|Publication number||US4785901 A|
|Application number||US 07/071,094|
|Publication date||Nov 22, 1988|
|Filing date||Jul 8, 1987|
|Priority date||Jul 17, 1986|
|Also published as||DE3723770A1, DE3723770C2|
|Publication number||07071094, 071094, US 4785901 A, US 4785901A, US-A-4785901, US4785901 A, US4785901A|
|Original Assignee||Tokai Trw & Co. Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (27), Classifications (7), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a rack-pinion type electrically powered steering apparatus and more particularly to an electrically powered steering apparatus provided with a device adapted to attenuate the driving current to the motor for power assistance in the vicinity of both ends of the rack when a steering wheel is operated.
2. Prior Art
An electrically powered steering apparatus of prior art is normally provided with a torque sensor adapted to respond to the steering load and a speed sensor adapted to respond to the speed of a vehicle. The electrically powered steering apparatus is further provided with an electronic control circuit for driving a motor for power assistance, which is adapted to input the detected signals from the torque sensor and the speed sensor and to output a pulse signal which has been pulse-width-modulated and amplified, the pulse signal having a steering load response characteristic and a speed response characteristic, so that when a steering wheel is operated the power assisting amount of time can be properly established.
In the conventional electrically powered steering apparatus as explained above, the driving current, which is applied from a battery installed in the vehicle, to the motor for power assistance under the control of the electronic control circuit is kept at an extremely small value when the vehicle is moving at a relatively high speed with little steering load, but is increased to a fairly large value when the vehicle is moving at a low speed or is at a stop. Consequently there have been certain problems in that, when the steering condition is continuously maintained at a location near the both ends of the rack in a steering mechanism, the power consumption caused by the electronic control circuit and the motor may increase to an extent that results in overdischarging of the battery installed in the vehicle and may also cause the windings of the motor to be overheated.
The present invention has been proposed to eliminate such problems as mentioned above. It is an object of the present invention, therefore, to provide an electrically powered steering apparatus provided with a device for gradually attenuating a driving current applied to a motor for power assistance within a range in which power assistance may be maintained at the time of a high steering load and in a condition near opposite ends of the rack when steering is continuously maintained.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a rack-pinion type electrically powered steering apparatus provided with an electronic control circuit adapted to control a motor driving current which is applied to a motor for power assistance in response to a steering load characteristic and/or a vehicle speed characteristic, characterized by the provision of a rack-end proximity sensor adapted to detect a position adjacent the both ends of the rack during a steering operation, and a device for providing the motor driving current with an attenuation characteristic in response to the detected signal from the rack end proximity sensor.
According to the present invention, when the position adjacent the rack end is detected by the rack end proximity sensor at the time of steering when the vehicle is running at an extremely slow speed or is at a stop, the attenuation device including the time constant circuit is caused to furnish the time-delayed attenuating characteristic to the electronic control circuit adapted to control the motor driving current whereby the steering maintenance current near the rack ends can be maintained at a relatively low level within a optimumly low level range.
According to the present invention, since the motor driving current can be attenuated so that the steering maintenance current is maintained at a relatively low level within a optimumly low range near the rack ends when the steering wheel is operated and the vehicle is moving at an extremely slow speed or is at a stop, the rated current values for the power unit of the electronic control circuit and the motor can be set at a relatively low level so as to allow for an economical level of power consumption and effectively prevent abnormal heat generation of the motor or over-discharge of the battery installed in the vehicle, which problems have occurred in the prior arts.
Further, according to the present invention since the motor driving current can be gradually attenuated with the time-delayed characteristic near the rack ends, transition into the current attenuation control can be smoothly carried out, so that any likelihood of shock being imparted to a driver can be substantially avoided.
FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of an electrically powered steering apparatus provided with a device adapted to attenuate the driving current to the motor for power assistance according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a block circuit diagram showing an embodiment of the attenuation device part shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 3 shows a characteristic curve of the operation attained by the present invention.
FIG. 1 schematically shows an electrically powered steering apparatus provided with a device for attenuating the driving current to be applied to the motor for power assistance according to the present invention.
A steering wheel 1 is coupled with a pinion gear provided in a gear housing 3 through a column shaft 2. Rotation of the steering wheel 1 is transmitted to a tie rod 4 through a rack gear in meshing engagement with the pinion gear. On the other hand, a steering load signal generated by the torque sensor 5 in response to the steering load and a vehicle speed signal generated by the speed sensor in response to vehicle speed are applied to an electronic control circuit 8 adapted to control the driving current that is to be applied to a motor 7 for power assistance.
The basic constitution of the electronic control circuit 8 is well known by those skilled in the art. The circuit is so constructed that the frequency signal output from the speed sensor 6 is, for example, applied to a frequency-voltage converter and the converted voltage signal output from the converter is compared by a comparator with a reference signal from a reference oscillator, while an analog signal from the torque sensor 5 is also applied to the comparator through a pulse shaper and is combined in the comparator with the signal provided by the speed sensor, and the pulse-width modulated and amplified pulse signal having the steering load response characteristic and the vehicle speed response characteristic is thereby output. Terminals 9 designate power terminals of the battery installed in a vehicle.
An output signal or a motor driving signal from the electronic control circuit 8 is then applied to a motor 7. Rotation of the motor provides an axial thrust to the rack gear for steering through an appropriate transmission mechanism whereby power assistance can be effected.
According to the present invention, as shown in FIG. 1, the gear housing 3 is further provided with a rack end proximity sensor 10 adapted to detect the position adjacent the both ends of the rack gear. The detected signal is applied to the electronic control circuit 8.
FIG. 2 shows a block circuit diagram relating to a motor current attenuation device which may be incorporated in the electronic control circuit 8 shown in FIG. 1 and also a schematic constitutional diagram of the torque sensor and the rack end proximity sensor which are provided in the gear housing.
In the electronic control circuit 8, the output signal from the torque sensor 5 which is responsive to the rotation of the pinion gear 20 that is connected to the steering wheel 1 through the column shaft 2 is applied to an output circuit 22 for the motor driving current, which includes a PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) circuit, through the torque amplifier 21(while the vehicle speed signal from the speed sensor 6 is also applied to the output circuit 22. Thus the electronic control circuit 8 can apply to the motor 7 the motor driving current with the steering load response characteristic and the vehicle speed response characteristic added thereto, as explained above.
A rack end proximity sensor 10 is comprised of a combination of a relatively small electromagnetic coil or a permanent magnet capable of detecting a magnetic member and a switch element (e.g., a combination of a Hall IC and a load relay), and is embedded in a support yoke 24 which presses against the rack bar. Concave dock portions 26a, 26b are provided on the rack bar 25 and are attracted opposite to the sensor 10 or more specifically at the locations on the rack bar 25 immediately before and adjacent the opposite ends of the leftward and rightward stroke of the gear portion thereof. Thus, when the steering wheel is operated, electrical detection signals can be provided at the locations near the left and right ends of the rack or the positions at which the dock portions face the sensor 10.
The detection signal from the rack end proximity sensor 10 activates a rack end signal processing circuit 27 such as a Schmit gate circuit and thereby causes the output signal therefrom to start the operation of a time constant circuit 28.
A current attenuation control circuit 29 is connected to the output of the time constant circuit 28 and the output of the torque amplifier 21. When the torque amplifier 21 outputs a steering load signal, namely when the steering wheel is operated, the control circuit 29 applies a current attenuation control signal to the output circuit 22, depending on a delay signal output from the time constant circuit, whereby current attenuation characteristics allowing the motor driving current to be time-delayed or gradually attenuated can be provided.
FIG. 3 illustrates the operational characteristic curve in respect of the present invention or the characteristic curve of the motor driving current in relation to the direction of steering.
As illustrated, when for example steering is effected in the right hand direction in a prior art apparatus, the motor driving current is increased to such an extent that the pinion in the steering mechanism is caused to reach the end E of the rack where, if the steering maintenance condition is further continued, a relatively high power steering condition may be maintained which causes the battery installed in the vehicle to be subjected to an overdischarge condition (see a dotted line in the graph).
In contrast, according to the present invention, if a position adjacent the end of the rack-gear or a position that is, for example, near the right end of the rack-gear is detected at the point P during steering by the rack end proximity sensor 10, the detection signal activates the rack end signal processing circuit 27 and then the time constant circuit 28 in the electronic control circuit 8 as explained above. As a result, the current attenuation control circuit 29 attenuates gradually the motor driving current (see the curve PQ in FIG. 3).
The level of the current attenuation control signal output from the current attenuation control circuit 29 is predetermined to assume a level that will not lead to loss of the power assistance capability in the steering maintenance condition. Accordingly, the motor driving current which has been time-delayed or gradually attenuated is subsequently held at a relatively low predetermined level of the current value (namely a reduced power steering condition).
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4558759 *||Dec 1, 1983||Dec 17, 1985||Danfoss A/S||Hydrostatic steering device steering wheel travel limits|
|US4593780 *||Jul 16, 1984||Jun 10, 1986||Nippon Seiko Kabushiki Kaisha||Power assist steering gear assembly|
|DE2056066A1 *||Nov 14, 1970||May 31, 1972||Title not available|
|EP0090697A2 *||Mar 11, 1983||Oct 5, 1983||Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.||Rack and pinion steering arrangement including an improved neutral position sensor|
|GB2170763A *||Title not available|
|JP16007868A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4865146 *||Oct 21, 1988||Sep 12, 1989||Jidosha Kiki Co., Ltd.||Four-wheel steering system|
|US4924696 *||Jul 24, 1989||May 15, 1990||General Motors Corporation||Noncontacting position sensor for an automotive steering system|
|US4944356 *||Dec 28, 1988||Jul 31, 1990||Ford Motor Company||Steering system position detector|
|US5022480 *||Jul 10, 1989||Jun 11, 1991||Aisin Aw Co., Ltd.||Steering safety mechanism|
|US5092417 *||Dec 3, 1990||Mar 3, 1992||Ford Motor Company||Locking mechanism for a rear wheel steering system|
|US5096011 *||Jul 10, 1990||Mar 17, 1992||Ford Motor Company||Steering gear and system for automotive vehicle|
|US5631529 *||Jun 1, 1995||May 20, 1997||Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Electric power steering|
|US5924518 *||Jul 24, 1996||Jul 20, 1999||Trw Inc.||Linear drive electric assist steering system|
|US6446749 *||May 2, 2001||Sep 10, 2002||Robert Bosch Gmbh||Method and arrangement for operating a steering system for a motor vehicle|
|US6488115||Aug 1, 2001||Dec 3, 2002||Delphi Technologies, Inc.||Apparatus and method for steering a vehicle|
|US6843341||Apr 12, 2002||Jan 18, 2005||Trw Fahrwerksysteme Gmbh & Co. Kg||Method of controlling a power steering system|
|US7168282||Mar 21, 2002||Jan 30, 2007||Bishop Innovation Limited||Method and apparatus for manufacture of a forged rack|
|US7293626||Dec 17, 2004||Nov 13, 2007||Delphi Technologies, Inc.||Apparatus and method for steering a vehicle|
|US7375481||Feb 16, 2004||May 20, 2008||Jtekt Europe||Method of controlling motor thermal protection for an electric power steering system of a motor vehicle|
|US7591342||Sep 27, 2007||Sep 22, 2009||Delphi Technologies, Inc.||Apparatus and method for steering a vehicle|
|US20040182125 *||Mar 21, 2002||Sep 23, 2004||Mclean Lyle John||Method and apparatus for manufacture of a forged rack|
|US20050098376 *||Dec 17, 2004||May 12, 2005||Ozsoylu Suat A.||Apparatus and method for steering a vehicle|
|US20110218704 *||Sep 8, 2011||Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd.||Electric Power Steering Controller and Electric Power Steering System|
|DE102011100386A1||May 4, 2011||Nov 8, 2012||Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft||Electromechanical steering system of motor vehicle, comprises a three-phase motor whose winding current is reduced, if the winding temperature criterion is not less than or equal to the maximum dependent temperature|
|DE112004000321B4 *||Feb 16, 2004||Jul 31, 2008||Jtekt Europe S.A.S.||Verfahren zur Steuerung des Wärmeschutzes des Motors einer elektrischen Kraftfahrzeugservolenkung|
|EP0376458A2 *||Nov 9, 1989||Jul 4, 1990||Ford Motor Company Limited||Steering gear and system for automotive vehicle|
|EP1167158A1 *||Jun 19, 2001||Jan 2, 2002||Société de Mécanique d'Irigny||Electric power steering for motor vehicle|
|EP1772349A2 *||Jul 27, 2006||Apr 11, 2007||ZF-Lenksysteme GmbH||Method for operating an electrical power steering|
|WO2002076653A1 *||Mar 21, 2002||Oct 3, 2002||Bishop Innovation Ltd||Method and apparatus for manufacture of a forged rack|
|WO2003011674A1 *||Jul 31, 2001||Feb 13, 2003||Delphi Tech Inc||Apparatus and method for steering a vehicle|
|WO2003043869A1 *||Nov 22, 2002||May 30, 2003||Renault Sa||Electric power-steering assembly, and control method for same|
|WO2008132449A1 *||Apr 24, 2008||Nov 6, 2008||Trw Ltd||Electric power steering|
|U.S. Classification||180/446, 180/444|
|International Classification||B62D5/04, B62D3/12, B62D6/02|
|Jul 8, 1987||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TOKAI TRW & CO., LTD., NO. 1203, AZA SHIMOTAMONAKA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:MAEDA, NAOYUKI;REEL/FRAME:004751/0473
Effective date: 19870528
|Apr 17, 1992||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 23, 1996||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Apr 28, 2000||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12