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Publication numberUS5046795 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/288,980
Publication dateSep 10, 1991
Filing dateDec 23, 1988
Priority dateDec 23, 1987
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS5067782, US5107364
Publication number07288980, 288980, US 5046795 A, US 5046795A, US-A-5046795, US5046795 A, US5046795A
InventorsAkira Morimoto, Takashi Iizuka
Original AssigneeAsahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for producing a distortion-free two-dimensional image of a scanned object
US 5046795 A
Abstract
In a scanning device capable of building a distortion-free two-dimensional image on a surface to be scanned. The scanning operation for two directions are independently executed. Employable is a linear light source. In this case, the scanning in one direction of the two-dimensional scanning is responsive to the position of the light emitting elements in the linear light source.
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Claims(4)
What is claimed is:
1. A scanning device for scanning a predetermined surface, said surface being defined by first and second axes intersecting at a right angle, with a light beam to create a two-dimensional image on said surface, said device comprising:
a linear light source comprising a plurality of light emitting elements linearly arranged along said first axis, each of said light emitting elements emitting said light beam in a predetermined direction;
refracting means for refracting said light beam from said light emitting elements in such a fashion that said light beam is emitted from said refracting means at an angle θy in a first plane with respect to the optical axis of said refracting means, so that:
Θy=gy -1 (hy/fc)
where,
hy represents the distance between a light emitting element from which a light beam is emitted and the optical axis of said refracting means, and
wherein fc represents the focal length of the refracting means, and
gy represents a predetermined transformation function;
deflecting means for deflecting said light beam passed through said refracting means; and
converging means for converging the light beam deflected by said deflecting means at a point (y,z) defined by the following equations on said predetermined surface:
y=fy.gy (Θy)
z=fz.gz (Θz)
where
y represents a position along said first axis,
z represents a position along said second axis, and
fy represents the focal length of said converging means on said first plane defined by the optical axis of said converging means and said first axis, and
fz represents the focal length of the converging means on said second plane defined by the optical axis of said converging means and said second axis,
gz represents a predetermined transformation function, and
Θz represents an angle between said light beam and the optical axis of said converging means detected on said second plane.
2. The scanning device of claim 1, wherein said converging means comprises an fΘ lens system having three spherical lenses satisfying the equation:
fy=fz,
and a compensator having a spherical rotational asymmetric correction surface.
3. The scanning device of claim 1, wherein said converging means comprises an fΘ lens system having three spherical lenses, the lens located nearest said surface having a correction surface along a side opposite said surface.
4. The scanning device of claim 1, wherein said refracting means comprises a collimator lens, and said deflecting means comprises a polygonal mirror.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to an improvement made to a scanning device that is capable of building a distortion-free two-dimensional image on a surface to be scanned, and more particularly to a scanning device configured to effect deflection and convergence of a light beam for the two scanning directions independently of each other.

Conventionally, there have been prior art systems to build an image by two-dimensionally scanning optical spots on a surface to be scanned, as disclosed in Japanese Patent Publication Sho44-9321 and Japanese Patent Provisional Publication Sho51-26050.

The two-dimensional deflection devices disclosed in these documents, however, have a problem when the angular position of one directional deflection is kept constant with respect to the other directional deflection, scanning on the surface to be scanned suffers from distortion, requiring a complicated and large-scale electrical system to electrically correct the light paths for scanning.

Japanese Patent Publication Sho62-20524 and Sho62-20525 disclose arrangements to optically and mechanically eliminate such scanning distortion. Such scanning devices are, however, configured to deflect the light beam from a light source with a single deflector and therefore requires a complicated dual-axis drive mechanism for the deflector. The problem associated having the arrangement with no independent control mechanism for each scanning direction is described below with reference to FIGS. 1 through 3.

The example shown here employs a polygonal mirror for deflection and a so-called fΘ lens with a distortion aberration with which the image height "h" should be equal to a product of the incident angle "θ" by the focal length "f".

Accordingly, the image height "h" is given by

h=f.θ-(1)

In FIG. 1, numeral 10 indicates a rotationally symmetric(or spherical) fθ lens, whose optical axis coincides with the x-axis indicated by the dot-dash line.

Assuming a y-axis and a z-axis that are orthogonal to the x-axis and to each other, the y-z plane is supposed to be the surface to be scanned. Also assuming a point at which a light beam emitted from a light source not shown falls upon the reflection surface of the deflector as O0, the light beam appears as if it is emitted from the point O0 as shown in FIG. 1.

In a one-dimensional scanning device to deflect the optical spots formed on the surface to be scanned only in one direction on the y-axis or the z-axis, the constant velocity of the optical spot on the surface to be scanned is ensured by the effect of the aforementioned fθ lens, which makes the scanning lines linear.

If, in contrast, the optical spot is to be two-dimensionally scanned in the y-z plane, a problem is encountered as described below.

Assume that the intersection point at which the X-axis meets a virtual plane H (double-dot-dash line) perpendicular to the x- aixs is O1, while the intersection point at which it meets the scanning surface is O2, and further that the intersection point at which the incident light beam passed by point O0 to enter the fθ lens 10 at an angle of θAX to the x-axis meets the virtual plane H is P1, while the intersection point at which it meets the surface to be scanned is P2. The angle between the light beam O0 P1 and the Z-X plane is then θy, the angle between the line segment made by reflection of the light beam O0 P1 on the Z-X plane and the x-axis is θz, and the angle between the line segment O1 P1 and the Z-X plane is Γ, as shown in an enlarged view of FIG. 2A. Further assume here that the intersection point at which the perpendicular line P1 to the Z-X plane meets the Z-X plane is P1 ', the equation holds: ##EQU1## therefore ##EQU2## It also holds that where: ##EQU3## therefore ##EQU4## Thus, θAX and γ can be represented by the following equations:

θAX=cos-1 (cosθy.cosθz)             (2)

γ=tan-1 (tanθy/sinθz)               (3)

FIG. 2B illustrates the relationship shown in FIG. 2A, projected onto the individual planes for easier understanding of the above explanation and FIG. 2C shows a different way of representing the triangular relationship including θA2 for the same purpose.

As shown in FIG. 1, the angle between O2 P2 on the surface to be scanned and the z-axis is also γ, so O2 P2 is represented by the following equation as is understood from the equation (1), where the focal length of the fθ lens is f:

O2 P2 =f.θAX                               (4)

Accordingly, the coordinates of P , P (y, z) are indicated by following equations

Y=f.θAX.sinγ                                   (5)

Z=f.θAX.cosγ                                   (6)

As is readily understood from the above equations (5) and (6), in such an optical system, the value y of the Y-coordinate and the value z of the Z-coordinate are both functions of θAX, γ so Y, Z are related to each other by way of θAX, γ. Consequently, when varying either θY or θZ, while keeping the other constant, the displacement of the optical spot on the surface to be scanned is represented by the change in components in both Y and Z directions. In practice, curved scanning lines are produced as shown in FIG. 3. In order to minimize the curve so that the y-coordinate can be determined by θY, and the z-coordinate by θZ independently of each other, to thereby allow the line image to be linearly scanned, the scanning line indicated by the solid line in FIG. 3 must approximate the line indicated by the double-dot-dash line. For this purpose, the image building optical system should consist of a fΘ characteristic plane satisfying an equation

O2 P2 =f.θAX

and a correction surface with the F(γ) characteristic in operative association with the fΘ characteristic plane, the final y and z coordinates thereof being determined by

Y=FY(γ).θAX.sinγ=f.θY

Z=FZ(γ).θAX.cosγ=f.θZ

FY(γ), FZ(γ): Correction function for varying the focal length by γ

The above conditions can be generalized so that the image height O2 P2 is given by the above equation

O2 P2 =f.g (θAX)

For example, an fΘ lens should satisfy

g(θAX)=θAX

If that an arc sine lens is used, as with a galvanomirror, an equation shown below is satisfied ##EQU5## θ=Amplitude of sine oscillation of galvanomirror In this case, the image building optical system is required to provide the characteristics satisfying the relation:

Y=FY(γ).g(θAX).sinγ=f.g(θY)

Z=FZ(γ).g(θAX).cosγ=f.g(θZ)

The two-dimensional scanning device disclosed in Japanese Patent Publication Sho62-20520 compensates for the scanning distortion by mechanichallly rotating the scanning lens. This is an arrangement to two-dimensionally scan a single optical spot formed by a light beam from a point light source. Thus, it is still associated with such disadvantages as the upper speed limit for building a two-dimensional image and a complicated drive mechanism, because the deflector for deflecting light is driven through two axes, while also driving the scanning lens at the same time. Furthermore, there is another optical system proposed to simultaneously scan two optical spots by providing two light sources to thereby speed up the image building procedure. However, this cannot be a system of building an image by a single scanning process in terms of its principle as well as actual effects.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is therefore an object of the invention to provide an improved scanning device which is capable of thoroughly optically compensating for the distortion of scanning lines.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved scanning device which is capable of rapidly generating a two-dimensional image, by employing a one-dimensional light source instead of a point light source, with compensation for any distortion.

For this purpose, according to one aspect of this invention, there is provided a scanning device for scanning a predetermined surface, which is defined by two axes crossing each other at a right angle, with a light beam to build a two-dimensional image thereon, which comprises:

light emitting means for emitting the light beam in a predetermined direction;

first deflecting means for deflecting the light beam emitted from the light emitting means, on a first plane which is sectioned along one of the axes;

first refracting means for refracting the light beam deflected by the first deflecting means in such a fashion that all the principal rays of the light beam passed through the first refracting means become parallel to each other;

second deflecting means for deflecting the light beam deflected by the first deflecting means, on a second plane which is sectioned along the second axes, the positional relationship of the second plane with respect to the second axes along the direction of axes being determined depending upon the deflection angle of the principal rays at the first deflecting means, and

second refracting means for refracting the principal rays deflected by the second deflecting means on the predetermined surface.

According to another aspect of this invention, there is provided a scanning device for scanning a predetermined surface, which is defined by two axes crossing each other at a right angle, with a light beam to build a two-dimensional image thereon, which comprises:

a one-dimensional light source comprising a plurality of light emitting elements linearly arranged one upon another along one of said, each of the light emitting elements emitting the light beam in a predetermined direction;

first deflecting means for deflecting the light beam emitted from the respective light emitting elements, on a first plane which is sectioned along one of said axes,

first refracting means for refracting the light beam deflected by the first deflecting means in such a fashion that all the principal rays of the light beam passed through the first refracting means become parallel to each other;

second deflecting means for deflecting the light beam deflected by the first deflecting means, on a second plane which is sectioned along the other of said axes, the positional relationship of the second plane with respect to said other of said axes along the direction of one of said axes pair of axes being determined depending upon the deflection angle of the principal rays at the first deflecting means; and

second refracting means for refracting the principal rays deflected by the second deflecting means on the predetermined surface.

DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a general explanatory view of a two-dimensional scanning optical system;

FIG. 2A is a partially enlarged view of FIG. 1;

FIGS. 2B and 2C are explanatory views provided for easier understanding of the relation illustrated in FIG. 2A;

FIG. 3 is an explanatory view showing distortion of scanning lines;

FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing a first embodiment of the scanning device according to the invention;

FIGS. 5A and 5B are exploded views taken along a light path of the optical system shown in FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view showing a second embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 7A through 7C are exploded views taken along a light path of the optical system shown in FIG. 6;

FIGS. 8 is a perspective view showing a third embodiment of the invention;

FIGS. 9A and 9B are exploded views taken along a light path of the optical system shown in FIG. 8;

FIG. 10 is an explanatory view of the image building optical system shown in FIG. 8;

FIG. 11 is a perspetive view showing the shape of a correction surface of a compensator shown in FIG. 8;

FIGS. 12A and 12B are explanatory views showing the correction effect of the image building optical system shown in FIG. 8;

FIG. 13 is an exploded view taken along a light path of the optical system shown in FIG. 8, without a compensator;

FIG. 14 is a perspective view showing the shape of a correction surface of an image building optical system shown in FIG. 8, and

FIG. 15 is an explanatory view showing a scanning line after correction with the image building optical system shown in FIG. 8.

DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS

One arrangement of the scanning device according to the invention intends to achieve the aforementioned object by employing a point light source is shown in FIG. 4.

The operation of this example is described below with reference to FIGS. 5A and 5B, which are exploded views taken along different planes, wherein FIG. 5A is a view exploded along an X-Y plane and FIG. 5B along an Z-X plane.

A general explanation is given with reference to FIG. 4. A scanning device according to the first embodiment is provided with a point light emitting element 10, such as a semiconductor laser. A collimator lens 11 is provided to make the light fluxes from the light emitting element 10 parallel.

An auxiliary polygonal mirror 15 acts as an auxiliary deflector which deflects the light beam emitting from the collimator lens 11 in the vertical scanning plane along the optical axis X of the collimator lens, as indicated by the dot-dash line in the drawing. The polygonal mirror 15 is rotatable about a rotary axis which is perpendicular to the vertical scanning plane.

A telecentric lens 15 gathers the light beams passed through the auxiliary polygonal mirror 15 at different angles to deliver light beams that are parallel to the optical axis x in the vertical scanning plane, so that the light beams passed through the telecentric lens are reflected parallel to each other by another polygonal 30 mirror to be described below. In the first embodiment, the telecentric lens 20 is provided with a cylinder lens that effects refraction only in the vertical scanning plane, it being possible to use a toric lens that also provides a refraction effect in the horizontal scanning plane orthogonal to the vertical scanning plane and parallel to the optical axis

The polygonal mirror 30 behaves as a horizontal deflector It is rotatable about a rotary axis S2 that is perpendicular to the optical axis x and is parallel to the vertical scanning plane. The light beam emitting from the telecentric lens 20 in parallel with the optical axis x are reflected and deflected on plural reflection surfaces 31 in parallel with the rotary axis S2.

Cylinder lens 40 exhibits a refraction effect only in the deflecting direction, (i.e.) only in the horizontal plane, so that the reflected light beam reaches a surface to be scanned 50 that is orthogonal to the optical axis by way of the cylinder lens 40.

In this embodiment, the polygonal mirror 15 is used as a deflector, and the cylinder lens 40 provides the characteristics of an fΘ lens. If a galvanomirror or the like is used as a deflector, the cylinder lens 40 is required to provide the characteristics of an arc sine lens. This relation also holds between the auxiliary deflector 15 and the telecentric lens 20.

The actual operation of this optical system is described with reference to FIGS. 5A and 5B.

The light beam emitted from the light emitting element 10 is reflected and deflected on the auxiliary polygonal mirror 15 by way of the collimator lens 11. The resultant parallel beam runs along the x-y plane to reach the telecentric lens 20.

The light beams leaving the telecentric lens 20 is converged to a light beam whose distance from the optical axis x corresponds to the rotary angle of the auxiliary polygonal mirror 15. The telecentric lens 20 provides a refraction effect to build an image from each light beam on the surface to be scanned 50 only in the x-y plane. It does not cause any refraction effect on the light beams in the z-x plane.

The light beams leaving the telecentric lens 20 are then reflected and deflected on the reflection surfaces 31 of the polygonal mirror 30 and enters the cylinder lens 40 providing a refraction effect only in this deflecting direction. Since the light beams entering the reflection surfaces 31 are parallel to the optical axis x, and the reflection surfaces 31 are parallel to the y-axis, the light beams running from the reflection surfaces 31 to the surface to be scanned 50 run in the plane which is parallel to the Z-X plane, regardless of its deflecting direction determined by the polygonal mirror 30. Light beams emitted from the light emitting element 10 are converged in the y direction by means of the telecentric lens 20 mentioned above, and are then converged in the z direction by means of the cylinder lens 40 so as to build an optical spot on the surface to be scanned 60. The y coordinate of the optical spot is determined only by the rotary angle of the auxiliary polygonal mirror 15, while its the z coordinate is determined only by the rotational angle of the horizontal polygonal mirror 40.

FIG. 5A shows the position of the auxiliary polygonal mirror 15 indicated by the broken line, which has been angularly moved through an angle θy/2 from the position indicated by the solid line. Assuming here that the focal length of the telecentric lens 20 is fy, the image height hy in the y direction is fyy, regardless of the z coordinate at the optical spot because each principal ray emitted from the telentric lens 20 is parallel to each other in the x-y plane.

FIG. 5B shows the position of the plural reflection surface 31 of the horizontal polygonal mirror 30 as indicated by the broken line, when it has been angularly moved through an angle θz/2 from the position indicated by the solid line. Assuming here that the focal length of the cylinder lens 40 is fz, the image height hz in z direciton is fzz, regardless of the y coordinate at the optical spot.

Consequently, with the light emitting element 10 pulsed ON-OFF in response to written information a, raster scan can be effected by rotating the auxiliary polygonal mirror 15 at a low speed while rotating the horizontal polygonal mirror 30 at a higher speed. Thus, a distortion-free, two-dimensional image can be quickly built with no need for complicated electrical processing.

The scanning line pitch in the z direction can be arbitrarily set in dependence on the relative rotation of both polygonal mirrors.

When the horizontal and vertical scanning deflectors are provided by a galvanomirror, an A/O deflector or similar device, which is able to change the deflection angle to a desired value in proportion to an input signal is, used together with an FΘ lens. The deflection angle at each deflector is in a linear relation to the displacement of the optical spot on the surface to be scanned 50, so that the vector scan operation, which has so far been difficult, is available without any complicated control.

A second embodiment of the invention, using a one-dimensional light source is illustrated in FIG. 6.

The scanning device in the second embodiment is provided with a multiple-spot light emitting unit 10 having a light source with linearly arranged multiple light emitting elements such as an LED array or a multi-spot light emitting laser, and a collimator lens 11 which makes the light beam emitted from the multi-spot light emitting unit 10 parallel.

Telecentric lens 20 gathers the light beams emitted from different light emitting elements of the multi-spot light emitting unit 10 and passed through the collimator lens 11 at different angles, and delivers a convergent light beam parallel to the optical axis x of the optical system as indicated by a dot-dash line. An aperture stop 21 is placed on the objective focal plane side of the telecentric lens 20. In this embodiment, the telecentric lens 20 is provided by a cylinder lens that effects refraction only in the direction toward the line direction of the light emitting elements at the multi-spot light emitting element 10.

Polygonal mirror 30 is a horizontal deflector that is rotatable about a rotary axis S that is perpendicular to the optical axis x and is parallel to the direction toward the line direction of the light emitted elements. Multiple light beams emitting from the telecentric lens 20 in parallel with the optical axis x are reflected and deflected on plural reflection surfaces 31 formed on the sides of the polygonal mirror 30 in parallel with the rotary axis S.

A cylinder lens 40 has a refraction effect only in the deflecting direction, so that the reflected light beams reach a surface to be scanned 50 that is orthogonal to the optical axis by way of the cylinder lens 40. In this embodiment, the polygonal mirror 30 is used as a horizontal deflector and, the cylinder lens 40 provides the function of an fΘ lens having a distortion aberration with which the image height is equal to the product of the focal length by the incident angle. If a galvanomirror is used as a horizontal scanning deflector, the characteristics of the scanning lens should be changed to provide the function of an arc sine lens in response to its rotational characteristics.

Orthogonal coordinates with a y-axis extending toward the line direction and a z-axis extending in the scanning direction are assumed in the surface to be scanned for the purpose of explanation. An actual design example is now described with reference to FIGS. 7A through 7C.

These drawings are views of the optical system shown in FIG. 6, taken along the optical axis x of the optical system, wherein FIG. 7A is a view taken along the x-y plane and FIG. 7B and 7C are views taken along the z-x plane.

Collimator lens 11 is a rotationally symmetric (spherical), five group lens system comprising a planoconvex lens and meniscus lens, having a focal length of 50 mm.

Telecentric lens 20 is a rotationally unsymmetric (spherical) cylinder lens system comprising three incident lenses and one output lens, having a focal length of 430 mm in the x-y plane.

Cylinder lens 40 comprises three rotationally unsymmetric cylinder lenses with a focal length of 300 mm in the z-x plane.

The light beams emitted from the multiple light emitting elements of a multi-spot light emitting element 10 are made parallel by passing through the collimator lens 11, and further extends along the x-y plane to reach the aperture stop 21 by way of the telecentric lens 20.

The light beams emitting from the telecentric lens 20 are convergent fluxes, whose distance hy from the optical axis x is proportional to the distance hy' between the optical axis x and its light beam, i.e., the light emitting element. The telecentric lens 20 provides a refraction effect to build an image from each light beam on the surface to be scanned only in the x-y plane. It does not cause any refraction effect on the light beams in the z-x plane.

The light beams emitted from the telecentric lens 20 are then reflected and deflected on the reflection surfaces 31 of the polygonal mirror 30 and enters the cylinder lens 40, providing a refraction effect on this deflecting direction. Since the light beams entering the reflection surfaces 31 are parallel to the optical axis x, and the reflection surfaces 31 are parallel to the y-axis, the light beams running from the reflection surfaces to the surface to be scanned 50 run in the plane which is parallel to the Z-X plane and whose distance from the Z-X plane is hy.

Light beams emitted from the light emitting elements are converged in the y direction by means of the telecentric lens 20 mentioned above, and are then converged in the z direction by means of the cylinder lens 40 to build separate optical spots on the surface to be scanned 50. The y coordinate of the optical spot is determined only by the light emitting position hy' of the multi-spot light emitting element 10, while its z coordinate is determined exclusively by the rotational angle of the polygonal mirror 30.

FIG. 7C shows the position of the polygonal mirror 30 which has been angularly moved through an angle θZ/2 from the position shown in FIG. 7B. Assuming, for example, that θ=4.5 here, the image height hz in the z direction is: hz =47 mm, independently of the coordinate in y direction.

Consequently, when the polygonal mirror 30 is kept stationary, line images parallel to the y axis can be built on the surface to be scanned 50 by turning on the light emitting elements. If, on the other hand, the polygonal mirror 30 is rotated while driving the light emitting elements separately, a two dimensional image corresponding to the number of the light emitting elements can be built by a single mechanical scanning operation, i.e. the rotation of the polygonal mirror 30.

Since the y-z coordinates on the surface to be scanned 50 can therefore be controlled independently of each other, a distortion-free two-dimensional image can be quickly built with no need for complicated electrical processing.

A third embodiment of the invention employing a one-dimensional light source, is described below with reference to the drawings.

First, a general explanation is given with reference to FIG. 8. A line image scanning device comprises a one-dimensional light source 10 with multiple light emitting elements provided in a row, such as an LED array or a multi-spot light emitting laser unit, a polygonal mirror 30 that operates as a deflector that is rotatable about a rotary axis S to scan the light beam emitted from the one-dimensional light source 10, and an image building optical system 46 having its optical axis x within the scanning plane perpendicular to the rotary axis. A collimator lens 55 is provided between the one-dimensional light source 10 and the polygonal mirror 30. As in FIG. 1, a y-axis orthogonal to the x-axis and parallel to the rotary axis S, and a z-axis orthogonal to the x and y axes are assumed for the purpose of explanation, with the y-z plane set as a surface to be scanned.

FIGS. 9A and 9B are exploded views of the optical system shown in FIG. 8, along the light path, wherein FIG. 9A is a view taken along the x-y plane and Fig. 9B is a view taken along the z-x plane.

The light beams emitted from the one-dimensional light source 10 reaches the reflection surfaces 31 of the polygonal mirror 30 by way of the collimator lens 55. It is then reflected and deflected on the reflection surfaces 31 so that a line image representative of the light emitting pattern of the one-dimensional light source 10 is built on the surface to be scanned by means of the image building optical system 46.

Since the light beams emitted from the light emitting elements of the one-dimensional light source 10 generate separate optical spots on the surface to be scanned 50, the scanning lines corresponding to the number of the light emitting elements are provided by a single scanning operation. Consequently, a two-dimensional image is obtained by only a single scanning operation by separately driving the light emitting elements of the one-dimensional light source 10.

The image optical system 46 shown in this example comprises an fθ lens system 44 having three rotationally symmetrical lenses 41, 42 and 43 (FIG. 10) satisfying an equation

fy=fz=f

where fy is a focal length of the line image sectional area and fz is a focal length within the deflecting sectional area. A compensator 45 is provided with a rotationally unsymmetric correction surface 45a (FIG. 9B).

The surface configuration of the fθ lens system 44, and the general arrangement of the image building optical system 46 are as illustrated in FIG. 10 and in

              TABLE 1______________________________________FOCAL DISTANCE f = 99.98                       REFRACTIVECURVATURE       DISTANCE    INDEX______________________________________fθ LENS   r1         -18.980   d1 3.09                             n1  1.5107(44)    r2         ∞   d2 1.32                             n2  1.6145   r3         -201.738  d3 6.36                             n3  1.5107   r4         -31.514   d4 1.18   r5         ∞   d5 4.64   r6         -37.980                   d6 5.0COM-                    d7 3.0                             n4 1.5107PEN-SATOR(45)______________________________________

The correction surface 45a is generally shaped as indicated in FIG. 11 so that it forms a gently curved cylindrical surface in terms of the y direction, whose four corners are slightly raised, with its center in the y direction slightly recessed. Specific surface configurations are shown in Table 2. This table shows the x-coordinate (unit : μm) of a point determined by the y and z coordinates (unit : mm), assuming that the intersection at which the optical axis x of the fθ lens sysytem 44 meets the correction surface 45a is a zero point (0, 0, 0). Since the correction surface 45a is symmetrical with respect to the y and z axes, y and z coordinates are represented by + and - at the same time.

                                  TABLE 2__________________________________________________________________________y  0   2     4        6            8               10                   12                       14                            16__________________________________________________________________________  00  -6     -24        -55 -97               -151                   -213                       -274 -308 2    +1  -5     -24        -54 -97               -151                   -212                       -272 -305 4    +3  -3     -22        -53 -95               -149                   -209                       -267 -298 6    +6   0     -19        -50 -93               -147                   -207                       -263 -294 8   +12  +6     -14        -47 -91               -146                   -206                       -265 -29910   +20 13      -8        -43 -90               -147                   -212                       -276 -32312   +29 +21      -2        -39 -89               -152                   -223                       -300 - 37214   +34 +26      +2        -37 -91               -157                   -237                       -331 -43916   +25 +17      -6        -43 -93               -157                   -238                       -346 -49618   -25 -30     -44        -67 -97               -138                   -198                       -298 -475__________________________________________________________________________
Unit of Measurement

x coordinate=um

y coordinate=mm

z coordinate=mm

Here, the angle between the light beam emitted from one light emitting element of the one-dimensional light source 10 and reflected on the reflection surface 31, and the Z-X plane is assumed to be θy, and the angle between the same light beam projected to the Z-X plane and the x-axis to be θz (see FIG. 2B).

The image building optical system provides such characteristics that the a light beam having an angle θy within the line image sectional area, while making an angle θz to the optical axis of the image building optical system within the deflecting sectional area, builds an image at a location to hold equations

y=f.θy

z=f.θz

for arbitrary values of θy and θz.

The incident angle θz in the deflecting direction varies by twice the change in the rotary angle of the polygonal mirror 30.

The incident angle θy toward the line image is determined by the location hy on the line direction and the characteristics of the collimator lens 55. In this example, the collimator lens 55 provides that

hy=fc.θy

(where fc is a focal length of the collimator lens), or

θy=hy/fc

As for the image building optical system 46, the location hy on the line image is made to linearly correspond to the y coordinate on the surface to be scanned.

FIG. 12A shows the scanning characteristics provided when the compensator 45 is excluded from the optical system as above, in the manner similar to FIG. 3, while FIG. 12B shows the scanning characteristics when the compensator is inserted. As is seen in FIG. 12B, by inserting the compensator 45, the line image can be scanned substantially linearly so that it can be controlled in response to the variation of θy and θz separately for y direction and z direction, the former being dependent on the light emitting position of the source 20 and the latter being dependent on the rotation of the polygonal mirror 30. Thus, a distortion free two-dimensional image is built with no need for complicated electrical processing.

FIG. 13 shows an arrangement to provide the same effect without employing the compensator 45 in the embodiment described above In this arrangement, a correction surface 43a is provided by an inner surface of the lens 43 as a component of the fθ lens system 44 in the image building optical system 46. FIG. 14 illustrates the surface configuration of the correction surface 43a in the same format shown in FIG. 11, with specific details given in Table 3. Table 3 can be interpreted in the same manner as for Table 2. FIG. 15 shows the correction effect in the same format as shown in FIG. 12B.

              TABLE 3______________________________________y    0       2  4 6                          8  10                                       12______________________________________  0    0     -9     -37   -83  -143   -210  -265 2 +1     -8     -37   -82  -142   -209  -264 4 +5     -5     -34   -80  -140   -208  -265 6+11     +1     -29   -76  -138   -208  -270 8+20     +9     -22   -72  -138   -212  -28510+28     +17    -17   -70  -139   -221  -31212+27     +15    -19   -72  -143   -230  -34214-10     -20    -48   -91  -148   -223  -341______________________________________

While the focal lengths and the transformation functions (gy, gz) with the image building optical system 46 are assumed to be equal for the y and z directions, the focal lengths and transformation functions may be different, so long as a constant pitch is maintained for each direction.

Accordingly, the focal lengths and transformation functions are generally different between the y and z direction, so that the equations hold

y=Fy(γ).gy (θAX) sin γ=fy.gy (θy)

z=Fz(γ).gz (θAX) cos γ=fz.gz (θz)

Linearity of the scanning lines on the surface to be scanned is guaranteed on condition that this relation is maintained.

As fully described above, the scanning device according to the present invention is capable of building a distortion-free two-dimensional image without any complicated electrical processing. Further, by employing a one-dimensional light source (as a light source with a multi-spot light emitting element), a two-dimensional image can be produced by a single mechanical scanning operation. Therefore a two-dimensional image can be rapidly produced with compensation for the distortion.

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Reference
1 *Distortion Free 2 D Space and Surface Scanners Using Light Deflectors, by Cohen Sabban et al.; Applied Optics; vol. 22, No. 24, pp. 3935 3942 (Dec. 15, 1983).
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Referenced by
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US5442477 *Feb 4, 1994Aug 15, 1995Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaOptical scanning system
US5497184 *Jun 7, 1995Mar 5, 1996Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaFor an electrophotographic image receiving apparatus
US5724183 *Jan 27, 1994Mar 3, 1998Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaLight gathering apparatus
US5892611 *Jul 22, 1994Apr 6, 1999Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaLaser drawing apparatus
US6650358Apr 26, 1999Nov 18, 2003Pentax CorporationFilm scanner
US7030383 *Aug 4, 2003Apr 18, 2006Cadent Ltd.Speckle reduction method and apparatus
US7214946 *Dec 30, 2005May 8, 2007Cadent LtdSpeckle reduction method and apparatus
US7554710 *Oct 14, 2003Jun 30, 2009Canon Kabushiki KaishaTwo-dimensional scanning apparatus, and image displaying apparatus
US7838816Mar 9, 2007Nov 23, 2010Cadent, Ltd.Speckle reduction method and apparatus
US8476581Oct 20, 2010Jul 2, 2013Cadent Ltd.Speckle reduction method and apparatus
Classifications
U.S. Classification359/206.1, 250/494.1, 359/196.1
International ClassificationG02B27/00, G02B26/12
Cooperative ClassificationG02B26/12, G02B27/0031
European ClassificationG02B26/12, G02B27/00K1
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