line 106 from the auxiliary microcomputer 98 to the line 58 and this signal is used to control the heat responsive elements. Each time data is passed from the host computer 92 (every seven seconds) the data in turn is passed over the link 101 to the auxiliary computer 98. These data are averaged over a predetermined time, approximately two hundred eighty five samples which covers the period of about forty-five minutes for each lane. This time is arbitrarily selected to provide a reasonable history of the duty cycle trend. Before all of the predetermined number of samples are achieved the data is added and a new average is calculated. After the predetermined number of samples the newest data is added and the oldest data are removed from the total such that the results is the average of only the latest predetermined number of samples. The program for this function of the auxiliary microcomputer 98 is shown in FIG. 9.
As seen from the program illustrated in flow diagram form in FIG. 10 at the time the primary microcomputer 96 determines by way of its "watch-dog" function that data are no longer being provided by the host computer 92 a control signal is passed over the line 102 to the auxiliary microcomputer 98 to take over the control function based on the previously computed and stored historical trend of the duty cycle. The auxiliary microcomputer executes a routine which permits the duty cycle of the heaters to approximate as closely as possible the historical duty cycle value. The limitation imposed by the existence of discrete switching points may render impractical a duty cycle value somewhere intermediate discrete points. So, the auxiliary microcomputer operates the heaters in such a manner that after a predetermined number of time windows has elapsed, the weighted sum of the duty cycles imposed during each window results in duty cycle much closer to the accumulated duty cycle value. As a result when the host operability is restored the correction to the duty cycle set point needed to compensate for the period of host inoperability is minimized. This function of the auxiliary microcomputer 98 is shown in FIG. 10.
Two periods of different lengths are used by the auxiliary microcomputer 98 to control the average temperature of the die bolts. The first period, referred to as division one, consists of one hundred cycles of the sixty cycle line frequency. The second, referred to as division two, consists of one hundred cycles of division one. Division one lasts 1.666 seconds and division two lasts for (100×1.666) or 2.78 minutes. This time is selected as a compromise between the ability to achieve good resolution, one part in ten thousand, an the thermal time constant of the die bolts which is approximately fifteen minutes. The percentage time of each division is determined as in the following example.
Duty cycle average to be duplicated--DCAVG=55.35%
Division 1 (ON/OFF)--55/45--56/44.
Further, if division two percentages were even (divisible by two), then they would be reduced to the next smallest fraction. For instance, if the percentage of time that the 55/45 ratio to be held was 64 instead of 65 then the percentages would be changed to 32% for the 55/45 ratio and 16% for the 56/44 ratio which would be an equivalent average time but has the advantage of less temperature "ripple".
At the time the auxiliary duty cycle control computer is signaled that it must provide the control, a table is set up for each lane based on the averages that must be maintained. Once the table has been established, address pointers into the table are used by the computer to determine the on-off control sequence for the solid state relay for each heater.
The Appendix, which forms a part of this specification, contains listings of the programs described in the FIGS. 6 and 7. The programs are set forth in the Fortran language and are keyed to the functional or computational blocks indicated in those Figures. The Appendix is sequentially paginated with a prefix "A" and includes pages A-1 through A-45. The Appendix appears immediately preceding the claims.
Those skilled in the art, having the benefit of the teachings of the present invention as set forth herein may effect numerous modifications thereto. Such modifications are to be construed as lying within the scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims. ##SPC1##
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|U.S. Classification||264/40.1, 425/144, 425/160, 264/40.7, 425/172, 425/141, 264/40.6|
|International Classification||B29C47/16, G05D5/03, B29C47/92|
|Cooperative Classification||B29C2947/92409, B29C2947/92428, B29C2947/92152, B29C2947/92904, B29C2947/92647, B29C2947/92704, B29C47/0021, B29C47/92, G05D5/03, B29C47/0019, B29C47/165, B29C2947/92209|
|European Classification||B29C47/92, B29C47/16B, G05D5/03|
|Jan 29, 1992||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 2, 1996||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jul 1, 1996||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
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