|Publication number||US4955395 A|
|Application number||US 07/488,165|
|Publication date||Sep 11, 1990|
|Filing date||Mar 8, 1990|
|Priority date||Mar 8, 1990|
|Also published as||CA2012605A1, CA2012605C|
|Publication number||07488165, 488165, US 4955395 A, US 4955395A, US-A-4955395, US4955395 A, US4955395A|
|Inventors||Ernest K. Manders|
|Original Assignee||Manders Ernest K|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (23), Classifications (7), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates to inflatable soft tissue expanders of the type adapted to be implanted beneath the hair bearing scalp and expanded to increase the area of the hair bearing scalp. After deflation and surgical removal of the expander, the hair bearing scalp is moved forward to cover a former bald area of the scalp.
Radovan U.S. Pat. No. 4,217,889 discloses a conventional soft tissue expander having a base and an overlying cover joined to the edge of the base. Fluid is injected into the cavity between the base and cover and expands the elastic cover and soft tissue overlying the cover.
Manders U.S. Pat. No. 4,574,780 discloses a specialized tissue expander which differentially expands overlying soft tissue. Pairs of this type of expander are used to differentially expand the hair bearing temporal scalp to either side of male pattern bald central scalp. Following surgical removal of the two expanders the expanded scalp is advanced to cover the former bald area.
C-shaped expanders, sometimes referred to as croissant expanders, have a pair of spaced arms separated by a single recess. These devices are used to expand skin surrounding a defect area so that following removal of the defect the expanded skin may be advanced and applied to cover the defect area.
The present invention is a specialized soft tissue expander having three spaced arms extending from one side of the base with concave recesses between the arms and a single interior cavity. The expander is implanted in a pocket the arms surrounding skin defects and expanded in a single operation to enlarge skin surrounding both defects. Following removal of the expander the skin is advanced to cover both defects in a single operation.
The expander may be used to treat temple bald recesses by expansion of the surrounding hair bearing scalp. In this treatment, the expander is implanted beneath the hair of a patient with temple bald recesses with the central arm underlying the central forelock, the end arms underlying the hair bearing temple area and the recesses of the expander generally conforming to the receding anterior hairline at the temple bald recesses. Inflation of the expander cover above the skull expands the overlying hair bearing scalp and permits advancement of the expanded scalp to cover both temple bald recesses. If desired, the forelock may also be moved forward a short distance to advance the central hairline.
The three armed expander surrounds both temple bald recesses and expands normal hair growing scalp to permit restoration of the normal male pattern hairline. Slight hair line concavities may be provided at the temples where expanded hair bearing scalp is advanced over the former temple bald recesses. The procedure is performed with a minimum of scar tissue located just forward of the anterior hairline. The scar line is not readily visible but may be concealed by hair, if desired.
The implanted expander is positioned under hair bearing scalp within a conforming pocket, with each arm fitted within a corresponding arm in the pocket. This arrangement assures that the expander is maintained in proper location in the pocket during expansion and greatly reduces the undesired possibility of shifting of the expander within the pocket. Shifting can cause non-uniform expansion of the overlying scalp rendering advancement impractical. Additionally, shifting may result in a portion of the expander erupting through the overlying soft scalp tissue. The ends of the arms are rounded to prevent eruption through overlying soft tissue during expansion.
Other objects and features of the invention will become apparent as the description proceeds, especially when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings illustrating the invention, of which there is one sheet and one embodiment.
FIG. 1 is a top view illustrating a tissue expander according to the invention spread in a horizontal configuration and located above the head of a patient with a receding anterior hairline;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of the expander shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along line 3--3 of FIG. 2.
Tissue expander 10 shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 is preferably formed from a biocompatible silicone elastomer and includes flexible non-extensible base 12 and expandable cover 14 on top of the base and integrally joined to the base at the peripheral edge 16 of the expander. When the expander is collapsed the cover and base overlie upon each other as indicated in FIG. 3. The expander is provided with suitable filling port 18 which is preferably mounted in cover 14. The cover 14 has a uniform thickness so that when fluid is injected into an implanted expander 10 through port 18 the cover is forced upwardly above the base and expands toward a hemispheric configuration as measured in transverse cross section. If desired, the base 12 may be provided with fiber reinforcement. The expander may include an integral closed body defining the interior of the expander as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,574,780. In expander 10 the cover and base are the same shape when the expander is deflated. Alternatively, the cover may have a larger area than the base and may be folded up when the expander is deflated.
As shown in FIG. 2 the base of expander 10 has a pair of longitudinally spaced apart ends 20 joined by peripheral sides 22 and 24. Side 22 is a smooth convex arc joining ends 20. Side 24 is generally sinuous and includes outwardly facing end arms 26, outwardly facing central arm 28 and a pair of inwardly facing convex recesses 30 located between arms 26 and 28. The arms and recesses are smoothly curved with the arms facing laterally of the expander, parallel to each other. This construction gives expander 10 a double-croissant or W-shape in top view. The ends of the arms 26 and 28 are smoothly rounded to prevent eruption during expansion.
Tissue expander 10 is implanted under the scalp of a patient with a receding anterior hairline and temple bald recesses 32 of the type shown in FIG. 1. When placed down on the head, expander side 24 generally conforms to the anterior hairline of the patient at the top of the forehead with the central arm 28 conforming to the hairy forelock 34, the inner sides of the end arms 26 conforming to the upper edges of the hairy temple areas 36 and the edges of recesses 30 conforming to the edges of the full bald recesses on the scalp.
The tissue expander 10 is implanted by forming an incision 38 (as indicated in FIG. 2) along the patient scalp line, lifting the hair bearing scalp from the skull to form a pocket having the shape of the expander and then inserting the expander into the pocket so that the fingers and recesses are positioned to conform closely to the hairline. The hairline incision is then sutured closed to confine the deflated expander within the pocket.
After an appropriate interval saline solution is injected into the single interior cavity of the expander through port 18 so that cover 14 and overlying hairy soft tissue are expanded above the base 12 which is supported on the skull. Repeated injection of saline solution into the expander lifts the cover and expands the overlying tissue thereby increasing the area of the hair bearing scalp around the two temple bald recess defects 32 located between adjacent arms 26 and 28.
Expansion is continued until the measured arc length of the expanded scalp indicates sufficient expansion has occurred to cover the temple recesses. Normally, sufficient expansion occurs when the scalp has been raised approximately four to five centimeters above the skull. This relatively small degree of expansion can be easily concealed by wearing a hat, such as a baseball cap, to lessen patient embarrassment during the period of expansion.
After completion of expansion, fluid is drained from the expander and another incision is formed along side 24 to sever the expanded scalp at the hairline and permit removal of the deflated expander. At this time, the bald scalp at temple areas 32 is surgically removed and the expanded hair bearing scalp surrounding each of the defect sites 32 is advanced as indicated generally by arrows 40 to form advanced temple hairlines 42. The anterior-posterior width of expander 10 assures that with expansion of the hair bearing scalp surrounding and behind the defect areas 32 sufficient additional hair bearing scalp is formed to be brought forward and completely cover the defects. The expanded tissue is easily bunched along the new hairline 42 and sutured to the remaining skin at the top of the forehead. In time, the expanded tissue grows flat on the skull with a minimum scar at the hairline. If desired, the expanded forelock may be advanced anteriorly a slight distance.
While I have understood and described a preferred embodiment of my invention, it is understood that this is capable of modification, and I therefore do not wish to be limited to the precise details set forth, but desire to avail myself of such changes and alterations as fall within the purview of the following claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4217889 *||Jul 20, 1978||Aug 19, 1980||Heyer-Schulte Corporation||Flap development device and method of progressively increasing skin area|
|US4574780 *||Nov 13, 1984||Mar 11, 1986||Manders Ernest K||Tissue expander and method|
|US4685447 *||Mar 25, 1985||Aug 11, 1987||Pmt Corporation||Tissue expander system|
|US4798205 *||Oct 23, 1987||Jan 17, 1989||Cox-Uphoff International||Method of using a subperiosteal tissue expander|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5421831 *||Jul 14, 1992||Jun 6, 1995||Giampapa; Vincent C.||Sub-malar facial implant|
|US5425760 *||Aug 3, 1994||Jun 20, 1995||Rosenberg; Paul H.||Tissue expander apparatus, and methods of constructing and utilizing same|
|US5476478 *||Apr 18, 1994||Dec 19, 1995||Providence Hospital||Preoperative skin stretching apparatus and method|
|US5507775 *||Jan 21, 1994||Apr 16, 1996||Progressive Surgical Products Inc.||Tissue expansion and approximation device|
|US5571179 *||Jul 18, 1995||Nov 5, 1996||Manders; Ernest C.||Dimensionally adjustable soft tissue expander and method|
|US5618310 *||Jul 27, 1994||Apr 8, 1997||Progressive Surgical Products, Inc.||Tissue, expansion and approximation device|
|US5662714 *||Feb 20, 1996||Sep 2, 1997||M.X.M.||Device for extending living tissues|
|US5968097 *||Dec 22, 1997||Oct 19, 1999||Mxm||Elastic device for extending living tissue and having large capacity for elongation|
|US6896689||Jan 28, 2003||May 24, 2005||Tewodros Gedebou||Tissue expander, system and method|
|US7226463||Feb 3, 2005||Jun 5, 2007||Tewodros Gedebou||Tissue expander, system and method|
|US7229459||Feb 3, 2005||Jun 12, 2007||Tewodros Gedebou||Tissue expander, system and method|
|US7238193||Feb 3, 2005||Jul 3, 2007||Tewodros Gedebou||Tissue expander, system and method|
|US8007532||Jun 5, 2007||Aug 30, 2011||Manders Ernest K||Dimensionally adjustable soft tissue expander|
|US8282684 *||Aug 15, 2007||Oct 9, 2012||Ricardo Alfredo Fuenmayor Aray||Instant face-lifter|
|US9399122||Dec 9, 2015||Jul 26, 2016||Reconstructive Technologies, Llc||Systems and methods for a tissue expander|
|US20040147953 *||Jan 28, 2003||Jul 29, 2004||Tewodros Gedebou||Tissue expander, system and method|
|US20050126580 *||Feb 3, 2005||Jun 16, 2005||Tewodros Gedebou||Tissue expander, system and method|
|US20050126581 *||Feb 3, 2005||Jun 16, 2005||Tewodros Gedebou||Tissue expander, system and method|
|US20050149098 *||Feb 3, 2005||Jul 7, 2005||Tewodros Gedebou||Tissue expander, system and method|
|US20080221682 *||Aug 15, 2007||Sep 11, 2008||Ricardo Alfredo Fuenmayor Aray||Instant face-lifter|
|US20080306505 *||Jun 5, 2007||Dec 11, 2008||Manders Ernest K||Dimensionally Adjustable Soft Tissue Expander|
|WO1993021849A1 *||May 7, 1993||Nov 11, 1993||M.X.M. S.A.||Device for stretching live tissue|
|WO2014139401A1 *||Mar 11, 2014||Sep 18, 2014||Bin Song||Tissue expander and methods|
|U.S. Classification||128/898, 623/15.12, 623/8, 128/899|
|Mar 9, 1994||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Nov 21, 1997||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Mar 5, 2002||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12