|Publication number||US4880443 A|
|Application number||US 07/288,315|
|Publication date||Nov 14, 1989|
|Filing date||Dec 22, 1988|
|Priority date||Dec 22, 1988|
|Publication number||07288315, 288315, US 4880443 A, US 4880443A, US-A-4880443, US4880443 A, US4880443A|
|Inventors||George W. Miller, Clarence F. Theis|
|Original Assignee||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (25), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (62), Classifications (20), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States for all governmental purposes without the payment of any royalty.
This application is related to a copending patent application by the same inventors, titled "Secondary Oxygen Purifier for a Molecular Sieve Oxygen Concentrator" (hereinafter "our secondary purifier patent"), Ser. No. 07/151/383, filed Feb. 2, 1988, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,813,979, issued Mar. 21, 1989, which is hereby incorporated by reference. Priority under 35 U.S.C. 120 is claimed, both applications being assigned to The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force.
The present invention relates to a molecular sieve oxygen concentrator with a secondary oxygen purifier.
Molecular sieve oxygen concentrators have attracted considerable attention recently because they are capable of producing high purity oxygen (about 95%) in a simple, cost-effective manner. Further, this oxygen has been found acceptable as a breathing as for patients requiring oxygen therapy and for aircrew hypoxia protection. These concentrators operate on the principle of pressure swing adsorption (PSA), whereby, the pressure of the adsorbent beds is cycled at a typical rate of 10 sec/cycle. This rapid cycling improves the oxygen-nitrogen separation efficiency of the concentrator resulting in a significant reduction in the unit's weight and volume. During this cycling the nitrogen component of the air is adsorbed at high pressure and desorbed at low pressure to the surroundings. Concentrators operating on this principle are present onboard the USAF B1-B strategic bomber and the USN AV-8B fighter.
The simplest oxygen concentrator is composed of two cylindrical absorbent beds containing a zeolite molecular sieve, valving, and an orifice. In a typical two-step cycle, during step 1 of the cycle one bed receives high pressure (20-40 PSIG) feed air which pressurizes the bed and establishes a product oxygen flow, and the nitrogen component of the air is removed by preferential adsorption in the zeolite molecular sieve. Simultaneously, the high pressure gas in the other bed is vented to a lower pressure usually the ambient surroudings, and this depressurization serves to desorb the nitrogen previously adsorbed during the high pressure phase of the cycle. Also, a portion of the product gas from the high pressure bed is fed to the low pressure bed to flush the nitrogen-rich gas from that bed. The orifice serves to control the flow of purge gas. In step 2 of the cycle the adsorbent beds exchange roles. This constant cycling results in a continuous product stream of high purity oxygen.
One limitation of a concentrator containing a zeolite molecular sieve is the maximum oxygen purity of 95% (the remainder is argon). Because the oxygen and argon molecules are similar in size and are nonpolar they both are concentrated upon passage through the beds of zeolite molecular sieve.
U.S. patents of interest include U.S. Pat. No. 4,661,125 to Haruna et al, which relates to a process for producing high concentration oxygen by a pressure swing adsorption method. According to this patent, argon-containing oxygen obtained by a PSA method conducted in a first step adsorption apparatus packed with a xeolite molecular sieve is introduced into a second step adsorption apparatus comprising three adsorption columns each packed with a carbon molecular sieve and is subjected to a PSA operation, whereby oxygen is preferentially adsorbed by the carbon molecular sieve and argon is separated from oxygen as a non-adsorbed gas. Production of high concentration oxygen having a concentration of 99% or higher is disclosed.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,566,881 to Richter et al discloses a process and apparatus for producing oxygen with a low friction of argon from air involving a first adsorption unit comprising at least two adsorbers containing carbon molecular sieve which provides an intermediate product that is enriched with oxygen and depleted of argon by comparison to the supplied N2/O2/Ar gas mixture. Thereafter the intermediate product is subjected to zeolite adsorption in an adsorption unit. This patent discloses that when the method is carried out with a dry and carbon-dioxide-free air, oxygen is produced with a plurality of 99.7 volume percent during the adsorption phase of the zeolite adsorption unit. This patent further discloses that the regeneration of the zeolite-bed adsorbers is interrupted while the first of carbon-bed absorbers are regenerated by a vacuum pump which is used in common to regenerate the adsorbers.
Similarily U.S. Pat. No. 4,190,424 to Armond et al discloses integrating the zeolite and carbon sieve processes to produce oxygen with a purity better than that which can be achieved by either of the known processes operated alone. The overall performance of this process is enhanced by the recycling as feedstock of an oxygen-rich gas stream from the second section to the first. A product stream with a proportion of oxygen as high as 99.7% is cited for one embodiment (see col 3, line 37). U.S. Pat. No. 4,529,412 to Hayashi et al relates to a process for obtaining high concentration argon from air by means of pressure-swing adsorption, characterized by passing air through a zeolite molecular sieve-packed adsorption apparatus and a carbon molecular sieve-packed adsorption apparatus in this order, subjecting the air to pressure-swing-adsorption operation independently in the above pieces of adsorption apparatus, thereby obtaining concentrated argon and high purity oxygen simultaneously. Other patents relating to oxygen generators or concentrators which rely on molecular sieves include 4,561,287 to Rowland, and 4,272,265 to Snyder; and the latter cites aircraft applicability.
An objective of the invention is to increase the oxygen concentration of the product gas from a zeolite molecular sieve oxygen concentrator.
The invention is directed to molecular sieve oxygen concentrator, having an integrated secondary oxygen purifier, which provides a simple and cost-effective process for producing concentrated oxygen with a purity of more than 99% from a compressed air feed stream compared to oxygen concentrators producing 95% purity oxygen. This invention involves a device comprised of four interdependent adsorption beds, two of which contain zeolite molecular sieves and the other two contain carbon molecular sieves, six air operated valves, a solenoid activated valve, a manual valve and a programmable solenoid actuator. Each of the zeolite beds is connected in series with a carbon molecular sieve bed, so that the gas flow must pass sequentially from a zeolite molecular sieve bed to a carbon molecular sieve bed. The valves are operated in half cycles to withdraw the product gas from the carbon molecular sieve beds alternately.
A feature of the invention is that it uses a simple process to concentrate oxygen in a feed air stream to a maximum purity of more than 99%, while comsuming the same amount of air as present oxygen concentrators.
Another feature is that a secondary oxygen purifier has been integrated with a zeolite molecular sieve concentrator, such that, the secondary oxygen purifier does not operate as a separate device with a single inlet stream but receives two inlet streams.
Another feature is that a regenerative purge flow is not required for the secondary beds, which minimizes the feed air consumption.
The apparatus uses small particle size (16×40 mesh) carbon molecular sieve to improve the efficiency of the oxygen-argon separation.
Advantages are that the apparatus consumes the same amount of feed air, and the size and weight is about the same, as present oxygen concentrators which produce 95% purity oxygen.
The invention can be used for generating high purity oxygen for aircraft breathing systems, field hospitals, and portable oxygen therapy.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram showing a molecular sieve oxygen concentrator having an integrated secondary oxygen purifier for an aircraft oxygen generating system;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram showing an alternate for the concentrator of FIG. 1.
As shown in FIG. 1 of our secondary purifier patent, the simplest typical prior art oxygen concentrator is composed of two cylindrical adsorbent beds containing a zeolite molecular sieve, valving, and an orifice 10; and operates in a two-step cycle. During step 1 of the cycle one bed receives high pressure (20-40 PSIG) feed air which pressurizes the bed and establishes a product oxygen flow. The nitrogen component of the air is removed by preferential adsorption in the zeolite molecular sieve. Simultaneously, the high pressure gas in the other bed is vented to a lower pressure usually the ambient surroundings. An orifice serves to control the flow of purge gas. In step 2 of the cycle the adsorbent beds exchange roles. This constant cycling results in a continuous product stream of high purity oxygen.
A schematic of a miniaturized version of the apparatus for practicing the invention is shown in FIG. 1. The apparatus is composed of four adsorbent beds B1-B4, two of which are carbon molecular sieve beds B1 and B2 each containing about 177 grams of 16×40 mesh pellets, and two of which are zeolite molecular sieve beds B3 and B4 each containing about 230 grams of 16×40 mesh pellets. Each zeolite molecular sieve bed is placed in series with one of the carbon molecular sieve beds, with bed B3 in series with bed B1, and bed B4 in series with bed B2, so that gas flow must pass sequentially through a zeolite molecular sieve bed to a carbon molecular sieve bed. An orifice 100 (ID=0.071 cm) joins the outlets 213 and 223 of the two zeolite molecular sieve beds B3 and B4. Beds B1 and B2 are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe (OD=4.83 cm, ID=3.81 cm, length=22.9 cm) and filled with 177 grams each of 16×40 mesh carbon molecular sieve. Beds B3 and B4 are constructed of stainless steel tubing (OD=2.54 cm, ID=2.36 cm, length=76.2 cm) and filled with 230 grams each of 16×40 mesh 5AMG zeolite molecular sieve. A full scale model of the apparatus suitable for use in an aircraft oxygen system would require greater quantities of carbon molecular sieve and 5AMG zeolite molecular sieve. The apparatus also includes one manual valve V1, six air operated valves V2-V7, a solenoid actuator valve V8, and a programmable solenoid actuator unit 300. Compressed air at 75 PSIA is supplied via line 230 to the valve V8. The apparatus was operated at an optimum cycle time of 15 seconds, an inlet pressure of 45 PSIA of compressed air, and an exhaust pressure of 14.4 PSIA. The apparatus did not have an outlet purge flow orifice for beds B1 and B2, however, beds B3 and B4 had a 0.071 cm diameter purge orifice 100.
During operation, valve V1 is open, and the adsorbent beds are alternately cycled through steps of adsorption and desorption. In the first half-cycle of operation valves V2, V5, and V7 are activated open for a period of 7.5 seconds by a 115 VAC signal from the programmable solenoid actuator 300 which activates valve V8, thereby supplying 75 PSIA pressure to activate the air operators on valves V2, V5 and V7, while the valves V3, V4, and V6 are closed. Inlet air at line 210 via valve V5 and line 212 pressurizes beds B3 and B1 in series, and establishes a product flow at the outlet port of bed B1 via line 214, valve V2, line 216, and valve V1 to line 220. As the air passes through the adsorbent beds, nitrogen is preferentially adsorbed in bed B3 and argon is preferentially adsorbed in bed B1, so that oxygen is concentrated. Simultaneously, bed B2 is regenerated by partial depressurization into bed B4. Also, bed B4 is regenerated by depressurization to the ambient pressure via line 222 and valve V7 to line 221, a purge flow from the product of bed B3 at line 213 which passes through the orifice 100, and a purge flow resulting from the partial depressurization of bed B2. This depressurization exhausts the previously adsorbed nitrogen and argon to the ambient surroudings.
During the second half-cycle valves V3, V3, and V6 are energized open for a period of 7.5 seconds, while the valves V2, V5, and V7 are closed. During this phase of the cycle beds B4 and B2 are pressurized from line 210 via valve V6 and line 222 and produce product gas from the outlet 220 via line 224, valve V3, line 226 and valve V1; while beds B3 and B1 are depressurized via line 212 and valve V4 to line 211. By repeating these steps of adsorption and desorption, a continuous stream of very high purity oxygen is produced. Additionally, it should be noted that a purge is not required for regeneration of the carbon molecular sieve adsorbent beds B1 and B2 during the depressurization phase of the cycle. This feature improvees the efficiency by reducing the feed gas consumption.
A schematic electrical diagram of the programmable solenoid actuator 300, which provides the timing for controlling the operation of the valves V2-V7, is shown in FIG. 3 of our secondary purifier patent. The unit 300 is supplied 115 volt AC power via a line 310. There are four female output receptacles, comprising a pair 1A and 2A in parallel, and another pair 1B and 2B in parallel. The AC power from line 310 is connected to the receptacles 1A and 2A during the first half-cycle of the bed operation, and to the receptacles 1B and 2B during the other half-cycle. There is a switch 312 for turning on the power, and a neon lamp 314 for indicating power on. "Programmable" refers to the timing being adjustable, as controlled by a thumbwheel switch 316 and a potentiometer with a control 318. The unit 300 may be any apparatus which provides for programming of the operation of the valves V2-V7 in equal half cycles, with an adjustable cycle time.
The valves V2-V7 are air operated valves (Whitney model #SS-92M4-NC). These are normally closed valves which are actuated open upon receiving an air pressure signal. Compressed air for operation of the valves V2-V7 is supplied via a solenoid operated valve V8 (Numatic Model MK-7 #11SAD4410). The solenoid is connected to receptacle 1A or 2A of the actuator 300. During one half cycle, the valve V8 is energized to supply compressed air at 75 PSIA from a line 230 to an air line A to actuate the valves V2, V5 and V7; and during the alternate half cycles, when the valve V8 is not energized, air from line 230 is supplied from line 230 and valve V8 via an air line B to actuate the valves V3, V4 and V6. The manual valve V1 may be Whitey Model #SS-21RS4-A.
In testing it was found that performance improved after leaks in the PVC beds B1 and B2 were repaired and the amount of carbon molecular sieve pellets per bed was increased from 167 grams to 177 grams. Data was taken at an inlet pressure of 45 PSIA (lbs./sq. inch abs.) and a temperature of 297 K. The best result was found at an inlet flow of 28.65 (SLPM), a product flow of 100 (SCCM), and a cycle time of 15.0 seconds (7.5 seconds for each half cycle); which produced product gas at line 220 measured as 99.10% O2, 0.63% Ar and 0.31% N2.
After testing several types of carbon molecular sieves we have determined that use of Takeda 3A, manufactured by Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., Japan, results in optimum performance of both the invention covered herein and in the invention covered by said related copending secondary purifier patent application.
The apparatus can be configured as shown in FIG. 2 in a manner that product gases may be withdrawn at line 220 and/or line 120. The first product gas at line 220 is produced the same as shown in FIG. 1. The second product gas flow at line 120 possesses a maximum oxygen concentration of 95%. Air operated valves V9 and V10 are like valves V2 and V3, and a manual valve V11 is like valve V1. Valves V9 and V10 have inlets connected to lines 213 and 223 respectively at either end of the orifice 100, outlets via lines 116 and 126 to valve V11, and control inputs to the air lines A and B from the valve V8. The valve V11 connects the lines 116 and 126 to the outlet line 120. During the first half cycle product flow with 95% oxygen concentration may be withdrawn from bed B3 via valves V9 and V11. During the second half cycle the product flow is withdrawn from bed B4 through valves V10 and V11. This configuration would be beneficial if one desired two product streams, one with about 99% purity and the other with 95% purity.
It is understood that certain modifications to the invention as described may be made, as might occur to one with skill in the field of the invention, within the scope of the appended claims. Therefore, all embodiments contemplated hereunder which achieve the objects of the present invention have not been shown in complete detail. Other embodiments may be developed without departing from the scope of the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||95/98, 95/127, 96/132, 96/130, 96/115, 95/130|
|Cooperative Classification||B01D2259/4145, B01D53/0446, B01D2259/4533, B01D2257/102, B01D2257/11, B01D2253/108, B01D2259/4575, B01D2256/12, B01D53/04, B01D2259/404, B01D2253/102, B01D53/0454|
|Dec 25, 1990||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Apr 8, 1993||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jun 24, 1997||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Sep 30, 1997||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|
|Sep 30, 1997||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Apr 6, 2001||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12