US 487490 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) s sums-sheet 1. P. MOTTE. PANOEAMA.
No. 487,490. I Patented Dec. 6, 1892.
(No Model.) 3 Sheets--Sheet 2.
H. P. MOTTE.
No. 487,490. Patented Dec. 6, 1892.
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(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 3.
H. P. MOTTE.
Patented Dec. 6, 1892.
Ynzyonms vz'rzns co. momumuu WASHINOYON. 04 a UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
HENRI PAUL MOTTE, OF PARIS, FRANCE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 487,490, dated December 6, 1892.
Application filed July 14, 1892. Serial No. 439,944. (No model.) Patented in England August 15 1890, No. 12,845.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, HENRI PAUL MOTTE, a
citizen of the Republic of France, residing in the city of Paris, Republic of France, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Panoramas, fully described and represented in the following specification and the accompanying drawings, forming a part of the same, the said improvements being embraced in British Letters Patent No. 12,845, dated August 15, A. D. 1890, and Letters Patent of the Republic of France.
The object of this invention is to reproduce the eifect orillusion experienced by travelers in railway-carriages, road-carriages, vessels, balloons, or other vehicles, when looking at the country, of the telegraph posts, trees, houses, fields, and hills disappearing behind them or, when looking at a stationary train, of such train moving.
In carrying out the invention I advantageously arrange pictures concentricallybefore the eye of a spectator. These pictures, which represent several views of a landscape, are painted, cut out, or otherwise produced on panels and moved at varying rates of speed. The panel nearest the spectator receives the quickest movement, while the panel farthest removed may turnvery slowly and even remain motionless when it represents the background and the horizon. To vary the effect produced in some cases,I arrange the prominent features of each view on radial arms, which, while only allowing one of the objects to be seen at one time by the spectator at each motion, replaces one object by another-say,
for example, a tree by a house, a house by a person, (850. Suitable means-such as a ratchetare provided for stopping the motion of the arms. The effect of the illusion is the same if the spectators are in carriages, which carriages receive a movement the direction of which is inverse to that of the moving panels. In some cases the pictures are placed paraL lelwise.
To enable my invention to be fully underderstood, I will describe how it can be carried into practice by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure 1 is a central vertical sectional elevation showing by way of example one arrangement of my new kind of panorama in which the spectators are seated in carriages moving around the exterior of the arrangement of movable panels. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section of the same, taken on a line that passes through the upper part of the carriages. Fig. 3 is a central vertical sectional elevation illustratinga modified arrangement of the panorama in which the spectators are placed within the panels. Fig. 4 is a horizontal section of the same. Fig. 5 is a sectional elevation, and Fig. 6 a side elevation, of one method of moving the panels. Fig. 7 is a sectional elevation, and Fig. 8 a side elevation, of a modified mode of moving the panels. Fig. 9 is an elevation illustratinga mode of varying the scene by successively introducing differing objects within the vision of the spectator. Fig. 10 is a diagram showing a plan of an arrangement of panels that can be employed to vary the aspect of the landscape.
The seats A for the spectatorsare arranged in a multiplicity of compartments B,connected together in series by suitably dividing a circular carriage or a number of carriages circularl y arranged, the exterior of which is so constructed as to present the appearance of a train of railway-carriages preceded by a locomotive. The latter, placed at G, contains two reserved compartments D D. This circular carriage moves around panels supported in the center of the structure, and the scene displayed by said panels is viewed from openings in the inner wall of the compartments B of the carriage, while the outer wall of said carriage is provided with entrance-doors or door-openings and with steps or other accessories imitating a railroad-carriage. The com partments B are slightly inclined in the direction of the radius and the seats are arranged in stages in each of them, so as to allow all the spectators to have a good view. The openings through which the landscape is seen are deep and provided with sides or checks at for limiting the view of the spectators to a portion only of the landscape which is displayed before them. The carriages are supported upon axles E, each of which carries at its middle part a flanged wheel 1), running over a circular rail 0, and at its two ends wheels 01, not
in contact with the ground and which as they revolve with the axle appear from the outside to be the wheels upon which the carriages are traveling.
The circular carriage or series of carriages receives circular motion by means of a central pulley e, which rotates at a certain speed under the action of another pulley f, with which it is connected by a driving band or rope g.
The scene-carryingmediaispreferablyaconcentric series of circular panels provided with means for revolving them. The outermost panel F turns in a reverse direction to the movement of the carriages, and the interior panels turn either in a reverse direction to or in the same direction as the carriages, according to the speed which it is required they shall have with relation to the spectators. are .provided with pulleys of suitable diameters driven by other pulleys mounted on the same shaft as the pulley f, connected to a suitable motor, such as a steam, gas, electric, or 11ydraulic engine, or even a motor worked by manual or animal power, the said motor being placed outside the structure. The panels are fixed by their base on rings mounted upon tubular shafts fitted one within the other, each carrying its driving-pulley at its lower end.
The central panel G, which afiords precision to the supposed journey by giving the aspect of the country passed through by the traveler, is arranged, by preference, in the following manner: It consists of several cylinders (four being shown on the drawings) placed one within the other, and each of them is painted differently, so as to be able to vary the background of the landscape at will. The interior cylinder alone is fixed to the ring which connects it to its driving-pulley. The others may be mounted on the upper art of the structure, so as to allow of their being withdrawn from the view of the spectators. According as one or the other of the panels is allowed to appear the landscape is altered and presents a different aspect.
The carriage for the spectators may be situated within eXteriorly-arranged scene-carrying panels, as is shown in Figs. 3 and 4.
Figs. 3 and 4 are diagrammatic views, drawn to a smaller scale, illustrating an arrangement of my panorama in which the spectators are placed inside the arrangement of panels. The seats A for the spectators are arranged in the form of an amphitheater at the center of the structure. The circular panels supported upon rails H are caused to move by a series of pulleys or gearing or by means of friction-wheels connected with the motor, which is here shown as a horse-gear placed in the center of the structure. Access is afforded to the interior by means of two foot-bridges I, which form a communication between the outside staircases K and the inner staircases L. Circular movement may be imparted to the panels in various ways. One method of moving them is shown in Figs. 5 and 6.
Figs. 5 and6 are respectively a section and an elevation of a detail illustrating a method of moving the panels. Each panel is provided with rollers h, running upon circular rails z, and is moved by a pulley k, on which is wound a cord Z, which also passes over a flange or ring m at the base of the panel F. All the driving-pulleys k are mounted on the same shaft, driven by a suitable motor.
Figs. 7 and 8 area section and an elevation, respectively, illustrating another method of movingthe panels. They are mounted, as in Fig. 1, upon rings connected by arms a to collars 0, passed over a common shaft 19 in the middle of the central panel. Each of the collars 0 is providedwith teeth 1 on its'upper surface and with teeth 8 on its lowersurface. The upper teeth of one collar are connected by pinions t or by friction-rollers with the lower teeth of the'collar above it. The pinionst are of suitable relative diameters to allow of commuuicating the necessary speedsto the difierent collars o. It will be readily understood that by causing any one of the panels to move it will move the others with it through the medium of the collars 0 and pinions't.
Fig. 9 is an elevation illustrating a means of causing the aspect of certain panels to vary by the substitution of one object for another in the landscape. The objectarrns R (four in number on the drawings) are mounted on a shaft to behind the panel and are carried by a ratchet-wheel o, the pawl w of which prevents its backward movement. arranged in such a manner as to only allow the spectator to see one of the objects at a time. A fixed catch which comes in contact with i the ratchet-wheel at each revolution of the panel causes the arms which carry the objects to rotate and substitute another object for that which wasvisible before.
In apparatuses of very large dimensions a gallery can be arranged on the inner face of the panel, and a man traversing this gallery could move the object-arms by hand or even cause them to disappear entirely. This latter arrangement would be especially applicable in the case where the spectators are moving, as in this case, the panels nearest the spectators turning in the reverse direction and the panels nearest the center turning the same direction at a speed so nearly approaching that of the spectators that they seem to travel less fast, an immovable panel can be provided, which should appear to have in a reverse direction the speed at which the spectators really move. This arrangement will be found most suitable for an interior gallery, serving to facilitate the substitution of one of the object-arms for another, as above referred to.
Referring now to Fig. 10, which is a diagram showing a plan of an arrangement of panels which could be employed to vary the aspect of the landscape, the construction and operation thereof will be explained. The central panel G, forming the background of The whole is the landscape, has wound upon it a painted cloth, which is unrolled during the movement of the panel and. is wound onto a cylinder M, located in a place inaccessible to the public. This cloth must be sufiicientlylong in unwinding to illustrate the whole journey, which, for example, might be from Paris to Dijon. The outer panel F can be also surrounded, like a drop-scene in a theater with a painted cloth, on which would be represented, for example, the interior of a railway-station. This cloth, is being wound upon the cylinders N, which are invisible to the public, or in unwinding at the end of the entertainmentwould allow of simulating with greater exactness the departure and arrival of the spectators.
With apparatuses of small dimensions I can replace the cut-out panels by paintings on transparent surfaces.
When the spectator is supposed to be in a railway-carriage, cut-out panels will represent on the first plan the embankment or the excavation with the telegraph-posts, on the second plan trees, on the third plan fields with houses, and on the fourth plan the coasts, the backgrounds, and the sky at the horizon. All these objects will appear to pass in front of the spectator, who will experience the illusion of seeing the country represented unfolded to his view.
The principle of my invention is not only applicable to panoramas for practical use, but also for producing theatrical effects and to the construction of toys.
Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in what mannerthe same is to be performed, I declare that what I claim'is-- 1. Apanorama consisting of images cut out, placed, painted, or otherwise delineated on parallel planes or on concentric surfaces and means by which motion is communicated thereto at different speeds inversely proportionate to the distances that they represent in perspective, whereby is produced the effect or illusion experienced by travelers in railway-carriages, road-carriages, vessels, balloons, or other vehicles, when looking at the country, of the various objects disappearing behind them, substantially as described.
2. In a panorama, the combination, with a scenic display consisting of images cut out, placed, painted, or otherwise delineated on parallel planes or on concentric surfaces, of a viewing-carriage and means for moving the same at an appropriate speed relative to said scenic display, substantially as shown and described.
3. In a panorama, the combination, with a scenic display consisting of images cutout,
placed, painted, or otherwise delineated on parallel planes or on concentric surfaces, to which motion is communicated at different speeds proportionate to the distances which the scenic planes or surfaces represent in perspective, of a viewing-carriage and means for moving the same at an appropriate speed relative to said scenic display, substantially as shown and described.
4. In a panorama, the combination, with a viewing-carriage, whether stationary or moving, of two series of object or scenic panels the members of each of which series are movable independently of those of the other series, substantially as described.
5. In a panorama, the combination, with a viewing-carriage, whether stationary or moving, of two inner series of object or scenic panels and an outer panel the members of each of which and of the outer panel are movable independently of those of the other series, substantially as described.
6. A panoramic apparatus consisting of viewing-compartments arranged within or without a circular series of object-carrying panels, the said compartments moving in a circular path with respect to said panels, or vice versa, substantially as described.
7. In apanoramic apparatus in which viewingcompartments are arranged within or without a series of obj cot-carrying panels, the combination therewith of means for removing one or more of said panels or portions thereof from the vision of the spectator, substantially as described.
8. In a panoramic apparatus, the combination, with a scenic display arranged centrally within a carriage or series of carriages, of means for moving the latter in a circular path around the former, the inner wall or walls of said carriage or carriages being provided with sight-openings, substantially as shown and described.
9. In a panoramic apparatus, the combination, with a scenic display arranged centrally within a carriage or series of carriages, of means for moving the latter in a circular path around the former, the inner wall or walls of said carriage or carriages being provided with sight-openings and their outer wall or walls with doors accessible from a common entrance-chamber, substantially as shown and described.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
HENRI PAUL MOTTE. Witnesses:
H. T. MUNsoN, THOS. F. KEHOE.