|Publication number||US5038268 A|
|Application number||US 07/351,839|
|Publication date||Aug 6, 1991|
|Filing date||May 12, 1989|
|Priority date||May 12, 1989|
|Publication number||07351839, 351839, US 5038268 A, US 5038268A, US-A-5038268, US5038268 A, US5038268A|
|Inventors||Dean R. Krause, Peter L. Floersch|
|Original Assignee||Aquametrics, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (70), Classifications (15), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to irrigation controllers and more specifically to a computer-based irrigation system controller apparatus for controlling the timing and sequence for applying irrigation watering in a system of the type having a plurality of watering stations connected in parallel to a common source of water. The controller of the present invention is especially designed to be used with moisture sensors and permits numerous applications of relatively small amounts of water during an irrigation cycle thereby resulting in less loss due to runoff and reduced leaching and puddling caused by oversaturation.
2. Prior Art
Controllers for irrigation systems are not new. Their principal purpose is to obviate the requirement for manual control of watering systems such as sprinkler heads so that watering can be accomplished on a regular basis at times most suitable for minimally stressing the plants being watered and without requiring the presence of personnel to oversee the irrigation process. However, such prior art irrigation controller systems or timer-based systems water periodically irrespective of the need for watering and are not responsive to the moisture condition of the soil. Subsequent irrigation controllers were provided with soil moisture sensors to make the controllers responsive to the actual conditions of the soil. Such sensors indicate which watering station should be turned on or off and in which order to optimize the apparent efficiency of the irrigation system.
Unfortunately, systems that rely entirely on either timers or sensors are only as reliable as the timers and/or sensors to which they are connected. Consequently, if a timer or a sensor malfunctions, it is not unusual for a controller to permit either underwatering or overwatering which can destroy the plants by allowing them to be burned by the sun or by flooding them. Both of these conditions can, of course, be extremely costly. Furthermore, if a sprinkler head or other such water outlet becomes stuck in an open condition, then irrespective of the reliability of timers or sensors, the system will overwater and flood, thereby damaging plants and result in large costs for replacement of plants and for water waste.
There has therefore been a long felt need for an irrigation control system which reliably irrigates while conserving water and which effectively obviates any possibility for overwatering or underwatering irrespective of malfunctions in the system. There has also been a long felt need for an irrigation control apparatus which permits the monitoring of system watering statistics to permit personnel to keep track of irrigation performance during proper operation of the irrigation system as well as to assess system performance when malfunctions occur so that such malfunctions can be readily identified and corrected. There has furthermore been a long felt need for an irrigation control system where irrigation is provided by a large plurality of watering stations such as for use on golf courses, nurseries and the like and wherein such large numbers of watering stations can be controlled from a single control point providing a comprehensive display indicating the real time status for all such watering stations simultaneously. Furthermore, there has been a long felt need for a comprehensive irrigation control system wherein the irrigation parameters, such as the time that each watering station is turned on, the time between waterings at each station and the accumulated total watering time of each station, may be readily altered with a minimum of inconvenience to the user. A system controller that meets all of these needs would provide increased efficiency along with reliability and a significant degree of water conservation.
The aforementioned long felt needs are all met by the unique irrigation system control apparatus of the present invention. More specifically, the apparatus of the present invention permits computer-based control of a large number of watering stations while providing real time display of all such watering stations, simultaneously. The present invention also permits the monitoring of functional statistics of the watering system and assessment of the flow characteristics of the system, as well as monitoring of malfunctions at both the watering station level and the system level. The present invention also affords easy control and modification of the various times associated with watering such as the time each station is turned on during each watering, the time between waterings at each station and the total accumulated watering time interval. In addition, the present invention is designed to operate with soil moisture sensors and flow meters to provide highly reliable irrigation of plant systems such as large lawns and the like while optimizing water conservation. Most importantly, the present invention is designed to respond properly to malfunctions at either the system or station level to prevent costly catastrophes that have plagued prior art irrigation control systems.
The irrigation system controller apparatus of the present invention comprises a scanning irrigation controller which permits numerous applications of smaller amounts of water during the irrigation cycle resulting in less loss due to runoff and reduced leaching and puddling caused by oversaturation. The invention comprises a microprocessor-based control apparatus having a key pad with a plurality of keys and corresponding key lights, at least one such key and light for each of the watering stations associated with the irrigation system. The lights are provided so that the on/off status of each key is shown in real-time without requiring the user to perform any sequencing operations in order to assess the status of the system. The key pad also provides a plurality of clock function keys used to input time variables for both the system and the stations. A display is also provided which shows a variety of alpha-numeric messages including time values and error indications.
The controller of the present invention employs a microprocessor-based printed circuit board implementation utilizing CMOS logic electronics having serial data flow and serial-to-parallel data interfaces for control of keyboard lights and flow station valve solenoids. An RS 232/RS 422 interface is provided to permit the controller to be connected to a host/terminal as well as to one or more additional controllers for controlling irrigation utilizing a larger number of irrigation stations than can be handled by one controller. In a preferred embodiment, each such controller is designed to be operated with up to sixteen watering stations each of which may be optionally associated with a soil moisture sensor such as that disclosed in patent application Ser. No. 004,047 filed by Richard L. Bireley on Jan. 16, 1987, incorporated herein by reference and assigned to the assignee of the present invention and now issued as U.S. Pat. No. 4,850,386 issued July 25, 1989. The system, in its preferred embodiment, is also designed to operate in conjunction with a flow meter which provides a pulsed electrical signal each time a predefined quantity of water passes through the meter thus making pulse repetition rate proportional to flow rate.
Each of the sixteen irrigation stations with which the present invention may be used, without interface with additional controllers, is provided with three dedicated keys with the nomenclature ON, AUTO and OFF, respectively. The "ON" key allows manual operation of the selected station when it is desired to bypass the automatic feature of the present invention such as immediately after the application of fertilizer to dissolve the fertilizer before it has a chance to burn the lawn. The "AUTO" key for each station places that station under automatic control of the controller apparatus of the present invention for automatic irrigation in accordance with time and moisture sensor control as will be described hereinafter in greater detail. The various operating parameters of the invention may be readily altered and controlled by a terminal/host computer to which the system is adapted for connection using an RS 232 or an RS 422 port. Such a terminal/host computer may be selectively connected to the controller apparatus for modification or status evaluation of the system's performance or may be relatively permanently connected to the system for everyday reprogramming and monitoring of the system's performance.
It is therefore a principal object of the present invention to provide an irrigation system controller apparatus having improved water conservation and reliability features for use with a large plurality of irrigation stations.
It is an additional object of the present invention to provide an irrigation system controller apparatus having a microprocessor-based logic system for control of automatic irrigation parameters such as the watering interval time and off or soak time for each of a plurality of stations.
It is still an additional object of the present invention to provide an irrigation system controller apparatus which displays an assessment of the flow characteristics of the system, as well as of system and station malfunctions which might otherwise result in catastrophic damage to the lawn or other plant life.
It is still an additional object of the present invention to provide an automatic controller for irrigation systems designed to operate in conjunction with moisture sensors to automatically control irrigation sequences in accordance with a predefined schedule and the needs for moisture in a large plurality of distributed irrigation stations.
It is still an additional object of the present invention to provide an automatic irrigation system controller for use with a large plurality of watering stations and having a real-time display of the watering status of all such stations without requiring any form of sequencing of switches or the like to provide such information.
It is still an additional object of the present invention to provide an improved irrigation system controller apparatus for use in conjunction with a plurality of watering stations, moisture sensors and at least one flow meter for detecting the occurrence of malfunctions in the system as a whole or in individual watering stations and providing means responsive to such malfunctions to shut down either the system or those individual watering stations.
It is still an additional object of the present invention to provide an improved irrigation system controller apparatus for controlling a predetermined number of irrigation stations and having the capability for interfacing one or more additional such controllers as slave units for controlling an even larger number of individual irrigation stations.
The aforementioned objects and advantages of the present invention, as well as additional objects and advantages thereof will be more fully understood hereinafter as a result of a detailed description of a preferred embodiment when taken in conjunction with the following drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of the front panel of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of the keyboard portion of the present invention;
FIG. 3 which comprises FIG. 3a and 3b is a schematic representation of the display portion of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic representation of the LED indicator portion of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic representation of the relay control portion of the present invention;
FIG. 6, which comprises FIG. 6a and 6b, is a schematic representation of the microprocessor and memory portion of the present invention;
FIG. 7 is a schematic representation of a back-up system enable circuit of the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a schematic representation of an interface circuit of the present invention; and
FIG. 9 is a flowchart representation of the station irrigation scanning feature of the present invention.
Referring first to FIG. 1, it will be seen that the control panel 10 of the present invention comprises a station key pad matrix 12 comprising a plurality of station keys 13 arranged in columns 14 and rows 15. Furthermore, it will be seen that each such station key 13 has associated with it, a light 16, which in the preferred embodiment of the invention shown herein comprises a light emitting diode LED. Each light 16 is located in the upper right corner of the corresponding key to indicate the ON/OFF status of that key. The station keys 13 are arranged in three rows 15 identified from top to bottom as ON, AUTO and OFF, respectively. In addition, each column 14 of station keys is labeled numerically, 1-16 from left to right with one such column 14 being associated with each watering station or irrigation zone.
Panel 10 also provides a number of clock function keys which are used by personnel to selectively input time control parameters such as time of day, start time, stop time, dwell time and the like. These clock function keys are provided in two groups, namely group 18 and group 20 on panel 10. Time function keys in group 18 include the start time, stop time, dwell time and time of day keys and the time function keys in group 20 include the fast and slow key. Pressing and holding any one of the four keys in group 18 while simultaneously pressing the fast or slow keys in group 20 advances the value of the input variable selected at either a fast or slow rate so that the user may rapidly and efficiently alter the setting of such times.
Panel 10 also provides a liquid crystal display 22 which is used to show a variety of alpha-numeric messages such as time values and error messages. The display 22 is comprised of four seven-segment standard display characters, two on each side of a colon 23 as well as a dot display 24 beneath the colon which designates AM or PM during time function displays. The start time key of group 18 on panel 10 controls the start time for an automatic irrigation cycle. Similarly, the stop time allows the user to set the finishing or completion time for the automatic irrigation cycle. The dwell time corresponds to the dwell time for each station, that is, the station irrigation time in minutes allowed each time the apparatus scans a particular station. The start time, stop time and dwell time dictate the irrigation parameters for the automatic mode of operation. In the automatic mode, the input variables are considered along with the real-time moisture level data from sensors for determining the timing of and amounts of water to be applied at each station. Stations are placed into the automatic mode when the user presses AUTO station keys, that is the middle row 15 of keypad 12. Specifically, any one or more of the sixteen irrigation stations corresponding to the keys 13 on the front panel 10 may be placed into the automatic mode by pressing the corresponding number in the middle row of keypad 12. During the period of time between the start time and the stop time, which is referred to herein as the watering window or the automatic irrigation cycle, the apparatus of the present invention scans the stations searching for one which has not been watered for a preselected period of time. That preselected period of non-watering time is called soak time. When such a station is found, it is watered for its dwell time or until the moisture sensor indicates that the sensed level of moisture has reached a preselected level. On subsequent scans, the station is watered in dwell time increments until either a maximum amount of automatic watering time has been accumulated at each station or until the watering window ends for all stations, assuming that the sensor for any particular station or stations has not been previously satisfied. The automatic scanning mode of operation of the present invention may be understood best by reference to FIG. 9 which is a flowchart illustrating the manner in which stations are scanned by the apparatus herein disclosed.
The present invention also provides a second automatic mode which is called automatic system override mode or ASO. During this mode, the system of the present invention scans the stations as it does in the automatic mode, but the input from the sensors is ignored. Water is applied subject to the programmed limits independent of the sensors. This may be desireable for example, after the application of fertilizer. To enter the automatic system override mode, the user presses and holds the slow button and then the desired station numbers. The present invention also permits the application of watering manually, at any time, irrespective of whether the actual time is in or outside the watering window, by simply pressing "ON" station keys. Up to four stations can be manually operated at the same time in the ON mode. Irrigation occurs for a preselected maximum period of time, called the maximum override time, after which the system for those stations returns to the "AUTO" mode. Thus the top row of keys 13 of keypad 12 denoted by the nomenclature "ON" allows the user to manually turn on any of the irrigation stations, up to a maximum of four simultaneously. The bottom row of keys 13 designated by the nomenclature "OFF" allows the user to simply press a station key in order to deactivate that watering station. The station will stay off until a positive action is taken to activate it again, such as pressing the corresponding "ON" key, "AUTO" key or pressing SLOW and a station's ON or AUTO key in order to enter the automatic system override mode for that station as previously described. The LED lights associated with the respective keys not only indicate the on/off condition of each such key, but also provide a means for displaying error messages at the station level as will be described hereinafter in more detail.
Referring now to FIG. 2, it will be seen that the keys of panel 10 of FIG. 1 are connected in a keyboard matrix pattern, the column lines of which are connected through pull-up resistors to a pair of 10-4 priority encoders such as a Model 40147 B, 10-line-to-4-line priority encoder. The encoded outputs appear on terminals A-D, respectively, of each encoder, and are connected to a programmable peripheral interface (PPI) such as a model 82C55. The row lines of the keyboard matrix are also connected to the programmable peripheral interface through a field programmable logic array such as a model 82S153 which provides a method for sequentially scanning the rows of the keyboard panel in order to differentiate among the various keys connected to each column line. A NOR gate is connected to the output of the 10-4 priority encoders to generate a signal indicating keypress whenever any of the keys is depressed. As seen in FIG. 3a, a portion of the programmable peripheral interface (PPI), namely the PB input lines are used to receive a number of special signals including high current sense input, station measured flow enable and current sense input, the function and purpose of which will be explained hereinafter. In addition, the programmable peripheral interface (PPI) is used to control certain features of the display including the colon and AM/PM dot on the LCD display. FIG. 3b illustrates the LCD display and display driver interface. The display driver may be an Intersil Model ICL 7211 AM LCD display driver, with a pair of EXCLUSIVE OR gates controlling the colon and PM indicator portions of the display in conjunction with the PC 4 and 5 outputs of the programmable peripheral interface of FIG. 3a.
As seen in FIG. 4, LED's 16, of which there are 48 in number in the preferred embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 1, are driven by a plurality of serial-to-parallel LED drivers and a corresponding plurality of resistor networks. Each of these LED drivers may for example, be a Model UCN-5810A latch driver. The serial data is applied to the LED drivers by a microprocessor at its serial data output terminal (TXS) seen in FIG. 6a. The CKS clock signal is also applied from the microprocessor while the Strobe and Blank signals are derived from the programmed peripheral interface at terminals PC 6 and PC 7 as shown in FIG. 3a. In the event that the present invention is used for irrigation control where there are more than sixteen stations as previously noted, up to two additional LED/keyboard control circuit boards may be serially connected to a controller of the present invention as extended keyboard control units. Consequently, the rightmost serial-to-parallel LED driver of FIG. 4 is shown with a serial data output line which may be used to connect to the additional serial-to-parallel LED drivers of the LED's of the panels of such additional extended keyboard control units. Such extended keyboard control units would also provide keyboard sequential scanning circuitry and connection of the columns to the main keyboard 10-4 priority encoders' inputs. The circuitry would replicate that of FIGS. 4 and 5, and a portion of that of FIG. 2.
FIG. 5 illustrates the solenoid control portion of the present invention, that is, the portion of the controller of the invention which interfaces with a plurality of relays which, when activated, apply solenoid power to the respective irrigation station valve solenoids to control the flow of irrigation water at each such station. As seen in FIG. 5, the signal control to the relays is similar to the signal flow to the LED's of FIG. 4. More specifically, a pair of serial to parallel drivers, such as model UCN5810A drivers are used to convert serial data into parallel data to be applied to the relays in accordance with the Clock, Strobe and Blank signals. The logic level of the output signals of the serial-to-parallel drivers applied to the relays determines whether or not solenoid power, at 24 volts AC, is applied to the respective output zones or watering stations connected to the controller of the present invention. In addition, one of the parallel output lines of the rightmost serial-to-parallel drivers of FIG. 5 is used to control the solenoid for the valve controller for the main flow of water into the irrigation system to which the present invention is connected. This rightmost serial-to-parallel driver of FIG. 5 also provides a data output line which may be connected to slave controllers for operation of the present system in conjunction with a larger plurality of irrigation stations as described above in conjunction with the LED output signals.
The microprocessor and memory devices of the present invention are shown in FIG. 6, comprising FIG. 6a and 6b. The microprocessor or CPU of the present invention may, by way of example, be a Hitachi model HD64B180ROCP 6 MHz. 8-bit CMOS CPU. The microprocessor of the present invention operates in conjunction with, for example, a Hitachi model HN27C256 256K 8-bit erasable and programmable ROM or read only memory device which is used to store the program or software which controls the operation of the present invention. The microprocessor of the present invention is also designed to operate in conjunction with a random access memory such as a Toshiba model PC5564PL-15 8k-by-8 CMOS static RAM. This random access memory is used to gather and save data used during the operation of the program of the present invention, including various bookkeeping data which may be used by the operating personnel to assess the status of the irrigation controller operation. This random access memory is provided with battery backup to retain program and statistical information during power outages by a circuit such as the Dallas Semiconductor DS1216C which also provides a Real Time Clock function with battery backup.
The present invention is designed to be used in conjunction with and not instead of existing timer controls previously in place in those irrigation systems to which the present invention is added where a prior timer control already exists. In this regard, FIG. 7 provides what is referred to as a "watch-dog" circuit which utilizes a monostable multivibrator, MOSFET and a relay connected to the external timer control. This circuit reacts to the colon signals by retriggering the monostable multivibrator and turning on the MOSFET which, in turn, operates the relay to open the contacts and deactivate the external timer. If two sequential colon signals are missed the monostable multivibrator deactivates and turns off the MOSFET which in turn allows the relay to relax and activates the external timer control for controlling the irrigation system in accordance with the previously installed timer control which thus acts as a back-up system to the controller of the present invention.
As seen in FIG. 8, the controller apparatus of the present invention utilizes a plurality of optical isolators for interface with external devices which the apparatus controls or to which it responds. By way of example, as shown in FIG. 8, such optical isolators are used for interface with a flow meter, current sensors and master valve control.
Because the controller apparatus of the present invention is a scanning controller, irrigation can occur numerous times per station within the automatic irrigation cycle. The station dwell time is the number of minutes of irrigation allowed each scan. As a general rule, more frequent applications of smaller volumes of water are desireable in order to prevent loss due to run-off. When power is first applied to the controller apparatus of the present invention, the LCD clock display flashes 88:88 until the time of day key is depressed. The display will next show the number of minutes that power has been off to the controller. This indication appears any time that the power has been interrupted for at least one minute. If the power has been off for more than sixteen hours and twenty-five minutes, the number of minutes off displayed will be 999. Pressing the time of day key will clear this and reset the counter to zero. In addition to the power outage indication, the LCD display may also indicate controller malfunctions or sensor malfunctions in the form of HE:LP or LL:LL messages, respectively.
The controller of the present invention is also programmed to display station errors which generally indicate conditions where field corrective action is required. In addition to an error message displayed in the LCD readout, station errors are indicated by flashing LED's on the appropriate station keys. One such station error display consists of the letters EP: and then the numbers of the station. This indicates that an excessive electrical current is being drawn on the numbered station, due for example, to a shorted solenoid or a current draw in excess of preset limits. Other error messages the present invention is capable of displaying include excessive system leakage, excessive water flow on a particular station, no water flow while active on a particular station. All of these error messages are assigned a preselected priority and the highest priority error code is indicated on the clock LCD display. If two stations have the same error priority, the lower numbered station is displayed. The System Excessive Flow Error is the highest priority error that can be displayed and is dependent upon detection of an error in the flow rate which is greater than the leakage rate when no stations are watering or when the sum of the station rates for stations that are watering has been exceeded. If the flow rate exceeds the maximum for four consecutive stations, the System Excess Flow Error is displayed, the master valve is turned off automatically and no watering is allowed until the error is reset.
If any station errors are present when the controller is first powered up, they can be cleared by pressing the "OFF" key for that particular station. Any stations having flashing indicator lights will have an error display which will show on the clock display when all higher priority errors are cleared.
The lights on the station row and column keypad 12, namely columns 14 and rows 15 of keypad 12 of FIG. 1, show the selections for the system. The "OFF", "AUTO" and "ON" keys and lights are direct real time indications of the stations status. Stations showing "ON" have power applied to their solenoid valves. Stations showing "AUTO" will be selected for watering during the next automatic cycle time or watering window. If only the "OFF" light is lighted, the station will not be selected for automatic watering. If "OFF" is lighted at the same time "AUTO" or "ON" is lighted for a particular station during the watering window, that station will be watered in the Automatic Sensor Override Mode, that is, with no reference to the moisture sensing system. This mode can be turned on or off by pressing and holding the slow key when pressing a column key for the desired station. Automatic Sensor Override can also be turned off by pressing the "OFF" key which turns off station power and prevents automatic operation of the station. Automatic watering start and stop times may be set up by personnel by pressing and holding the start time or stop time keys and simultaneously pressing the fast or slow keys. The times are displayed on the clock display. By pressing and holding the dwell key for each station, the minutes that particular station will be powered up for each automatic watering pass during the window can be set up. To choose another station, one merely presses a column key for the station while holding down the dwell key. Pressing a key in the "ON" row puts the station in "ON" or override mode. While in this mode, the moisture sensing circuitry is ignored and the valves connected to this station are energized. A maximum of four stations may be placed in the "ON" state at any one time. The time of turn-on is recorded and a minute count is started. When the number of minutes "ON" equals a preset value, the station is dropped from "ON" to the automatic state to prevent overwatering due to an operator forgetting to turn off a station.
There ar three modes of automatic watering available with the present invention, namely, automatic watering with sensors active, Automatic Sensor Override which sequences normally, but ignores the sensors for stations in this mode and Station Measured Flow processing which is available only in systems having a flow meter. When a station is energized in "AUTO", the "ON" light is turned on automatically during watering to indicate a station watering automatically. Only one station at a time is watered in the automatic mode. During the period of time between start time and stop time, which is referred to herein as the watering window or window, the system cycles through the stations in sequence, looking for a station that has not been watered for a preset soak time, which is a period of non-watering during the window and during which previously distributed water may be given the opportunity to soak in. When such a station is found in the Automatic mode or in the Automatic Sensor Override mode, the valve for that station is opened and allowed to water for its dwell time. The time of starting and stopping the station is recorded, the number of minutes the station is actively watering is added to the running total for that station and if a flow meter is used, the number of flow ticks accounts is added to the running total and the maximum observed flow rate is recorded. At the beginning of the window, a predefined number of minutes is loaded into the maximum allowed watering counter for each station. The station's count is decreased by one each minute that it is watering. If the count reaches zero, that station is not watered for the rest of the window.
The Automatic Sensor Override mode is indicated by the "OFF" light illuminated at the same time as the "ON" or "AUTO" light for a particular station or stations. That mode is activated by holding the slow time setting key and pressing a column key for the desired station. The mode is alternately activated and deactivated each time the combination is pressed. This mode may also be cleared by pressing the "OFF" key. At the end of the watering window, all stations in the automatic Sensor Override mode are cleared to the normal "AUTO" mode. When an Automatic Sensor Override station is watering automatically, all three lights "ON", "AUTO" and "OFF" are illuminated simultaneously.
If the present invention is used with a flow meter, system flow values are measured during the first pass of the window after the System Measured Flow mode is set. The process starts by energizing the master valve output and measuring the flow rate until it stabilizes. Once stable flow is achieved, one minute is allotted to measure and record the system leakage rate, then the following procedure is performed for each station: Each station's valve is energized with override active to ensure the valves will open; once flow stabilization is achieved, the time to stabilization is recorded, the leakage rate is subtracted from the rate of flow and the result is recorded as the maximum allowed flow; then the valve state for each station is turned "OFF" and the time to stabilization at the leakage rate is recorded as the turn "OFF" time; when all stations have been measured, the leakage rate is adjusted up by the error percentage and recorded as the maximum allowed leakage rate.
When the controller is initially activated, the contents of the top stack are saved for error processing in the event that the reset was due to an instruction opcode trap. Following the save, the stack pointer is initialized and the powerup counter is incremented and the time of "power on" is recorded. The CPU initialization routine is called in which the CPU internal I/O addresses are set to the block starting at 80h and then the 82C55 Parallel Peripheral Interface (PPI) is initialized with the Serial String blanking bit set. Next, the interrupt and DMA registers are loaded and the ASCI stations are initialized. Then the trap flag is checked and interrupt vectors are initialized. A flow meter check then sets or resets the METER present flag. The CSI is initialized and the serial string is zeroed which puts all valves and LEDs in the OFF state. There is then a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) calculation on the program EPROM. If the CRC passes, the two PRT stations are initialized followed by keyboard interrupt initialization. In the final stage of initialization, the read/write memory (RAM) check is performed followed by transferring the memory setting of valves and LEDs to the serial string, hence to those devices. Water sensing circuitry is then initialized and the clock reading is then displayed on the LCD display. Then the interrupt-driven communications are initialized.
The first memory check is a CRC calculation of the EPROM. If this fails, "HELP" is printed on the LCD display and, if connected, the terminal will display:
XXXX is the calculated CRC value. If the EPROM passes, "OK" is printed in place of "BAD", the IGNORE message is not sent to the terminal and the LCD display is left in its previous state. Entering the word "IGNORE" at the terminal will allow processing to continue if the CRC was bad.
The CRC algorithm uses the CRC-16 polynomial and compares the result with a value stored in EPROM locations 0060H and 0061H. The CRC value in the source file is that of an unprogrammed memory cell. This allows adding a record to the start of the hex file with the values displayed in the CRC test targeted for locations 0060H and 0061H. Similarly, those cells of a PROM can be reprogrammed allowing the reprogrammed device to become the master for use in a gang programmer. Note that the value displayed must be stored in Intel format, that is low byte at 0060H and high byte at 0061H.
The second memory check consists of checking high memory for a bit pattern. If this test fails the LCD will display "88:88" flashing alternately with a blank display and the terminal will display:
Enter IGNORE to continue
If the RAM check passes, no error message is sent to the terminal and the LCD displays the time as read from the clock.
If the RAM check fails, either setting the clock from the keyboard or entering the word IGNORE from the terminal will allow processing to continue. However, the two actions differ in that if the clock is set a first start up is assumed so memory is zeroed; counter, timers and output flags are loaded with their initial values taken from the default area of low memory and the clock is initialized. Entering IGNORE from the terminal will update the LCD with the current clock reading and initialize all but the clock and memory, allowing a technician to examine the memory of a system under test.
The CSI is a high speed synchronous serial I/O port. It operates in a half duplex mode only, but it has the capability of outputting a bit clock at the selected baud rate. This device is used to clock out data from a string in memory representing the keyboard LEDs and the solenoid drivers for the watering circuits to the UCN 5810A drivers which control those LEDs and solenoids. The software to load these bytes is interrupt driven by a transmit End Flag (EF). The CSI transmit output drives the serial data input of the first latch. The rest of the latches in the string are daisy chained serial out to serial in. The clock output drives the clock input on all the latches. When the last bit of the serial byte is output, the EF flag goes TRUE causing the interrupt to occur.
The interrupt service routine can output the strobe for the last bit of the last byte in the string in as little as 90 CPU clock cycles. The strobe lasts 16 clock cycles yielding a minimum total time from interrupt to latched data of 106 clock cycles. The rising edge of the CSI bit clock latches the current state of the data string into temporary holding. When the strobe occurs, the data is transferred into the output registers. Since the CSI bit clock rising edge occurs in the middle of the bit, the CSI clock rate must be higher than the CPU clock divided by 212. Accordingly, the CSI clock divide ratio bits (SS2, SS1, and SS0) of the CSI Control Register (CNTR) must be a value less than 4. The maximum baud rate of 307200 baud was selected because the latches can easily handle data at this rate and it improves system response.
The CSI start routine moves data from the LED and solenoid status bytes into an output string. At this time a check is made of the colon state and, if it is off, a further check is made to turn off all LEDs of stations in error status. Since there are more latch outputs than LEDs and solenoids, this string is shifted right two bits to align the data with the junction to the LEDs and solenoids. The first byte of this string is loaded into the transmitter. The transmitter and its interrupt are enabled which starts the output sequence. When the last bit of the string and strobe are sent, the transmitter and interrupt are disabled and the CSTERM byte is reset to allow other routines to detect CSI termination.
The shifting of the data string produces two outputs at the LED end of the string and four outputs at the solenoid end of the string available for additional functions. One of the tail outputs is used as the Override Enable output to the moisture sensing circuitry. Another of the outputs (OK-BIT) is used to enable the watchdog circuitry (See FIG. 7). A third output (WATCHDOG) is toggled once a second as an indicator to the watchdog circuitry that the system is apparently operating correctly. The fourth output (MASTER-ON) is used as a master valve enable output and is energized any time a valve is energized and/or for the duration of the window. One bit in the pre-LED byte is used as an override fail reset output.
Two additional routines are used. One such routine is used to initialize the string with data taken from the default area of the PROM and the other is used to disable all outputs by sending ten bytes of zeroes in a polled mode.
The ASCI is initially used in polled mode at 1200 baud. At the termination of the initialization routine, the ASCI is put in interrupt driven receive, polled transmit mode. Station 0 is used to communicate to the terminal/host or to a device of higher priority while station 1 is used to communicate to the next controller slave when connected. The initialization code loads values taken from the default area of the PROM. Routines are provided to initialize the port, return with input, return after output, input or output depending on the byte in register E, return input or output status, enable or disable RTS (Station 0 only), and return line status (CTS*). The CTS inputs operate such that the transmitter is disabled in hardware if CTS* is in the high (FALSE) state.
The routines can be most easily accessed by loading register E with data to be sent, if appropriate, and loading register C with a function number 0 through 17. Even numbers are directed to port 0 and odd numbers to port 1.
The initialization code stops both counters then sets a reload value for counter 0 that yields a 12.5 millisecond interrupt interval. PRT 1 is set to toggle the TOUT output at two kiloHertz for a beeper. PRT 1 is left in the stop mode while PRT 0 is started with its interrupt enabled.
Once every 12.5 milliseconds, the PRT 0 interrupt is serviced. The change seconds byte is zeroed after the service routine is called. If the change seconds byte is non zero on return the CSI start routine is called to toggle the OK-BIT, however, the LEDs, and solenoid drivers are updated at this time also.
The PRT 0 service routine first updates the beep counter and starts/stops the beeper depending on the nonzero/zero state of that counter. The beeper is started by a call to the beep routine which enables the PRT1 output to TOUT and starts the downcounter. Then the beep counter is loaded with the beep duration count. When the count reaches zero the counter is stopped and the TOUT broken.
Next the one byte down counters are decremented. When the down counters reach zero they are left undisturbed. The HIGH CURRENT sense input is tested and, if found active, its counter is allowed to count down. If the counter has reached zero the last station to be turned on is turned off and reported as having an EP, high current, error. If the station flagged as last on is not on, a search for any station on is commenced and the next station found is turned off. When a station is found a 1 second timeout is commenced to allow the turnoff current to settle before turing off another station. If no high current error is found or if a station was just turned off, the hi current is reloaded with its starting count.
Next a check is made for sensors offline status and, if found, the condition is reported as an LLLL error.
After the above error processing, the up counter is incremented and a check made for the passage of a 100 millisecond increment. If the test fails, the routine is exited. Otherwise the following actions take place.
A system clock is read and a check is made for a change of the seconds since the last reading. If the seconds have not changed, a check is made for auto water in process, offline status and current sense TRUE. If the conditions are met, control passes to the station processing routines, otherwise the routine is exited. If the seconds have changed, the change seconds byte is made non zero and the LCD colon is toggled on or off. If the colon is off, the error display is updated. The next "once a second" event is to decrement the flow meter seconds down counter if it is non-zero and no stations are active. The final "once a second" event is to update the flow rates, errors, maximum and minimum value storage locations, if the seconds are evenly divisible by the number of flow samples per second.
The "once a minute" events are then processed. The dwell counters are decremented as necessary, the display is updated if the no update flag is not set, and the current day and time is compared with the day of the week settings and window opening and closing times to determine the status of the window active flag.
A Dallas Semiconductor, Model DS1216 "Smart Watch", incorporating a real time clock and backup battery is used in the controller as a system clock. The clock must be accessed by shifting a 64-bit pattern into data bit 0 of any RAM location(s) within the appropriate block with no other intervening access to that block of memory. Following the pattern, eight one byte registers of the clock may be read or written into through bit 0.
The registers are accessed from low order bit to high order bit. The clock registers are in BCD format as follows:
0=0.1 sec.: 0.01 sec.
1=10 sec.: seconds
2=10 min.: minutes
3=12/24 0 A/P /10 HR: hours
4=0 0 osc reset: 0 wk day
5=0 0 10 date: date
6=0 0 0 10 month: month
7=10 year: year
The hex values for the matching pattern are:
C5, 3A, A3, 5C, C5, 3A, A3, 5C
The SW routines presume a small system (i.e. one with only one RAM socketed in the Smart Watch) and as such the routines make no extraneous accesses to RAM, such as pushes and pops or calls and returns, once the clock read or write sequence has started.
The clock setting routine disables interrupts & DMA to prevent any interruptions, performs an access match up, and sends the values in the time setting bytes to the clock. Fractions of seconds are always written with 0.01.
The clock read routine disables interrupts & DMA, performs an access match up, reads clock registers, and updates the time keeping bytes. Fractions of seconds are discarded.
The LCD is driven by an Intersil ICM7211AM display driver. Access is obtained via CPU port addresses 6Ch through 6Fh with one BCD nibble per port. The addresses correspond low to high address with left to right digit. Two primary routines are provided. One converts and displays 24 hour time in 12 hour format with an AM/PM indicator. The other displays the low nibble of four bytes sent to the routine.
The flow meter tick (FMT) is serviced by interrupt vector one. Its primary function is to record the number of times the flow meter ticks in storage dedicated to each station. The station storage is divided into three categories, total flow, override activity, and automatic activity. All ticks are counted in the total counter and in the rate sample counter (FLOREP). The total flow is subdivided into flow while stations are active either automatically or in override (ON), and flow while no stations are active. Flow in inactive mode is checked for time-out since the last station was turned off. If the timeout has finished, flow ticks are tallied in the inactive flow counter. The time-out allows valves with a slow response time to close before their ticks are recorded as an error. This value can be adjusted in the limit section of the program or with the "C" command.
The override is tested to determine if ticks should be tallied in automatic or override counters, then each station is tested for an ON state and the appropriate counter incremented. During times when the off line input is active, counts are also tallied in the offline counter.
The FMT input is latched on its rising edge. The RTSO output, when taken low, will reset the latch, and taking the RTSO output high will rearm the latch for the next tick.
A meter/no meter jumper is provided which is tested during CPU initialization by attempting a latch reset and checking for a flow tick change in the flow total counter. If the jumper is in the meter position, the reset will disable the interrupt until the reset line is released. If the jumper is in the no meter position, the reset pulse is tuned back to the interrupt input and a false flow tick will occur.
The keyboard interrupt is serviced by interrupt vector 2. As previously explained in conjunction with FIG. 2, the keyboard is decoded by two 1-of-10 priority encoders. With all inputs high the output equals zero. With one or more inputs low, the output is the ones complement of the highest numbered line (0-9) at a low level on each encoder. Any key press while the keyboard and interrupt 2 are armed, causes an interrupt 2. On entry interrupt 2 is disabled and held in that state until exit from the service routine. This allows use of other interrupts, such as the PRT counter for keyboard debounce, and ensures that flow counting and clock service will be handled in a timely manner.
The keyboard routines divide the task into two sections depending on a clock row detect or a station row detect. All rows are disabled, then each row is successively enabled and the input checked. The clock row is decoded on a nibble basis to allow the FAST or SLOW keys to be pressed in combination with one of the clock setting keys such as START TIME. The station keys are decoded as to row 0-2 and the column is decoded to a one byte value in the range 0-15. Fifty milliseconds are allowed to decode the same key value on two successive scans of the keyboard. If a key is decoded, its value is placed in a memory register and the routine exits through the key release routine to either the clock setting routines or the station setting routines depending on the type of key scanned. If no key is decoded, a value of -1 is returned and loaded in the memory register. If an extended keyboard is present, the keyboard scanning routines test for the presence of the keyboards and scan extended keyboards as found.
Upon detecting a valid key, the beeper is activated as long as the operator continues to hold the key down. The exit routine waits for 25 milliseconds after first detecting key release before transferring control to the next step. Upon exit all rows of the keyboard are left in the active state, and the keyboard interrupt is reenabled.
During clock setting, the LCD update is inhibited by the no update flag. The clock setting routines separate the key column into high and low nibble. The low nibble determines the function, START, STOP, DWELL, or TIME, while the high nibble determines fast or slow. The clock key scan routines are called once each loop through the clock routines. If the dwell key is being held, the station scan routines are called as well.
If only a function key is depressed, the current value for that function will be displayed. Pressing a FAST/SLOW key as well will continuously increment that function value until the speed key is released. Holding the FAST key updates the count every 25 milliseconds. The SLOW key update period is 350 milliseconds.
While holding the DWELL key, the left-hand two digits of the display indicate the station number. The right hand digits indicate the dwell time in minutes for that station. Pressing a station key in any row while holding the DWELL key will change the target dwell to that of the station number pressed. That DWELL station will be the target until a new one is set.
Upon releasing a clock function key, the value displayed is loaded into the appropriate memory location for subsequent use by the program.
A special case of the function keys is pressing the TIME OF DAY key while a detected system error is present. The routine will clear the error if it is presently being displayed on the LCD display. A 0.7 second timeout is commenced at this time to prevent inadvertently resetting more than one error.
A second special case is achieved by holding the SLOW key and pressing a station key. This combination toggles the ASO setting for that station. The 0.7 second timeout is activated to prevent rapidly toggling the ASO state on and off thus precipitating difficulty in reliably setting the ASO mode.
A third special case is the FAST and station ON combination which disables the override condition but enables the relay for that station if it is legal.
WATVAL checks the keying value for a station row and exits if the test fails. The input, if legal, is decoded for ON, AUTO or OFF and handled accordingly. If the input is in the ON row and a station is currently active in the automatic mode, the automatic station is turned off with the turn off time recorded in its data area. Next the target station is forced into override on, provided that turning the station on will not exceed the maximum number of stations allowed on at one time and the System Excess flow error does not exist and neither the High Current nor Excess Flow exists for that station. Finally, the maximum override counter for the target station is loaded with data from the limit area of memory and the maximum flow rate for the station is added to maximum system flow value. When the override counter reaches zero, the station is placed back in the automatic state. This guards against the operator activating a station and forgetting it.
OFF and AUTO selections put the station in the selected state. If the station was ON, in override, at the time of selection, the turn-off time is recorded in the the override data area for that station. If no other stations were in override at that time, the override is turned off. If a station is in ASO or error status at the time of being turned off, the ASO mode is cleared and/or the highest priority error for that station is cleared.
A lookup table (WATTBL) is used to update the keyboard and solenoid status bytes which are transferred to the serial string by a call to the CSI start routine to reflect the new controller state.
WATTIM is entered once a second and first checks for a change in the minutes. If the minute has not changed, the routine is exited. Next is a check of the override to decide whether to do override or manual processing.
Override processing consists of incrementing the minute counter in the override data area of stations in the ON condition. Also, the maximum override counter is decremented and, if the counter reaches zero, the station is turned off and the stop time is recorded. Furthermore, the flow rate maximum and minimum are updated and a check for excessive flow is made. If excessive flow is detected, the condition is recorded and the station is turned off. If no flow is detected, that condition is recorded, but the station is left to allow for self-correction of the condition.
If the window is active, a check is made for meter present and System Measured Flow active. If the conditions are met and the measuring has not already been accomplished, the measuring routines take control. If measuring is not required and this is the first pass in this window, the maximum accumulated time counter for each station is loaded with data from the limit area. This value is used to limit the maximum accumulated time a station is allowed to water automatically during each window. When this counter reaches zero for a given station, that station is not allowed to water again in automatic during the same window.
A test is then made for a station activated in automatic mode and if none is active, a search for a station legal to start is executed. If AUTO is active, a further test is made for solenoid wait (SOLWAIT) in process. The SOLWAIT is two seconds to allow stabilization of long solenoid drive lines. In any event, SOLWAIT is reset and the line is checked for solenoid current (CURSNS). If CURSNS is active, the start time is recorded for this station. If SOLWAIT was not active, and a new minute is detected, the station automatic minute counter is incremented. If the sensing devices were off line at the time of recording a minute passed, then the override fail counter is also incremented at this time. The flow rate checks are performed as described in the override section above.
The auto station search algorithm checks for a station status of automatic, and an elapsed time since last stop greater than the SWEEP time stored in the limit data area. If the tests are passed, SOLWAIT is set. If ASO is set for a station, the SOLWAIT is skipped and the station is energized with override active. This forces watering for the full DWELL time.
When DWELL time runs out or CURRENT SENSE becomes false, the STOP TIME is recorded and a search for a new station is commenced.
On the first pass after the watering window changes from open to closed, the automatic routines turn off and record a minute passed as well as the turn off time in the automatic data area of any station in automatic active state. Furthermore, all ASO stations are reset to AUTO.
System Measured Flow (SMF) routines first turn on the master valve and wait for at least one minute of stable flow. The rate observed at this time is recorded as the system leakage rate. Next each of the stations is treated as follows: The valve is energized with override active and the time to achieve stable flow is recorded as the open time. Then the leakage rate is subtracted from the stabilized flow rate adjusted to 100 plus the value stored at PERCENT and recorded as the maximum flow for the target station. The valve is then turned off and the time to achieve stable flow is recorded as the shut time. After all stations have been measured, the leakage rate is adjusted by the percentage and recorded at the adjusted value.
System defaults are contained in a file named WATDFL which is linked at the bottom of PROM space. The file contains four jump instructions to handle system start (location 0), restart 30h (location 30h) for testing of new code, restart 38h (location 38h) for switching between communications and monitor maskable interrupt (location 66h). The lookup table used by the keyboard routines is also located here. Reference may be made to the listing (TABLE I) for a detailed description of the defaults and their location. ##SPC1##
WATDAT is a data file arranged with the stack occupying the first 256 bytes of storage. The stack is followed by critical storage such as the check bytes, turn on counters, restart vectors, monitor storage and the like.
The "A" command allows stations to be set from the terminal as though keys were pressed on the keyboard. A list of stations and settings up to 32 characters long can be entered.
A 1, 0; 2, 2; 3, 1; 4, 0; 5, 3 would set station 1 to off, 2 to on, 3 to auto, 4 to off and 5 to ASO.
The "A" command displays the updated state of the controller and requires that parameters, if any, be entered in pairs.
The "B" command displays the statistics kept by the controller for the system or for the station number or range of station numbers following the B command in the following format.
00 START STOP AUTT OVRT SYRT AUTF OVRF AT OT FLHI FLMX POM IN POCN
XX - Station number
START - Day Hour Minute of last watering start
STOP - Day Hour Minute of last watering stop
AUTT - Six digit minute counter for automatic (AUTO) watering
OVRT - Six digit minute counter for override (ON) watering
SYRT - Four digit seconds counter for syringe water
AUTF - Six digit flow counter for automatic (AUTO) watering
OVRF - Six digit flow counter for manual (ON) watering
AT - Two digit down counter (AUTO) minutes remaining this period
OT - Two digit down counter (ON) minutes remaining this (ON) key
FLHI - Four digit maximum observed flow rate
FLMX - Four digit maximum allowed flow rate
FOMIN - Powder out minutes
POCN - Power out count
Date and Time
Hour Minute for watering start and stop
Flow rates; maximum allowed - inactive and system, current observed - instantaneous and average.
Observed flow rates; inactive & active - high
Ten digit flow counter during automatic operation
Ten digit flow counter during override operation
Ten digit flow counter during off-line operation
Ten digit inactive flow counter
Ten digit total flow counter
The "C" command with no parameters displays the limits for all stations and the system. If followed by a station number or range of station numbers, it displays the limits for the station or range of stations specified.
For example: C1 12 would display the information for stations 1 through 12.
XX - FLHI FLMX FP DW SO SH AV OV GRP GRPT
XX - Station number
FLHI - Maximum observed flow rate
FLMX - Maximum allowed flow rate
FP - Percent allowed over the maximum flow
DW - Dwell minutes
SO - Soak time, minutes from turn off to next attempt to water
OP - Open timeout seconds
SH - Shut timeout seconds
AV - Maximum allowed automatic watering minutes per window
OV - Maximum allowed override (ON) minutes before reverting to AUTO
GRP - Master station for this group
GRPT - Seconds group master watered in this cycle
FLMI FLMS INST AVRG IAHI ACHI
Rates: Maximum allowed w/no valves active, Maximum for the system, Observed - Instantaneous, Average, High with no valves active, High with valve(s) active.
"C" followed by "M" displays a menu of secondary command characters which allow limits to be changed. Typing "C" followed by a secondary command and, where appropriate, a station number or range of station numbers and the new value will change the setting as listed below.
D - Dwell time in minutes
S - Soak time in minutes
O - Open time in seconds at turn on
H - Shut time in seconds at turn off
A - Maximum minutes allowed to accumulate in AUTO per window
V - Maximum minutes allowed to water in override from a press of the ON key, station reverts to AUTO after this time
Y - Syringe time in seconds
F - Maximum flow rate for this station
C - Clear the observed maximum flow rate
P - Error percent added to maximum allowed flow rate
G - Station # of group master for this station
I - Maximum allowed inactive flow rate
R - Maximum allowed system flow rate, (adjusted as valves turn on or off)
T - Clear the observed minimum and maximum flow rates
Z - Force a system reset
For example entering CG2 5 1 would set the group master for stations 2 through 5 to station 1.
Grouping assigns one sensor to several stations. The number of seconds the group master waters is recorded on each pass through the stations during automatic operation. The slaves in the group are watered for that number of seconds during a pass. If the master does not water during a pass, then 0 is recorded and the slaves do not water. The slaves will ignore their dwell, soak and maximum automatic accumulated times. The slave must have a higher station number than the master or the grouping is ignored.
The "E" (Display/Reset Errors) command will display any errors detected in the system. Following the "E" with a secondary command letter and, where appropriate a station number, will clear that error. Clearing an excessive flow error causes flow error checking to be suspended for one minute.
F - Excessive flow
T - Power off time and counter reset to 0
O - Sensors offline
P - Excessive electrical current
N - No flow while active
The "U" (Enter time) command has two formats. Entering "U" with no parameters sends the following menu to the terminal.
Enter exactly 14 digits for the clock setting where Yr - year, Mo - month, Da - data, Wd - week day, Hr - hour (24 Hr 00-23 ), Mi - minute, Se - seconds.
Enter the desired time in twenty four hour format, press return and the clock will be updated to that value. Entering "U" followed immediately by the full time setting will bypass the menu, but, otherwise work as above. If only the hour and minute need be changed or if the start or stop time needs changing, enter "U" followed immediately by "S", "P" or "T" followed by the hour and minute of the desired setting. The start time is changed by "S", the stop time by "P" and the clock time by "T".
UT 2300 sets the clock to 11 P.M.
The UC command sets the days to water or not in a two week calendar.
The display is
1 appears above today. Enter 1 below water days and 0 below no water days.
The cursor (underline) appears below the current setting.
The "T" (Time Display) command displays the complete clock read out at the terminal. The format is similar to that of the "U" command except the digits are paired and separated by spaces.
The "D" (Dump Memory) command displays the contents of the memory in both hexadecimal and ASCII format. Each line of the display contains the first address displayed on that line followed by a space and eight space delimited pairs of hexadecimal digits, an extra space, eight pairs of digits, a space and the ascii character represented by the value of each byte. Non displayable characters are indicated by a period character. The default start address is initialized to location 0 on power up. Upon exiting this routine, the last address displayed is saved as the default start address for the next time the routine is called. If no end address is specified ten lines are displayed.
The "F" (Fill Memory) command requires three parameters, the start address, the end address and the data value. Memory in the range specified is filled with the data value.
The "G" (Go) command causes control to transfer to the address specified or the default address which is loaded with 0000 on power up. Specifying an address changes the default address to that value. If a return instruction is encountered, the CPU registers will be displayed as in the "X" command and control will return to the monitor.
The "H" (Hex File Download) command is primarily a development tool for testing new software although it allows downloading predefined data into specific memory locations. The command will fill memory with data from an Intel format hex file at the file specified load address unless the optional offset is included on the command line, in which case, the offset will be added to the load addresses. The load address of the end of file record plus the offset is loaded into the default go address.
The "J" (Moisture Sense) command allows optimization of the scan time by setting the moisture sensing delay in tenths of seconds. J may be followed by the new setting to change it or entered alone to display the current setting.
The "K" (Keypad) command disables the keyboard interrupt and sends the following message to the terminal.
Touch KEYS to light LEDs
Press RETURN to exit!
A loop is then entered which alternately polls the keyboard and the terminal for input. Pressing the RETURN key at the terminal will terminate the process and reenable the keyboard interrupt. Pressing a key on the the keyboard will light its corresponding LED and send the following information to the terminal.
Row - RR Column - CC
"RR" is the decimal row number and "CC" is the decimal column number. A key in the clock row is pressed, "CLOCK" is printed in place of "RR" and "CC" will be replaced by one or two entries from the following list depending on the key combination pressed.
START STOP DWELL TIME FAST SLOW
The "L" (LCD Display) command allows characters typed at the terminal to be displayed on the LCD display. The character set is limited to the digits "0-9", dash, the letters "HELP", and blank. The following prompt is sent to the terminal as part of this command.
Enter characters to display on the LCD
Enter up to four characters and press RETURN to get the following prompt.
Press RETURN to exit!
The characters entered will remain on the display until return is pressed. After return is pressed the LCD will be updated with the current time.
The "M" (Move Memory) command moves a block of memory defined by the first two parameters to the block starting at the third parameter.
The "P" (Port) command allows byte information to be sent to or read from a specific I/O address. Following the command with a single hexadecimal address parameter will cause that port # to be read and the input byte to be displayed at the terminal. Two parameters will send the value of the second parameter to the port specified. This routine uses sixteen bit addressing to accommodate the CPU's internal I/O addressing scheme. The external I/O devices are set up to use only eight bit (LSB) addressing.
The "S" (Substitute Memory) command allows memory to be modified starting at the address specified. If no address is specified the modification continues with the address after the last address modified (the power on default is 0). At the terminal the target memory location and its contents will be displayed. Enter the new value for that location and the next higher memory location will be displayed. Precede the data with a double quote (") to enter ASCII character values. Typing only RETURN will move to the next location with no changes. Enter an illegal character to exit.
The "X" (Exhibit CPU Registers) command displays the CPU registers at the terminal in the following format. The CPU has the same register complement as the Zilog 80 processor. The IR pair is composed of the interrupt and refresh registers. The "PC" address is the default go address.
AF=XXXX BC=XXXX DE=XXXX HL=XXXX SP=XXXX PC=XXXX
AF'=XXXX BC'=XXXX DE'=XXXX HL'=XXXX SP'=XXXX PC'=XXXX
The above display also follows the return from a "G" command and is displayed in the event of RST 30 or 38 (execution at location 30h or 38h) with one of the following messages.
RST - 30 Registers
RST - 38 Registers
The "?" and "/" commands display the lists of commands. The "?" displays the monitor commands and the "/" display the debug commands.
The console drive routines provide for character buffering, command line parsing, and command reprint to repeat commands. Command lines are entered into a 32 character buffer as typed. Control characters are displayed with a leading " " character except for tab (09) which is expanded to move the cursor to the next column in the series 1, 9, 17, etc., carriage return which is the command line terminator and exits the buffer routine, and backspace or delete which destructively moves the cursor backwards over the previously typed character(s). Backspacing properly adjusts for tabs and control characters in cursor positioning.
The parsing routines allow the first parameter to follow the command character immediately or with a following delimiter character. The delimiter characters are space, comma, and semicolon. Command lines may also begin with leading delimiters. The parsing routines also perform table lookup to actually execute the routines. If the parsing routine finds an empty command line, the previous command line is retyped and repeated.
It will now be apparent that what has been disclosed herein comprises an irrigation system controller apparatus having improved water conservation and reliability features for use with a large plurality of irrigation stations. More specifically, the controller apparatus of the present invention comprises a microprocessor-based logic system for control of automatic irrigation parameters such as the watering interval time and soak time for each of a plurality of watering stations. A preferred embodiment of the invention provides a display which allows easy assessment of the flow characteristics of the system as well as of system and station malfunctions which might otherwise result in catastrophic damage to the lawn or other plant life dependent upon the irrigation system. The automatic controller of the present invention is designed to operate with irrigation systems having a plurality of moisture sensors to automatically control irrigation sequences in accordance with a predefined schedule and the needs for moisture in a large plurality of distributed irrigation stations and provides a real-time display of the watering status of all such stations without requiring any form of sequencing of switches or the like to provide such information. The controller apparatus of the present invention is also designed with irrigation systems having at least one flow meter for detecting the occurrence of malfunctions in the system as a whole or in individual watering stations and providing means responsive to such malfunctions to shut down either the system or those individual work stations. A preferred embodiment of the invention disclosed herein, has the capacity to control up to sixteen such watering stations, but in addition is designed to interface in serial arrangement with additional keyboard control units for control of even larger numbers of watering stations. Furthermore, the present invention has the capability for connection, either permanently or for maintenance purposes only to a computer terminal for altering the irrigation timing and sequence parameters.
Those having skill in the art to which the present invention pertains will now as a result of the applicant's teaching herein, perceive various modifications and additions which may be made to the invention. By way of example, the specific keyboard panel control and the specific microprocessor and associated logic architecture disclosed herein may be readily modified by providing other panel designs and other such architecture designs using different computer based components as well as by providing alternative software for accomplishing substantially the same results as disclosed herein. Accordingly, all such modifications and additions are deemed to be within the scope of the invention which is to be limited only by the claims appended hereto.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4176395 *||Nov 16, 1977||Nov 27, 1979||Clemar Manufacturing Corporation||Interactive irrigation control system|
|US4209131 *||May 12, 1978||Jun 24, 1980||Motorola, Inc.||Computer-controlled irrigation system|
|US4569020 *||May 26, 1983||Feb 4, 1986||Telsco Industries, Inc.||Irrigation controller|
|US4646224 *||Dec 5, 1983||Feb 24, 1987||L. R. Nelson Corporation||Sprinkler controller which computes sprinkler cycles based on inputted data|
|US4922433 *||Dec 23, 1987||May 1, 1990||Arnold Mark||Automatic irrigation water conservation controller|
|US4937732 *||Oct 20, 1987||Jun 26, 1990||James Hardie Irrigation, Inc.||Irrigation controller|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5331619 *||Feb 19, 1992||Jul 19, 1994||Bradley Corporation||Programmable control system for gas and liquid dispensing devices|
|US5337957 *||Jul 1, 1993||Aug 16, 1994||Olson Troy C||Microprocessor-based irrigation system with moisture sensors in multiple zones|
|US5473309 *||Jan 26, 1994||Dec 5, 1995||Marcum; Dale H.||Apparatus for testing an irrigation system controller and method of testing irrigation systems|
|US5560542 *||Nov 14, 1994||Oct 1, 1996||Reid; Randy C.||Portable above ground water manifold and system for establishing a new lawn|
|US5568376 *||Jan 4, 1994||Oct 22, 1996||The Toro Company||Irrigation controller|
|US5740031 *||Sep 7, 1995||Apr 14, 1998||Smart Rain Corp. Inc.||Control system for the irrigation of watering stations|
|US6088621 *||Jan 28, 1998||Jul 11, 2000||Hunter Industries, Inc.||Portable apparatus for rapid re-programming of irrigation controllers|
|US6108590 *||Jan 30, 1998||Aug 22, 2000||Hergert; C. David||Integrated irrigation optimization power control system|
|US6259970 *||Sep 10, 1998||Jul 10, 2001||Claber S.P.A.||Electronic interface associable with an electronic control unit for an automatic watering system for remote controlled management of the system|
|US6267298 *||May 28, 1993||Jul 31, 2001||Paul D. Campbell||Neural networked irrigation controller|
|US6490505 *||Nov 17, 1999||Dec 3, 2002||Tim Simon, Inc.||Irrigation timer with multiplexing watering mode|
|US6507775||Nov 17, 1999||Jan 14, 2003||Tim Simon, Inc.||Irrigation timer and clock initialization method|
|US7010395||Dec 30, 2003||Mar 7, 2006||The Toro Company||PC-programmed irrigation control system|
|US7203576 *||Feb 8, 2005||Apr 10, 2007||Orbit Irrigation Products, Inc.||Moisture sensor timer|
|US7457676||Jun 26, 2002||Nov 25, 2008||Marvell International Ltd.||Vehicle for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US7522039||Oct 31, 2007||Apr 21, 2009||Marvel International Ltd.||Apparatus, method, and computer program for an alarm system|
|US7532954||Feb 10, 2006||May 12, 2009||Rain Bird Corporation||System and method for weather based irrigation control|
|US7546172||Jun 26, 2002||Jun 9, 2009||Marvell International Ltd.||Apparatus, method, and computer program product for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US7577247||Oct 20, 2003||Aug 18, 2009||Marvell International Ltd.||Apparatus and method for telephone, intercom, and clock|
|US7584023||Feb 12, 2007||Sep 1, 2009||The Toro Company||Electronic irrigation system software|
|US7769494||Jul 9, 2009||Aug 3, 2010||Tim Simon, Inc.||Irrigation timer for adjusting watering time based on temperature and humidity change|
|US7778736 *||Aug 17, 2010||Marvell International Ltd.||Apparatus, method, and computer program for sprinkler control|
|US7805221||May 17, 2007||Sep 28, 2010||Rain Bird Corporation||Automatically adjusting irrigation controller|
|US7810515||Oct 12, 2010||Melnor, Inc.||Smart water timer|
|US7849890||Jul 1, 2005||Dec 14, 2010||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Apparatus for and methods of draining an enclosure|
|US7869890 *||Jan 11, 2011||Honeywell International Inc.||Keyboards having multiple groups of keys in the management of a process control plant|
|US8019482||Aug 12, 2010||Sep 13, 2011||Marvell International Ltd.||Method and apparatus for controlling a sprinkler system|
|US8145331||Oct 31, 2007||Mar 27, 2012||Marvell International Ltd.||Apparatus, method, and computer program for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US8145332||Jun 13, 2008||Mar 27, 2012||Marvell International Ltd.||Vehicle for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US8160750||Apr 17, 2012||Rain Bird Corporation||Programmable irrigation controller having user interface|
|US8170721||Aug 16, 2010||May 1, 2012||Rain Bird Corporation||Automatically adjusting irrigation controller|
|US8200368||Dec 10, 2008||Jun 12, 2012||Rain Bird Corporation||Automatically adjusting irrigation controller with temperature and rainfall sensor|
|US8209061||Jul 31, 2006||Jun 26, 2012||The Toro Company||Computer-operated landscape irrigation and lighting system|
|US8249752 *||Aug 21, 2012||Azbil Corporation||Flow rate measuring system|
|US8294292||Apr 22, 2009||Oct 23, 2012||Rain Bird Corporation||Power supply system|
|US8374710||Feb 12, 2013||Marvell International Ltd.||Vehicle for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US8483987 *||Jan 31, 2008||Jul 9, 2013||Panasonic Ev Energy Co., Ltd.||Circuit with control function and test method thereof|
|US8649910||Jun 12, 2012||Feb 11, 2014||Rain Bird Corporation||Automatically adjusting irrigation controller|
|US8706307||Mar 13, 2012||Apr 22, 2014||Rain Bird Corporation||Programmable irrigation controller having user interface|
|US8740177||Sep 30, 2011||Jun 3, 2014||Rain Bird Corporation||Eccentric diaphragm valve|
|US9043964||Sep 30, 2013||Jun 2, 2015||Rain Bird Corporation||Automatically adjusting irrigation controller|
|US9141619||Jun 13, 2008||Sep 22, 2015||Marvell International Ltd.||Apparatus, method, and computer program product for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US9192110||Aug 11, 2011||Nov 24, 2015||The Toro Company||Central irrigation control system|
|US20040089346 *||Oct 24, 2003||May 13, 2004||Marvell International Ltd.||Apparatus, method, and computer program for sprinkler control|
|US20060122735 *||Jan 10, 2006||Jun 8, 2006||Goldberg Allan M||PC-programmed irrigation control system|
|US20060178781 *||Jan 5, 2006||Aug 10, 2006||Tim Simon, Inc.||Water timer with watering plan and method|
|US20060217845 *||Jan 5, 2006||Sep 28, 2006||Tim Simon, Inc.||Water timer and method|
|US20070221744 *||May 23, 2007||Sep 27, 2007||Tim Simon, Inc.||Water Timer and Method|
|US20080058968 *||Sep 6, 2006||Mar 6, 2008||Honeywell International Inc.||Keyboards Having Multiple Groups of Keys in the Management of a Process Control Plant|
|US20080088431 *||Oct 31, 2007||Apr 17, 2008||Sehat Sutardja||Apparatus, method, and computer program for an alarm system|
|US20080091764 *||Oct 31, 2007||Apr 17, 2008||Sehat Sutardja||Integrated circuit, method, and computer program product for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US20080188966 *||Oct 31, 2007||Aug 7, 2008||Sehat Sutardja||Apparatus, method, and computer program for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US20080211532 *||Jan 31, 2008||Sep 4, 2008||Panasonic Ev Energy Co., Ltd.||Circuit with control function and test method thereof|
|US20080215171 *||Oct 31, 2007||Sep 4, 2008||Sehat Sutardja||Vehicle for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US20080253582 *||Jun 13, 2008||Oct 16, 2008||Sehat Sutardja||Vehicle for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US20080255691 *||Jun 13, 2008||Oct 16, 2008||Sehat Sutardja||Apparatus, method, and computer program for recording and reproducing digital data|
|US20100082168 *||Apr 1, 2010||Yamatake Corporation||Flow rate measuring system|
|US20100145530 *||Dec 10, 2008||Jun 10, 2010||Rain Bird Corporation||Automatically adjusting irrigation controller with temperature and rainfall sensor|
|US20100270803 *||Apr 22, 2009||Oct 28, 2010||Irwin Kevin M||Power supply system|
|US20100305764 *||Dec 2, 2010||Carr Thomas G||Method and apparatus for emergency remote control of irrigation|
|US20110049260 *||Aug 26, 2009||Mar 3, 2011||Doug Palmer||Electronic Irrigation System Software|
|US20110077785 *||Sep 28, 2010||Mar 31, 2011||Rain Bird Corporation||Automatically Adjusting Irrigation Controller|
|US20110114202 *||Nov 11, 2010||May 19, 2011||John Goseco||Water Flow Monitor|
|US20110210187 *||Jun 21, 2009||Sep 1, 2011||Anctechnology||Automatic Sprinkler and Irrigation System|
|US20140081469 *||Sep 18, 2012||Mar 20, 2014||Carl L.C. Kah, JR.||Expandable irrigation controller|
|US20140109990 *||Oct 19, 2012||Apr 24, 2014||Toby Brashear||Remotely mounted irrigation control system|
|US20140251478 *||Feb 14, 2014||Sep 11, 2014||Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.||Automation of Water Flow in Networks|
|US20160029577 *||Mar 23, 2015||Feb 4, 2016||Toby Brashear||Elevated Irrigation Mounting System|
|WO1994027734A1 *||May 27, 1994||Dec 8, 1994||Campbell Paul D||Neural networked irrigation controller|
|WO2001054823A1 *||Jan 18, 2001||Aug 2, 2001||Galen Collins||Accurate horticultural sprinkler system and sprinkler head|
|U.S. Classification||700/16, 239/69, 700/306, 700/15, 702/51, 700/17, 239/70, 137/624.2, 700/284|
|Cooperative Classification||G05B19/0421, Y10T137/86461, G05B19/0428|
|European Classification||G05B19/042M, G05B19/042S|
|May 12, 1989||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: AQUAMETRICS, INC., 5060 CONVOY STREET, SAN DIEGO,
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:KRAUSE, DEAN R.;FLOERSCH, PETER L.;REEL/FRAME:005085/0683
Effective date: 19890510
|Nov 23, 1992||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ANN S. WACHTLER SEPARATE PROPERTY TRUST, THE, CALI
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:AQUAMETRICS, INC. A CORP. OF CALIFORNIA;REEL/FRAME:006393/0112
Effective date: 19920731
Owner name: FIRST WESTINGHOUSE VENTURES CORPORATION A CORP.
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:AQUAMETRICS, INC. A CORP. OF CALIFORNIA;REEL/FRAME:006393/0112
Effective date: 19920731
|Mar 14, 1995||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Aug 6, 1995||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Oct 17, 1995||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 19950809