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Publication numberUS4929546 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/178,257
Publication dateMay 29, 1990
Filing dateApr 6, 1988
Priority dateApr 7, 1987
Fee statusPaid
Also published asCA1316442C, DE3871216D1, EP0285792A1, EP0285792B1
Publication number07178257, 178257, US 4929546 A, US 4929546A, US-A-4929546, US4929546 A, US4929546A
InventorsAnnika Mayra-Makinen
Original AssigneeValio Meijerien Keskusosuusliike
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Test set and a process for the determination of antibiotics in milk and a novel streptococcus thermophilus strain to be used therein
US 4929546 A
Abstract
A test set comprising a purified culture of Streptococcus thermophilus T101 concentrate and a water-based protective agent in dilution ratio of about 4 to 510-2. The test set may also advantageously comprise an indicator. The test method includes the steps of incubating the test set and evaluating the color. The present invention also comprises a purified culture of Streptococcus thermophilus T101 strain.
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Claims(25)
I claim:
1. A test set suitable for the determination of the presence of antibiotics in milk comprising a Streptococcus thermophilus T101 DSM 4022 concentrate and a water-based protective agent.
2. A test set according to claim 1 wherein said concentrate is in a dilution ratio of about 4 to 510-2.
3. A test set according to claim 1 wherein said protective agent comprises an aqueous solution comprising about 1.1% by wgt. sodium glutamate and about 1.1% by wgt. ascorbic acid.
4. A test set according to claim 3 wherein said protective agent further comprises about 7% by wgt. lactose.
5. A test set according to claim 3 wherein said protective agent has a pH of about 6.5.
6. A test set according to claim 1 wherein said test set further comprises an indicator.
7. A test set according to claim 6 wherein said indicator is bromocresol purple.
8. The microorganism comprising a purified culture of Streptococcus thermophilus T101, DSM 4022.
9. A process for determining the presence of antibiotics in milk comprising the steps of:
(a) adding a sample of milk to a test set comprising a Streptococcus thermophilus T101, DSM 4022 concentrate and a water-based protective agent,
(b) adding an indicator to said test set,
(c) incubating the test set and the sample, and (d) evaluating the color of the test set, wherein a color change is an indication of the presence of an antibiotic in the milk sample.
10. A process according to claim 9 wherein said test set comprises Streptococcus thermophilus in a dilution ratio of from 4 to 510-2.
11. A process according to claim 9 wherein said sample is incubated at temperature of about 38-42 degrees C.
12. A process according to claim 9 wherein said sample is incubated for about four hours.
13. A method for preparing a test set suitable for the determination of the presence of antibiotics in milk comprising the steps of:
(a) growing Streptococcus thermophilus T101 DSM 4022 in a culture medium,
(b) concentrating said Streptococcus Thermophilus T101 growth,
(c) adding said concentrate to a protective agent, and
(d) rapidly cooling the concentrate and protective agent solution.
14. A method according to claim 13 wherein said culture medium comprises:
(a) about 5% by wgt. whey permeate powder,
(b) about 1.5% by wgt. casein hydrolysate,
(c) about 0.5% by wgt. tryptone, and
(d) about 1% by wgt. yeast extract.
15. A method according to claim 13 wherein said Streptococcus thermophilus T101 is grown at a pH of about 6.2.
16. A method according to claim 13 wherein said Streptococcus thermophilus T101 is grown at a temperature of about 42 degrees C.
17. A method according to claim 13 wherein said growth is concentrated to a bacterium concentration of about 2109 bacteria per ml.
18. A method according to claim 13 wherein an indicator is added to said concentrate and protective agent solution prior to cooling.
19. A method according to claim 18 wherein said indicator is a 0.8% solution of bromocresol purple.
20. A method according to claim 13 wherein said concentrate and protective agent solution is cooled in a carbonic acid-sulphite alcohol bath.
21. A method according to claim 20 further comprising the steps of freeze drying and vacuum sealing said solution.
22. A process for determining the presence of an antibiotic in milk comprising the steps of:
(a) adding a sample of milk to a test set comprising a Streptococcus thermophilus T101, DSM 4022 concentrate, a water-based protective agent and an indicator,
(b) incubating the test set and the sample, and
(c) evaluating the color of the test set, wherein a color change is an indication of the presence of an antibiotic in the milk sample.
23. A process according to claim 22, wherein said test set comprises Streptococcus thermophilus T101, DSM 4022 in a dilution ratio of from 4 to 510-2.
24. A process according to claim 22, wherein said sample is incubated at a temperature of about 38-42 degrees C.
25. A process according to claim 22, wherein said sample is incubated for about 4 hours.
Description

The present invention is directed to a test set suitable for the determination of antibiotics in milk. The invention is also directed to a novel Streptococcus thermophilus strain to be used in the test set and a process for the determination of antibiotics in milk utilizing said test set.

BACKGROUND

In many situations it is of vital importance to be able to detect the presence of small amounts of antibiotics. This is the case in food industries, for instance, where the increased use of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic substances in the treatment of animals has created a need for a simple, reliable and sensitive process of determination. Since antibiotics are used also in the treatment of dairy cows and since antibiotic residues in milk may both cause health hazards and be disadvantageous for food technological reasons, it is especially important to develop processes suitable for an accurate and rapid screening of milk.

Antibiotic residues in milk are generally detected by microbiological processes which utilize the fact that bacteria are able to produce acid, reduce colours and produce growth on an agar medium. These processes are based on the bactericidal, inhibitory and morphological effect of antibiotics on certain microorganisms.

The Thermocult disk technique is an agar diffusion technique which is widely used in Finland and accepted as an official antibiotic determination procedure. In this technique the test organism is B. stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. It has been developed on the basis of an IDF standard process (IDF 1970. Detection of Penicillin in Milk by a Disk Assay Technique. International Standard FIL-IDF 57. Brussels).

A process of corresponding sensitivity is disclosed by Van OS et al., Diffusion Test for the Determination of Antibiotic Residues in Milk. Neth. Milk and Dairy J. 29 (1975) 16. The Delvotest process also uses B. stearothermophilus var. calidolactis as the test organism. A sample (0.1 ml) is pipetted on agar contained in an ampoule and a tablet containing nutrients and a pH indicator is added to the ampoule. The process is based on the acid producing capability of the test organism. The ampoules are incubated at 64 C. for 2 5 hours. The evaluation is based on the colour change of the agar layer.

Standard techniques further include the Intertest (BCP-Test). The test microbe used in this process is Str. thermophilus. A test tablet containing a lyophilized culture of the test microbe, nutrients, and a pH indicator (bromocresol purple) is added to a milk sample. The incubation time is 4 hours at 45 C. If the sample does not contain any antibiotic, the colour of the solution turns from blue to green and further to yellow. The amount of the antibiotic can be determined to some extent on the basis of the colour by comparing to a colour map (THOROGOOD et al., An Evaluation on the Charm Test - A Rapid Method for the Detection of Penicillin in milk. J. Dairy Research 50 (1983) 185).

A drawback of these processes is their insufficient sensitivity in view of the needs of milk technology.

The determination of antibiotic residues in milk by means of chemical or physico-chemical processes is considerably less common than the use of microbiological processes. Colorimetric and chromatographic processes require skilled labour and often a complicated and expensive analyzing equipment. The processes are seldom suitable for routine analyses.

The Charm test (CHARM, S.E., A 15-minute Assay for Penicillin and other Antibiotics. Cultured Dairy Products J. 14 (1979) 24) is based on the detection of radioactivity. A lyophilized culture of B. stearothermophilus culture and lyophilized 14 C-labelled penicillin are added to a sample. The amount of 14 C contained in the bacterium cells is detected by a Geiger counter; the lower the penicillin concentration of the sample, the higher is the reading of the Geiger counter. The detection time is only 15 minutes and the sensitivity of the process is 0.005 I.U. of penicillin per ml. This process is also not particularly suitable for routine use since it is expensive and complicated and requires skilled persons and expensive equipment to be carried out.

Thus there is still a practical need for a sensitive process which has as broad-spectrum as possible. The process should advantageously be simple and should be capable of being carried out with equipment ready for use, whereby the test does not require specially skilled persons, but can be readily carried out, for example, on a farm.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

These advantages are obtained by the present invention which comprises a test set comprising a purified culture of Streptococcus thermophilus T101 concentrate and a water-based protective agent in dilution ratio of about 4 to 510-2. The test set may also advantageously comprise an indicator. If the test set does not comprise an indicator, an indicator is added. The test includes the steps of incubating the test set and the sample at about 38 to 42 C. for about 4 hours; and evaluating the colour. The present invention also comprises a purified culture of Streptococcus thermophilus T101 strain.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention comprises a novel purified culture Streptococcus thermophilus T101 strain, which has been isolated at the Lammi creamery of Valio. The strain has been deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen, Grisebachstrasse 8, 3400 Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany under the deposit number DSM 4022 on Mar. 3, 1987, and it possesses the following properties:

gram positive,

forms long coccus chains

growing temperature:

growth at 50 C.

no growth at 10 C.

salt resistance

growth at a NaCl concentration of 2% by wgt.

no growth at a NaCl concentration of 6.5%,

titrated acidity 25 to 29 SH (Soxhlet-Henkell) after 7-hour incubation at 42 C. (sterilized 10% milk powder milk)

lactic acid %: 0.8% by volume (incubated 2 days at 42 C., from milk powder milk)

fermentates lactose, saccharose and glucose.

The Applicant has provided that:

(a) access to the culture will be available during pendency of the patent application to one determined by the Commissioner to be entitled thereto under 37 CFR 1.14 and 35 U.S.C. 122;

(b) all restrictions on the availability to the public of the culture so deposited will be irrevocably removed upon the granting of the patent; and

(c) permanent availability of the culture to the public through the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen is assured.

Judging from the values given in the prior art, the novel microorganism strain is clearly more sensitive than known Streptococcus thermophilus strains, especially to penicillin and oxytetracycline.

The test is preferably prepared in the following way:

The microorganism strain is grown in a fermentor at a pH of about 6.2 to 6.5 and at about 38 to 42 C. in a culture medium based on whey permeate. The growth is observed and the growth is arrested at the end of the logarithmic growth phase whereafter the culture broth is concentrated by filtrating to about a 20-fold concentration. The concentration is measured in a dilution ratio of about 4 to 510-2, preferably about 5 x 10-2, into a protective agent. The protective agent may consist of water-based protective agents used in the preparation of lyophilized microbe preparations. Preferably the protective agent is an aqueous solution comprising about 1.1% of sodium glutamate, about 1.1% of ascorbic acid, and optionally about 7% of lactose, and the pH of which is about 6.5. The indicator can be added to the protective agent or it can be added to the test set in connection with the determination. The indicator is a conventional indicator as is known in the art e.g. an acid-base indicator, such as bromocresol purple. The concentrate is measured into a vessel which may be a conventional ampoule, a sealable test tube, a sample bottle, or the like. The vessel is rapidly cooled for example in a carbonic acid-sulphite alcohol bath, whereafter it is lyophilized and stored under vacuum. The finished test set contains about 1 to 2106 bacteria per ml.

The antibiotic determination is carried out by adding a liquid sample and, when an indicator has not already been added to the test set, an indicator to the test set. The test set and the sample are then incubated and the colour changes are observed. If the sample contains antibiotics, the microorganisms in the test set are not able to grow and the colour does not change. On the other hand, if the sample does not contain antibiotics, the microorganisms grow and induce a colour change while growing.

The sensitivity of the process according to the invention was compared with the corresponding commercial THERMOCULT (Orion Diagnostica) and DELVOTEST P (Gist-Brocades) techniques and the CHARM II technique. The sample consisted of milk preheated at 95 C. for 5 minutes and the determinations were carried out according to the instructions given by the manufacturers. The results are presented in Table 1, from which further appears the data given by the manufacturer Intervet concerning the INTERTEST. The results show that the process according to the invention is more sensitive than the other processes and detects clearly the presence of all types of antibiotics/combinations.

                                  TABLE__________________________________________________________________________Experimentally determined antibiotic sensitivities (μg/ml) of thetested determination processes        PROCESS                      DELVOTEST P        ACCORDING TO  THERMOCULT     own        IN-        THE INVENTION own deter-     deter-     TEREST                                                     CHARMANTIBIOTIC   A        B    mination (S & S) (a)                                     mination                                          (S & S) (a)                                                (b)  TEST__________________________________________________________________________                                                     IIPENICILLIN   0.001-   0.001-                      0.006-0.0075                               0.005-                                     0.0025                                          0.0025                                                0.005                                                     0.003        0.002 I.U.                 0.002         0.0075                 I.U.STREPTOMYCIN 1.25     0.25-0.4                      5.0      2.5-5.0                                     5.0  2.5-5.0                                                5.0  0.1TETRACYCLINE 0.05-0.1 0.05 0.2(c)   0.1   0.2  0.1   0.5  0.2OXYTETRACYCLINE        0.1      0.05 0.2(c)   0.1   0.2  0.1   0.2AMPICILLIN   0.01     0.003                      0.01(c)  0.005 0.01(c)                                          0.005 0.005ERYTHROMYCIN 0.01-0.05                 0.01 0.1(c)   0.5-0.75                                     0.1(c)                                          0.75-1.0                                                0.1  0.01CHLORAMPHENICOL        0.1-0.5  0.1  1.0(c)   7.5   1.0(c)                                          7.5-10.0                                                1.0  0.05NEOMYCIN     0.5      0.1-0.2                      0.5      1.0   1.0  0.5   20.0STREPTOMAX   0.004 I.U. PEN +                      0.01 I.U. PEN +(penicillin +        0.001 μg/ml                      0.008 μg/mlstreptom.)   STREPTOM.     STREPTOM.MASTALONE    0.1      0.05 0.2(c)(oxytetra-cycline + theothers)__________________________________________________________________________ A indicator added in connection with the test (duration of the test 4 hours) B indicator added before freeze drying (duration of the test 5 hours) (a) Sandstrom & Sivela, 1984, Karjantuote 4 (b) concentrations given by the manufacturers (c) could not be determined
EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of the test:

Bacteria of the Streptococcus thermophilus T101 strain are inoculated in a culture medium having the following composition:

5% by wgt. of whey permeate powder

1.5% by wgt. of casein hydrolysate

0.5% by wgt. of tryptone

1% by wgt. of yeast extract

The culture medium is sterilized at 12 C. for 15 to 20 minutes, and its pH is 6.4 after the sterilization.

The test strain is grown in a fermentor at a pH of about 6.2 and at about 42 C., and the growth is monitored by observing the turbidity of the culture broth. At the end of the logarithmic growth phase the growth is arrested and the culture broth is concentrated by filtrating using a Millipore Pellicon filtration unit (0.45 m) to a 20-fold concentration, whereby the bacterium concentration of the concentrate is about 2 109 bacteria per ml. The concentrate is washed with a small amount of protective agent, and about 5 ml. is added to 100 ml. of protective agent, whereto is possibly also added 1 ml of bromocresol purple colour (a 0.8% solution). The bacterium concentration of the solution so obtained is about 1108 bacteria per ml. 1 ml of the solution is added to a conventional 10 ml ampoule which withstands drying and can be closed by vacuum. The ampoule is cooled rapidly (20 to 60 s) in a -60 C. carbonic acid-sulphite alcohol bath, whereafter it is freeze dried and vacuum closed for storage. The ampoule thus prepared contains 1 to 2106 bacteria per ml.

EXAMPLE 2

Determination of antibiotics in a milk sample:

Raw milk is heated at 95 C. for 5 minutes. 2 ml of milk and possible 20 μl of a colour indicator are added to a test set prepared according to Example 1. The test set is incubated for about 4 hours at about 42 C. and the colour is evaluated. Milk prepared from sour milk powder and heated at 95 C. for 5 minutes is used as a control. If the milk contains antibiotics, the colour turns blue. Yellow indicates a negative result.

The examples were carried out using the protective agent mentioned on page 5 and both in the presence and absence of the optional 7% lactose. The results obtained are the same, but lactose has an advantageous effect on the appearance and properties of the lyofilized product. Without lactose the freeze-dried product easily crumbles; with lactose a perfect pellet which retains its integrity is obtained.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4235964 *Sep 28, 1978Nov 25, 1980Bochner Barry RMethod for testing and identifying microorganisms
US4615978 *Dec 18, 1984Oct 7, 1986The State Of Oregon, By And Through The Oregon State Board Of Higher Education On Behalf Of Oregon State UniversityBacterial growth medium and method of use
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1Jacobs et al, "Simple Rapid Test for Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Milk", 1972, Intervet. Int. N.V., Boxmeer, Neth, Tijdschr. Diergeneesk., 97(9), 548, 549-50.
2 *Jacobs et al, Simple Rapid Test for Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Milk , 1972, Intervet. Int. N.V., Boxmeer, Neth, Tijdschr. Diergeneesk., 97(9), 548, 549 50.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5494805 *Feb 9, 1994Feb 27, 1996Gist-Brocades N.V.Comprising test organism and two redox indicators in an agar medium, observing color change
US5658790 *Jan 25, 1996Aug 19, 1997Bio 101, Inc.Cell culture media formulated in unit dose
US5792622 *Nov 16, 1995Aug 11, 1998New Mexico State University Technology Transfer CorporationAssay for chemicals
US5827675 *Jan 2, 1996Oct 27, 1998Charm Sciences, Inc.Test apparatus, system and method for the detection of test samples
US5965453 *Jun 8, 1998Oct 12, 1999Charm Sciences, Inc.A test apparatus with a transparent tube having at one end a sample unit, the other end a detachable or nondetachable unit which are connected, and includes a cover with a probe and a swab at one end; rapid, efficient and disposable apparatus
US6056979 *Sep 28, 1995May 2, 2000Compagnie Gervais DanoneStreptococcus Thermophilus strain, fermentation process using such strain and product obtained
US6428829 *Oct 4, 1999Aug 6, 2002Compagnie Gervais DanoneStreptococcus thermophilus strain, fermentation process using such strain and product obtained
US6867015 *Feb 1, 1996Mar 15, 2005Gist-Brocades B.V.Detection of residues of antibiotics such as penicillin G and sulfadiazine in liquid samples such as milk, meat juice, serum, urine
US7897365Nov 5, 2004Mar 1, 2011Charm Sciences, Inc.Method for adjusting antibiotic sensitivity of a test culture
US8476064Jul 26, 2010Jul 2, 2013Charm Sciences, Inc.Inhibition assay method and device for detection of antibiotics
Classifications
U.S. Classification435/29, 435/253.4, 435/32, 435/33, 435/36, 426/34, 426/43, 426/42, 426/61
International ClassificationC12R1/46, C12Q1/14, C12Q1/18
Cooperative ClassificationG01N2333/315, C12Q1/14, C12Q1/18
European ClassificationC12Q1/18, C12Q1/14
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Nov 8, 2001FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12
Nov 24, 1997FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Nov 15, 1993FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Sep 22, 1988ASAssignment
Owner name: VALIO MEIJERIEN KESKUSOSUUSLIIKE, KALEVANKATU 56,
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:MAYRA-MAKINEN, ANNIKA;REEL/FRAME:004944/0252
Effective date: 19880907
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MAYRA-MAKINEN, ANNIKA;REEL/FRAME:4944/252
Owner name: VALIO MEIJERIEN KESKUSOSUUSLIIKE, A CORP. OF FINLA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MAYRA-MAKINEN, ANNIKA;REEL/FRAME:004944/0252