Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS4911944 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/234,175
Publication dateMar 27, 1990
Filing dateAug 19, 1988
Priority dateAug 19, 1987
Fee statusLapsed
Also published asCA1263270A1, DE3851996D1, DE3851996T2, EP0304819A2, EP0304819A3, EP0304819B1, US5290573
Publication number07234175, 234175, US 4911944 A, US 4911944A, US-A-4911944, US4911944 A, US4911944A
InventorsBruce J. Holub
Original AssigneeHolub Bruce J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fish meal containing unsaturated fatty acid
US 4911944 A
Abstract
Fish meal containing omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids is useful as a feed additive for beef cattle feed.
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(9)
I claim:
1. A feed additive for beef cattle consisting essentially of fish meal containing an omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid selected from the group consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a mixture thereof, wherein said feed additive has an EPA content of about 10.06% and a DHA content of about 11.0%, each percentage being a percentage of the total fatty acids in said fish meal.
2. The feed additive claimed in claim 1, wherein said fish meal is made from mackerel.
3. The feed additive claimed in claim 1, wherein said fish meal is made from herring.
4. A feed for beef cattle comprising a feed additive, said feed consisting of fish meal containing an omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid selected from the group consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docasahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a mixture thereof, wherein said feed additive has an EPA content of about 10.06% and a DHA content of about 11.0%, each percentage being a percentage of the total fatty acids in said fish meal.
5. The feed as described in claim 4, wherein said feed additive is present in an amount of about 5% to 15% by weight of the total feed.
6. The feed as described in claim 5, wherein said feed additive is made from mackerel.
7. The feed as described in claim 5 wherein said feed additive is made from herring.
8. The feed as described in claim 4, wherein said feed additive is present in an amount of about 8% by weight of the total feed.
9. The feed as described in claim 8, wherein said feed additive is made from mackerel.
Description

The present invention relates to the field of animal husbandry, and in particular to the formulation of animal feeds and additives for animal feeds.

One of the prime objects in raising animals for meat production is to produce as healthful a product as possible, while maintaining commercially acceptable standards of, among other things, taste, texture and profitability.

It is known that increasing one's intake of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be very beneficial to one's health. In particular, these fatty acids have been shown to reduce hypertension and also to reduce serum lipids. For instance, Singer et al reported in "Long-term Effect of Mackerel Diet on Blood Pressure, Serum Lipids and Thromboxane Formation in Patients with Mild Hypertension" (Atherosclerosis, Vol. 62, p. 259-265 (1986) that a mackerel diet (mackerel being high in EPA) resulted in lowering of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and lowering of serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Fish oil concentrate containing EPA has also been found to lower blood pressure and plasma triglycerides when given orally to human subjects by Mortensen et al. (Thrombosis and Haemestasis, Vol. 50, p. 543-546 (1983).

Moreover, the Applicant and Ahmed A. Ahmed reported in 1984 (Alteration and Recovery of Bleeding Times, Platelet Aggregation and Fatty Acid Composition of Individual Phospholipids in Platelets of Human Subjects Receiving a Supplement of Cod-Liver Oil" Lipids, Vol. 19, p. 617-624 (1984)) that ingestion of a fairly concentrated form of EPA, (Cod-liver oil) will result in significant alteration of the fatty acid composition of platelet phospholipids, with an increase in the amount of EPA present therein and a decrease in the amount of arachidonate present therein. This results in an increase in bleeding times, due to a lessening in platelet aggregation, and, more significantly, a strong suggestion that high-EPA platelets interact less with blood vessels walls than low EPA-high arachidonate do. This suggests that EPA may decrease the incidence of coronary thrombosis.

The sources of EPA are principally cold water marine fish, such as mackerel. These types of fish are staples in the diets of many peoples, such as the Greenland Eskimos and Coastal Norwegians. However, in other areas of the world, particularly North America, the consumption of fish is not nearly high enough for people to benefit from EPA or DHA (also found in cold water marine fish, and capable of producing similar effects) intake. That is, the principle sources of animal protein in North America are beef cattle, swine and chicken (poultry), and none of these sources yields meat which is high in omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids (EPA or DHA). In fact, each (but poultry to a minor extent only) tends to be high in saturated fats and cholesterol, thereby making them health risks.

There has been a trend of late for persons interested in maintaining good health to ingest fish oil (e.g., cod liver oil) or EPA supplements in capsule form. This is an expensive and potentially unhealthy way of making sure that sufficient omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid is in the diet. This approach results in the comsumption of extra fat calories without the nutritional benefits of ingesting protein, vitamins, and minerals as occurs when food rather than pharmaceutical sources of omega-3 are consumed. Furthermore, excessive and potentially unsafe levels of omega-3 fatty acids are unlikely to be consumed when taken in food sources.

The object of the present invention is to provide a novel feed supplement or additive for use in the production of feeds for beef cattle, swine and poultry, the use of which will result in a beef, pork or poultry meat (as the case may be) with enhanced omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid content.

Accordingly, in one broad aspect, the present invention relates to, as a feed additive for beef cattle, fish meal containing omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids.

The applicant has found, quite unexpectedly, that when beef cattle are fed a source of EPA, such as fish meal made from ocean fish, there is incomplete breakdown of the EPA in the digestive system of the animal, and a significant amount of that EPA is incorporated in the flesh of the animal, displacing naturally occuring fatty acids. There is no ill effect on the animal, and it is not necessary to feed massive quantities of fish meal supplement to the animal over prolonged periods of time. They tend to assimilate the EPA from the fish meal into their own flesh fairly rapidly so that it may be necessary to feed the supplement to beef cattle for as little as six weeks before slaughter to bring EPA levels in the beef flesh to a desirable level.

The following example will illustrate the present invention.

EXAMPLE Three beef cattle were fed a ration having an 8% fish meal content. The fish meal had an EPA content of 10.6% and a DHA content of 11.0%, each being expressed as a percentage of the total fatty acid content of the fish meal. A suitable source (i.e. species) for fish meal of this omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid content is ground whole mackerel (scaled). The cattle were fed the foregoing ration for 20 weeks.

Three control cattle were fed a similar quantity of ration, but with no added fish meal.

The six animals were subsequently slaughtered and butchered and rib-eye steaks from each of them analyzed. The results were as follows:

              TABLE A______________________________________        % of fatty acids                    % of fatty acidDiet         in meat as EPA                    in meat as DHA______________________________________No fish meal 0.5  0.3                    0.2  0.18% fish meal 1.6  0.3                    1.4  0.4______________________________________

It will be observed, therefore, that the total enrichment of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid was about four-fold (0.7 vs 3.0).

It is expected, moreover, that protein encapsulation of the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid prior to feeding would further increase the concentration thereof in the end product. This would prevent degradation of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid by the rumen. Moreover, because neither swine nor poultry have a rumen, even more favourable yields of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids in the carcasses of fish meal fed pigs and chickens can be confidently expected.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3159489 *Dec 14, 1960Dec 1, 1964Swift & CoAntemortem injection of flavoring in poultry
US3561976 *Oct 31, 1966Feb 9, 1971Midwest Biochemical CorpMethod of tenderizing meat
US3669676 *Jul 13, 1970Jun 13, 1972Ralston Purina CoFeed intake limiting composition for cattle
US4738853 *Apr 4, 1985Apr 19, 1988Efamol Ltd.Food production
US4777162 *Mar 25, 1986Oct 11, 1988Kabushiki Kaisha Hayashibara Seibutsu Kagaku KenkyujoInclusion compound of eicosapentaenoic acid and food product containing the same
CA412389A *May 11, 1943Bell Irving And Company Ltd HFood composition for animals and poultry
CA412486A *May 11, 1943Whitmoyer LabFeed or supplement for animals
GB263014A * Title not available
GB280774A * Title not available
GB484822A * Title not available
GB651861A * Title not available
GB1356002A * Title not available
WO1988000439A1 *Jul 21, 1987Jan 28, 1988Yves Gerard Andre DelatteMethod for producing fodder
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1Morrison, "Feeds and Feeding", Morrison Publishing Co., 1956, pp. 524-527.
2 *Morrison, Feeds and Feeding , Morrison Publishing Co., 1956, pp. 524 527.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5032477 *Dec 21, 1989Jul 16, 1991Zweckform Etikettiertechnik GmbhMultilayer adhesive label
US5290573 *Feb 2, 1990Mar 1, 1994Holub Bruce JFish meal containing eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosa-hexaenoic acid
US5397591 *Feb 4, 1991Mar 14, 1995Martek Biosciences CorporationInfant formula and baby food containing docosahexaenoic acid obtained from dinoflagellates
US5407957 *Feb 13, 1990Apr 18, 1995Martek CorporationProduction of docosahexaenoic acid by dinoflagellates
US5415879 *Aug 29, 1994May 16, 1995Oh; Suk Y.Method of reducing heart related disease in humans using eggs having relatively high percentage of long chain fatty acids
US5416115 *Aug 9, 1993May 16, 1995University Of Maryland, Dept. Of Animal SciencesMethod for regulating milk fat and milk production using trans-fatty acids
US5492938 *Feb 9, 1995Feb 20, 1996Martek Biosciences CorporationPharmaceutical composition and dietary supplement containing docosarexaenoic acid obtained from dinoflagellates
US5550156 *Dec 19, 1994Aug 27, 1996Martek CorporationBlending docosahexaenoic acid containing microbial oil, a gamma linolenic acid containing oil, adding to infant formula
US5698244 *Jun 7, 1995Dec 16, 1997Omegatech Inc.Method for raising animals having high concentrations of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids
US5711983 *Jan 11, 1996Jan 27, 1998Martek Biosciences CorporationDinoflagellate biomass, methods for its production, and compositions containing the same
US5932257 *Jun 20, 1997Aug 3, 1999University Of GuelphMethod for enriching docosahexaenoic acid in expressed milk of dairy cattle
US6403142Dec 11, 1998Jun 11, 2002Ralston Purina CompanyHypoallergenic pet food
US6500471 *Dec 4, 2000Dec 31, 2002Naohiko SatoMethod of raising edible animals
US6783792Jun 4, 2002Aug 31, 2004Nestec S.A.Method of making hypoallergenic pet food
US6821534Jun 4, 2002Nov 23, 2004Nestec S.A.Method of diagnosing and treatment of a pet with food allergies
US7001610Oct 22, 2002Feb 21, 2006Omeganutrel Inc.Mixture of fatty acid with clay, talc; adjust concentration of fatty acid in cattle
US8124384May 8, 2007Feb 28, 2012Martek Biosciences CorporationEnhanced production of lipids containing polyenoic fatty acid by very high density cultures of eukaryotic microbes in fermentors
US8124385May 8, 2007Feb 28, 2012Martek Biosciences CorporationEnhanced production of lipids containing polyenoic fatty acid by very high density cultures of eukaryotic microbes in fermentors
US8129172Dec 8, 2006Mar 6, 2012Martek Biosciences CorporationGrowing Thraustochytrium, Schizochytrium, and/or mixtures in a culture medium containing a non-chloride sodium salt, e.g., sodium sulfate; microfloral biomass; aquaculture of larval shrimp, rotifers, molluscs; extruded food with flaxseed meal
US8133706May 8, 2007Mar 13, 2012Martek Biosciences CorporationEnhanced production of lipids containing polyenoic fatty acid by very high density cultures of eukaryotic microbes in fermentors
US8187845May 8, 2007May 29, 2012Martek Biosciences CorporationEnhanced production of lipids containing polyenoic fatty acid by very high density cultures of eukaryotic microbes in fermentors
US8187846May 8, 2007May 29, 2012Martek Biosciences CorporationEnhanced production of lipids containing polyenoic fatty acid by very high density cultures of eukaryotic microbes in fermentors
US8206956May 8, 2007Jun 26, 2012Martek Biosciences CorporationEnhanced production of lipids containing polyenoic fatty acid by very high density cultures of eukaryotic microbes in fermentors
US8216812May 8, 2007Jul 10, 2012Martek Biosciences CorporationEnhanced production of lipids containing polyenoic fatty acid by very high density cultures of eukaryotic microbes in fermentors
US8288133May 8, 2007Oct 16, 2012Dsm Ip Assets B.V.Enhanced production of lipids containing polyenoic fatty acid by very high density cultures of eukaryotic microbes in fermentors
US8288134May 8, 2007Oct 16, 2012Dsm Ip Assets B.V.Enhanced production of lipids containing polyenoic fatty acid by very high density cultures of eukaryotic microbes in fermentors
US8288135Oct 30, 2007Oct 16, 2012Dsm Ip Assets B.V.Growing Thraustochytrium, Schizochytrium, and/or mixtures in a culture medium containing a non-chloride sodium salt, e.g., sodium sulfate; microfloral biomass; aquaculture of larval shrimp, rotifers, molluscs; extruded food with flaxseed meal
US8747916Oct 30, 2012Jun 10, 2014Donald M. SmithSelecting, producing, and feeding whole algae as a feed supplement for cattle and bison to produce meat high in omega 3's for human health
WO1991011918A1 *Feb 4, 1991Aug 22, 1991Martek CorpDocosahexaenoic acid, methods for its production and compounds containing the same
WO2006007510A1 *Jun 30, 2005Jan 19, 2006Lenora CopperCompositions and methods for treating eye disorders and conditions
Classifications
U.S. Classification426/635, 426/807, 426/643, 426/646
International ClassificationA23K1/16, A23K1/10
Cooperative ClassificationY10S426/807, A23K1/103, A23K1/164
European ClassificationA23K1/16I, A23K1/10B
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jun 9, 1998FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 19980401
Mar 29, 1998LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Feb 13, 1998REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
May 6, 1993FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4