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Publication numberUS4867564 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/064,371
Publication dateSep 19, 1989
Filing dateJun 22, 1987
Priority dateJun 22, 1987
Fee statusLapsed
Publication number064371, 07064371, US 4867564 A, US 4867564A, US-A-4867564, US4867564 A, US4867564A
InventorsHarold E. Sweeney, Donald A. Leonard
Original AssigneeGte Government Systems Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for and method of remotely sensing sub-surface water temperatures
US 4867564 A
Abstract
The subsurface temperature of a body of water such as an ocean is measured remotely by directing a laser beam deeply into the water and analyzing the resultant Brillouin and Rayleigh backscatter components. Wavelength shifted Brillouin scatter is mixed with the unshifted Rayleigh scatter in a self-heterodyne manner for each volume element of illuminated water and the frequency of the heterodyne signal is measured. This produces the desired temperature-depth profile of the water.
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Claims(9)
What is claimed is:
1. A method of measuring a subsurface property of a body of water from a remote location comprising the steps of:
generating a beam of laser light capable of penetrating said water;
directing said beam into said water;
detecting the Rayleigh and Brillouin backscatter light produced by the interaction of said beam with said water;
mixing said Rayleigh and Brillouin light and thereby producing a heterodyne current having a frequency fB ; and
measuring the frequency of said heterodyne current for determining said property of said water.
2. The method according to claim 1 with the step of scaling the frequency measurements with time and producing property depth profile of said body of water.
3. The method according to claim 2 in which said property is temperature.
4. The method according to claim 3 in which said laser beam is pulsed.
5. The method according to claim 4 in which said pulsed laser beam is in the blue-green region of light.
6. The method according to claim 5 in which said remote location is an airplane traveling above the body of water.
7. The method according to claim 5 in which said remote location is a ship located on the surface of said body of water.
8. The method according to claim 6 in which said measuring step comprises the steps of:
converting said heterodyne current to a signal voltage proportional to fB ;
periodically digitizing said signal voltage and generating digitized signal samples; and
translating each of said digitized signal samples into a number corresponding to a temperature value.
9. Apparatus for measuring the subsurface temperature of a body of water from a remote location comprising:
means for generating a beam of laser light adapted to penetrate deeply into said body of water;
means for detecting components of the Brillouin backscatter produced by said beam;
means for detecting components of the Rayleigh backscatter produced by said beam;
means for mixing said components of the Brillouin and Rayleigh backscatter and thereby producing an output heterodyne current having a frequency fB ; and
means for measuring said frequency for determining the temperature of said body of water.
Description
RELATED APPLICATION

Ser. No. 064,375 filed June 22, 1987, "METHOD OF REMOTELY DETECTING SUBMARINES USING A LASER."

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1 Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to the measurement of sub-surface ocean temperature profiles and more particularly to an improved method of and apparatus for remotely measuring such temperature profiles from an aircraft or the like.

2. Description of the Prior Art

Profiles of ocean water temperature as a function of depth are important basic scientific data used by the oceanographic community for several purposes including determination of the effect on climate. A technique employed in the past for measuring such profiles involves the use of many temperature sensing elements spaced on a cable and towed by a ship. This is costly, time consuming and generally unsuited to high spatial and temporal resolution coverage of large ocean areas. Furthermore, the technique cannot be used for mapping ocean temperature profiles, that is, temperatures over wide areas of water, because the measuring time is too long compared to the time over which sea temperatures vary.

Another technique is described in Patent No. 4,123,160 in which a laser beam is used to illuminate the water and observation is made of the Raman scatter from the monomer and hydrogen bonded polymeric forms of water, the ratio of which is a function of temperature. This technique is vulnerable to interference from high background illumination, such as sunlight, because of the relatively wide optical bandwidth of the Raman scattering. Furthermore, in this technique there is differential absorption over the Raman band as light transits the water column. Depolarization effects of the water column also limit the effectiveness of the technique when polarization spectroscopy is employed.

Still another laser remote sensing method has been used in limited experiments, see "SPEED OF SOUND AND TEMPERATURE IN THE OCEAN BY BRILLOUIN SCATTERING" by Hirschberg, et al., Applied Optics, Aug. 1984, pages 2624-2628, inclusive. This method relies on the wavelength shift associated with Brillouin scattering from the water. This shift, however, is small so that extremely high resolution is required in optical measurement of the wavelength shift. Typically a Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to resolve the Brillouin shift. However, an interferometer requires a well collimated light source which generally is incompatible with remote sensing applications, that is, because of spreading, light must be collected from a much larger field of view than is possible with an interferometer.

This invention is directed to the measurement of sub-surface ocean temperatures while avoiding these disadvantages.

OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A general object of the invention is the provision of a technique of remotely and rapidly measuring ocean temperature profiles without interference from high background illumination, such as sunlight.

Another object is the provision of such measuring apparatus having relatively high overall efficiency.

Still another object is the provision of a method of and apparatus for remotely measuring ocean temperature profiles without the need for a precision interferometer.

A further object is the provision of such a technique and apparatus having relatively high sensitivity.

These and other objects of the invention are achieved by using the "self-heterodyne" of the wavelength-shifted Brillouin scatter with the unshifted Rayleigh scatter mainly from impurities in the water. The "self-heterodyne" action allows mixing of these signals from each volume element of the illuminated water column independently and measuring the frequency of the heterodyne signal. Since this frequency is directly related to the water temperature and since time is directly proportional to depth, the resultant time-temperature pattern is equivalent to a temperature-depth profile.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a better understanding of the invention as well as other objects and further features thereof, reference is made to the following description which is to be read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an aircraft over a body of water and involved in the practice of the invention.

FIG. 2 is a schematic block diagram of the transmitter and receiver components comprising the apparatus embodying the invention.

FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating frequency products resulting from mixing Rayleigh and Brillouin backscatter components in accordance with the practice of the invention.

FIG. 4 is a set of curves depicting the relation of ocean temperature resolution and depth for different monitoring altitudes.

It should be noted that the same reference numerals identify identical components in each of the figures.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

For a better understanding of the subject invention, reference is made to the following description and appended claims in conjunction with the above-described drawings.

Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1 depicts an aircraft 10 in flight at apredetermined altitude over a body 12 of water such as an ocean having a transmitter 13 for directing a laser beam 14 into the water and a receiver15 for receiving a return signal 16 from the water. Transmitter 13 generates a pulsed output beam 14 having a wavelength selected to penetrate the water 12, and return signal 16 contains Brillouin and Rayleigh backscatter components. In accordance with this invention, receiver 15 processes the Brillouin and Rayleigh signals to produce data indicative of the temperature at various depths to provide temperature-depth information.

A more detailed block diagram of transmitter 13 and receiver 15 along with associated optics is shown in FIG. 2. Transmitter 13 comprises a laser 18 controlled by a timer 19 to produce output laser pulses 20. The output of laser 18 preferably is in the blue-green part of the spectrum (4500 to 5500 Å in wavelength) and has a typical pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz. A laser useful for this purpose is a frequency doubled Nd:YAG at awavelength of 5300 Å. Laser output 20 is directed by mirrors 21, 22 and23 to the target area, in this application, the sea water 12 below aircraft10.

Return signal 16 contains Brillouin and Rayleigh backscatter components resulting from the interaction of the laser pulses with the sea water. Mirrors 23, 24 and 25 direct the return light 16 to the receiver 15 comprising photodetector 26 having a cathode 26a, discriminator 27, analog-to-digital converter 28, analyzer unit 29 and a recorder 30. Phototector 26 preferably is a photomultiplier tube having a photocathode on which the return light 16 is incident. The PM tube converts the opticalenergy (photons) to electrons (current) while simultaneously amplifying thesignal. The photocathode also performs the additional important function ofmixing the Brillouin and Rayleigh components of signal 16 to provide a difference frequency, called the optical heterodyne frequency. The Brillouin backscatter component is frequency-shifted by the acoustic properties of the water whereas the Rayleigh backscatter component has a constant frequency and is analogous to the "local oscillator" in a superheterodyne receiver. The acoustic velocity of the water is a functionof water temperature.

Referring now to FIG. 3, the Brillouin and Rayleigh components incident on cathode 26a of photodetector 26 are represented by curves 37; and 33 at frequencies f1 and f3, respectively, and by curve 34 at frequency f2. The signals at frequencies f1 and f3 are the frequency shifted Brillouin components, and the signal at f2 is the frequency unshifted Rayleigh component, the latter functioning as a "localoscillator" in an analogy to a superheterodyne receiver. The two differencefrequencies between f3 and f2 and between f2 and f1 arethe same frequency, fB and are additive in the baseband so that the process results in increased sensitivity. Moreover, the phase relationshipof the Brillouin and Rayleigh components at photodetector 26 is correct forefficient heterodyning since both components are received from the same angle of view however wide and are produced by the same laser pulse stream.

The output (current) of photodetector 26 passes to discriminator 27, such as a delay line discriminator, which produces a voltage proportional to the baseband frequency fB. Converter 28 changes the output of discriminator 27 into digital form for analysis in analyzer 29. Analyzer 29 receives the digital frequency fB and, using the equations below, translates it into a signal or number representative of the water temperatures. By way of example, analyzer 29 may comprise a computer whichcompares the digital frequency input with a reference table to derive the equivalent temperature. The output of analyzer 29 is stored in recorder 30.

The accuracy of temperature measurement by analysis of Brillouin backscatter may be shown mathematically. The relation of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to the standard deviation of frequency measurement accuracy for a radar is given by the following expression. ##EQU1##

This standard deviation of the frequency also depends on a parameter To which is usually taken to be the laser pulse width. In this case, however, the self broadening of the Brillouin shifted lines produces a Brillouin bandwidth of 480 MHz (See Hirschberg, J. G., et al, "SPEED OF SOUND AND TEMPERATURE IN THE OCEAN BY BRILLOUIN SCATTERING," Applied Optics, 23, 2624 (1984)). This requires that an effective To of 2.1 ns be used in equation (1) rather than the laser pulse duration.

The Brillouin backscatter frequency fB is a function of the acoustic velocity vs and the laser optical frequency, fo, as follows

fB =2nvs (1/c)fo                            (2)

where n is the index of refraction and c is the velocity of light in free space. Differentiating equation (2) with respect to temperature yields

dfB /dT=2n(1/c)fo (dvs /dT)                 (3)

The sound velocity vs is given as a function of temperature by the following expression.

vs =1400+5.02T-0.055T2 +0.003T3             (4)

which, when differentiated with respect to temperature and evaluated at 10 C., gives dvs /dT=4.82 m/s- C. Substituting this value into equation (3) and using 6.541014 Hz as the optical frequency for an assumed transmitter wavelength of 459 nm, the result obtained is

dfB /dT=27.95 MHz/ C.                         (5)

The temperature accuracy as a function of SNR can be obtained by dividing equation (1) by dfb /dT. The resultant temperature accuracy expressedas a function of depth for a representative system is shown in FIG. 4.

While the invention has been described with reference to its preferred embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teaching of the invention without departing from its essential teachings.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3474253 *Jun 2, 1966Oct 21, 1969Us NavyMethod and apparatus for optically detecting acoustic disturbances
US4123160 *Dec 20, 1976Oct 31, 1978Bernard CaputoMethod and apparatus for remotely measuring sub-surface water temperatures
US4411525 *Aug 11, 1981Oct 25, 1983Fuji Photo Optical Co., Ltd.Method of analyzing an object by use of scattering light
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *Speed of Sound & Temperature in the Ocean by Brillouin Scattering, by Joseph G. Hirschberg, et al., Applied Optics/vol. 23, No. 15, 8/1/84 pp. 2624 2628, inclusive.
2Speed of Sound & Temperature in the Ocean by Brillouin Scattering, by Joseph G. Hirschberg, et al., Applied Optics/vol. 23, No. 15, 8/1/84 pp. 2624-2628, inclusive.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4948958 *Aug 1, 1989Aug 14, 1990Gte Government Systems CorporationRemote subsurface water temperature measuring apparatus with brillouin scattering
US4962319 *Aug 29, 1989Oct 9, 1990Gte Government Systems CorporationRemote subsurface water temperature measuring apparatus with Brillouin scattering
US4973853 *Jul 28, 1989Nov 27, 1990Gte Government Systems CorporationRemote subsurface water temperature measuring apparatus with Brillouin scattering
US5026999 *Apr 9, 1990Jun 25, 1991Gte Government Systems CorporationMethod of remotely measuring subsurface water temperatures by stimulated raman scattering using stimulated brillouin backscattering
US5110217 *Oct 31, 1990May 5, 1992Gte Government Systems CorporationMethod for optically and remotely sensing subsurface water temperature
US5262644 *Dec 16, 1992Nov 16, 1993Southwest Research InstituteRemote spectroscopy for raman and brillouin scattering
US6786633 *Feb 1, 2002Sep 7, 2004Maquet Critical Care AbMethod and arrangement for acoustically determining a fluid temperature
US7283426 *Mar 30, 2004Oct 16, 2007Bae Systems Information And Electronic Systems Integration Inc.Method and apparatus for detecting submarines
US8152366 *Jan 22, 2009Apr 10, 2012University Of DelawareEstimation of subsurface thermal structure using sea surface height and sea surface temperature
US20060083111 *Mar 30, 2004Apr 20, 2006Grasso Robert JMethod and apparatus for detecting submarines
US20090187369 *Jan 22, 2009Jul 23, 2009University Of DelawareEstimation of subsurface thermal structure using sea surface height and sea surface temperature
Classifications
U.S. Classification356/484, 374/117, 374/E11.018, 374/E13.011, 356/43
International ClassificationG01K13/10, G01K11/12
Cooperative ClassificationG01K11/12, G01K13/10
European ClassificationG01K11/12, G01K13/10
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jun 22, 1987ASAssignment
Owner name: GTE GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS CORPORATION, CONNECTICUT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SWEENEY, HAROLD E.;LEONARD, DONALD A.;REEL/FRAME:004733/0389
Effective date: 19870619
Dec 14, 1992FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Apr 29, 1997REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Sep 21, 1997LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Dec 2, 1997FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 19970924