US 483697 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) v5 sheets-sheet 1.
W. W. RICH.
No. 483,697. Patented 001;. 4, 1892.
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5 Sheets--Sheet 2.
W. W. RICH.
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(No Model.) @Sheets-Sheet 3.
W. W. RICH.
No. 483,697. Patented ont. 4, 1892.
(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 5.
W. W. RICH.
No. 483,697. Patented Oct. 4, 1892.
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UNITEDl STATES i PATENT OFFICE.
VATSON W. RICH, OF MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA.
SZPECIFIGATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 483,697, dated October 4, 1892.
Application filed November 16, 1891. Serial No. 412,004.. (No model.)
To @ZZ whom it may concern:
Beit known that I, VATSON XV. RICH, a citizen of the United States, residing at Minneapolis, in the county of Hennepin and State of Minnesota, have inventeda new and useful Improvement in Dry-Docks, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to an improvement in the class of dry-docks of the kind known as permanent, and my object is to provide a construction of the same with a view to securing its permanency by rendering it about as durable as a masonry dock, but at a much less cost than the latter, and much more lasting than a dock formed of timber, piling, and concrete in the ordinary manner, my construction requiring, for attaining stability and permanence of the structure, but little timber to be treated with a preservative (or creosoted, as it is technically termed) or to be renewed.
Generally stated, my improved construction involves the employment of the better quality of cement concrete, (preferably Portlandcement concrete,) stone, and timber, with fastening means, such as metal bolts, dogs, spikes, and the like, the support of the structure involving piers and piling, though if the formation of the natural bed on which it is built be rocky or otherwise very hard the piling may be omitted. I also use in the construction cribs built of timber, which remain as part of the structure; but I design the latter to be amply strong to resist the pressure 0f the water when the dock is completely filled without dependence for strengthening effect upon the crib. f
My invention consists in the general construction of my improved dry-dock; and it also consists in details of construction and combination of parts.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure l isa broken cross-sectional view taken at about the center of the structure. Fig. 2 is a broken sectional view of the same, the section being taken at the lines 2 2 on Fig. 3 and viewed as indicated by the arrows. Fig. 3 is a central longitudinal sectional view showing the gateway of the dock, with the gate in end elevation. Fig. 4 is a broken plan view, in the nature of a diagram, of the foundation and construction. Fig. 5 is a view similar to that presented in Fig. l, but with the section taken through a pierinstead of through acrib. Fig. Gis a section taken at the line 6 of Fig. 4, viewed in the direction of the arrow and enlarged. Fig. 7 is an enlarged broken sectional view. Y
The foundation or bottom of my im roved dry-dock, as shown in Figs. 1 to 5, inc usive, is formed of piling and Portland-cement concrete. The center piles A', under the keelway B, Fig. l, are driven closely together, as represented in Fig. Il, and cut oif to a level surface, and concrete o is thoroughly rammed between them and caused to reach hush with their tops. To the tops of the piles A are secured, as by bolts or large iron spikes, timfber caps C, (see Fig. 4,) which I prefer to provide of creosoted yellow pine or fir, twelve by twelve inches by sixteen feet in dimensions, and they are placed diagonally upon the piles at short intervalssay one-half an inch-apart. The spaces q between the caps O are completely filled with hydrauliccement grout. (Not shown because of the comparativelydiminutive representation by the drawings.)
Across the diagonal caps C are fastened, transversely of the length of the dock, creosoted floor-beams D, which may be bolted to the diagonal caps and fastened, as in the manner clearly illustrated in Fig. 6, inthe concrete bed E of the dock, which is laid on the piles A (or, if the latter be not provided, on the hard bottom of the excavation) and brought to within a few inches of the tops of the floor-beams D, being caused to slope, and thereby affording drainage from the centerand sides of the dock to the drain F, Fig. l. The fastening of beams in concrete secures them permanently and firmly without the use of bolts, straps, or any other fastenings except the concrete, and may be used to advantage with forms of beams diering from the form presented and in concrcte-and-timber structures other than dry-docks and for purposes other than Hoor-beams. The beams D should be of a form such as that of the beam reprosented in cross-section in Fig. G-namely, expanded toward its base-though my object of thereby providing for firmly holding that beam in place by embedding it in concrete or other suitable materialmay be accomplished illustrated in theV drawings.
by forming the beam,otherwise regular, with irregular or corrugated sides, all of which I desire to be understood as intending by the reference to an expanded base. The drain is formed in the concrete bed E with an inclination sufficient to insure drainage from the rear of the dock to the usual transverse culvert, (not shown,) which leads to the dock-well and to the pump-house. If found desirable, the floor-beams D may be immediately supported by foundation-piles A, then caused to extend upward through the` concrete to the sill; but I prefer, ordinarily, the construction The Hoor-beams D support the oak blocks p, of which the keelway Bis formed, as also the slides for the usual bilge-blocks. (Not shown.) On the Hoor-beams are laid spaced floor-planks G-say about one inch apart-to permit the water to drain through the door and run into the drain F.
II II denote the concrete sides of the dock, sloping as shown and each finished at its top with dressed-stone coping I.
In the body of the dock proper altars o are molded;` The sides II are supported by concrete piers K, and also during construction by the cribs L, built, preferably, of six by twelve inch pine timbers surfaced to a uniform thickness, laid up in elevator style with breakjoints` and bolted at short intervals, as with wrought-iron spikes about fifteen inches long.
' but, as hereinbefore suggested, my intentionl is that the concrete faces Hand piers K shall suffice alone to sustain the pressure of the water when the dock is completely filled. However, the walls I-I and piers K may be built in combination with pile work, trestles, or the natural soil or other foundatiomwhere found convenient or practicable, instead of with the timber cribs shown and described. The rear walls X of the cribs should be stop-watered by calkin g with oakum and pitching the seams wh ere necessary, or the rear walls may be laid with thick layers of coal-tar between courses. The surfaces of the altars and other exposed surfaces of the dock, except immediately under the flooring G, should be covered with a coating of rich Portland-cement mortar firmly troweled'. I employ sheetpiling M to eX- clude water so far as possible from the foundations.
To provide against possible hydrostatic pressure underneath the bottom of the dock, I use drain-pipes N, of-vitrifiedY tiles or some other suitable conduit, supported on planks 'n or otherwise at convenient places under the foundations. From the subdrains relief-pipes N lead upward and discharge above the foundation. The relief-pipe may be of any suitable diameter--say about three inches--and is formed, preferably, of copper or brass. As shown, the relief-pipe N extends from the sub-drain to the surface of the foremost altar o, being provided with a screw-cap o, readily removable to permit the pipe to be cleaned, and with a spout m, having a flap-valve Z hinged to it at and which should be lined or faced with a rubber or leather gasket, so that when it is closed water cannot pass from within the dock down the pipe N into the drain N.
By Fig. 3 is represented alongitudinal section through the bottom of the entrance to the dock. P denotes the portion at the inner abutment, Pf that at the center abutment, and P2 that of the table or outer end, foundavtion-pile and sheet-piling being shown under and embedded in the concrete bed E. R R denote the bottom and side inner gate-sills, and R denotes the outer gate-sill. I form these sills of creosoted oak timbers fastened by bolts set in the concrete and'calked and pitched, to prevent leakage of water. The gate-sills both of the bottom and sides. of the dock are rabbeted, as shown, to receive rubber or leather packing t', for securing a tight joint when the gate S is in place. If desired, however, the gate-sills may be formed of dressed stone set in the concrete. The gate is sho-wn in position in Fig. 3 bya partial end view in the form of a iioating boat or caisson gate. T T are bilge-keels placed longitudinally along the sides of the caisson in a manner similar to the bilge keels of vessels. Their purpose is to utilize the one on the outside when the empty dock is being filled through the openings (not shown) in the gate to assist in keeping the VVlatter steadily inVY 'place and prevent the jumping or pounding motion of the gate, which is otherwise liable to occur, to theinjury of the sills and packing.
What I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is- Y l. In a dry-dock, the combination, with a suitable foundation, of the superstructure formed with concrete piers K, of approximately-triangular shape in cross section and broader at the base than at the top, the concrete sides H, faced with altars o, and a bed, substantially as described.-
2. In a dry-dock, the combination, with a suitable foundation, of the superstructure formed with concrete piers K, of approximatelytriangular shape in cross section and broader at the base than at the top, concrete sides II, faced with altars 0 and mounted with stone coping I, and a bed, substantially as described.
3. In a dry-dock, the combination, with a suitable foundation, of the superstructure formed with concrete piers K, of approximate-V Y lytriangular shape in cross-section and broader at the base than at the top, crib` work L, and the concrete sides II, faced with altars o, substantially as described.
4. In a dry-dock, the combination of the foundation formed with piling and the superstructure formed with the concrete bed E, concrete piers K, of approximately-triangular shape 1n cross-section and broader at the base IOO IIO
than at the top, and concrete sides H, faced with the altars o, substantially as described.
5. In a dry-dock, the combination of the foundation formed with piling A and sheetpiling M and the superstructure formed with concrete piers K, of approximately-triangular shape in cross-section and broader at the base than at the top, the concrete sides H, faced with altars 0, and a bed, sudstantially as described.
6. In a dry-dock, the combination of the foundation formed with piling and the superstructure comprising the concrete bed E, concrete piers K, of approXimately-triangular shape in cross-section and broader at the base than at the top, cribwork L, and the concrete sides H, faced with the altars o and mounted with stone coping I, substantially as described.
7. In a dry-dock or other structure formed with concrete and timber, the combination, with the concrete, of beams D, expanded toward their bases and embedded at their eX- panded portions in and thereby fastened by the concrete, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
8. In a dry-dock, the combination, with a suitable foundation, of the superstructure formed with a concrete bed E and hoor-beams D, embedded at their expanded portion in and fastened by the concrete piers K, and concrete sides I-I, faced with altars o, substantially as described.
9. In a dry-dock, the combination, with its foundation, sides, and bed, of caps C, laid diagonally at intervals under the keelway, substantially as described.
l0. In a dry-dock, the combination, with its foundation and sides, of a concrete bed E, caps C, laid diagonally at intervals under the keelway, and hoor-beams D, bolted to and extending across the caps and embedded at their expanded portions in and fastened in place by the concrete bed, substantially as described.
I1. In a dry-dock, the combination, With the foundation, bed, and sides, of a sub-drain pipe N and relief-pipe N', extending therefrom above the bed and provided with a flapvalve Z, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
l2. In a dry-dock, the combination, with the foundation, bed, and sides, of a sub-drain pipe N and relief-pipe N', extending therefrom above the bed and provided with a removable cap v and spout m, having a flapvalve l, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
13. In a dry-dock, the combination, withA the foundation, bed, and sides, of a floating gate or caisson S, provided with bilge-keels T, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
14. A dry-dock comprising, in combination with a foundation, the superstructure formed of a concrete bed E,caps C, laid on said bed diagonally at intervals under the keelway, floor-beams D, bolted to and extending across the caps and embedded at their expanded portions in and fastened in place by the concrete bed, a drain F in the bed, toward which it slopes, spaced floor-timbers G on the bed, the sides formed with piers K, cribwork L, and the concrete faces I-I, having altars o, and a sub-drain pipe N and relief-pipe N', extending therefrom above the bed and provided vvith a flap-valve Z, substantially as described.
YVATSON W. RICH. In presence of- E. L. BLACK, W. II. KELLER.