Calendar-table and calendar
US 505901 A
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4 Sheets-Sheet 1.
C. N. HOYT. V CALENDAR TABLE AND CALENDAR.
No. 505,901, Patented oct. s', 1893.
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0..-N. HoYT. CALENDAR TABLE AND CALENDAR.
No. 505,901. Patented ont. s, 1893.
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4 mi Y O H N C GALENDAR TABLE AND CALENDAR. No. 505,901.
Paten-ted Oct. 3, 1893.
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C.v N. HOYT. CALENDAR TABLE AND CALENDAR.
' I Attorney.
` UNITED u STATES PATENT OFFICE.
.. CHARLES N. HoY'r, oE BROOKLYN, NEW YORK.
`CALENDAR-TABLE AND CALENDAR.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 505,901, dated October 3, 1893. I Y Application filed October 25, 1892. Serial No. 449,968- (ND model) To @ZZ whom it may concern/.-
Be it known that I, CHARLES N. HOYT, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of the city of Brooklyn, Kings county, New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Calendar-Tables and Calendars, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates in the main to a table for use in preparing calendars wherein symbols are used as will be hereinafter explained, for ascertaining any day of the month in any year, say of the current century. I
The invention will be fully described hereinafter in connection with the accompanying drawings, and its novel features carefully defined in the claims.
In the drawings-Figure l, is a complete calendar table with reference section constructed according to my invention, wherein numerals are employed as symbols. Fig. 2, is a fragment of the upper portion of a similar table to Fig. 1, in which is illustrated the manner in which three kinds of symbols may be employed, namely, numbers, names and letters. Fig. 3, is a fragment of a table of the same character as that in Fig. 1,showing how the numbers of the years of the century table or section may be arranged in arithmetical order; Figs. 4 and 5 are reference tables adapted for use in connection with Figs. l and 2, as will be hereinafter explained. Fig.l 6, is a table having a; table of remainders capable of being used in lieu of the century year table or section of Fig. l. Indeed this table is the same as the month and year portions ofthe table of Fig. 1, in a condensed form. Figs. 7 and 8 show other forms of tables the use of which will be hereinafter fully explained.
Referring first to Figui, at'the upper partl is the month ltable section, A, which is divided into seven vertical columns and bears at the top, a row, a, of month symbols, here represented as numerals in the order, reading from left to right, 6,5, 4, 3, 2, 1 and 7. This is a descending series. Below these symbols in a row b, are the names of the months to 4 which the symbols are applied; forf'erample, the symbol for May is 6; the symblforSeptember and December, is 2; these mohths'be` ing under their respective `symbolsin row a.'
To take into proper account the leap years,
be the proper month symbol for February,
while for ordinary years, 4 will be the proper symbol. f
Below the month table-section of Fig. 1, is the section called the Century Year Table B, and in the row c, underthe title, will be found at the heads of the seven columns, the symbols adapted for the years, in this case represented by the numerals 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1, arranged in descending series. The leap years are separated from the ordinary years, the former set being represented in Fig. lV by the reference letter d, and the later by the reference lettere. The years having 7 for a symbol are arranged in the first column under the numeral 7, and those having 6 fora symbol are arranged in the secone end of the table is a column g, containing year symbols; these are placed at the right in Fig. 1, and are numerals placed respectively at the ends of the rows of names of days and in the order, reading downward: 2, 1, 7, 6, 5, 4 and 3.
I will now explain how this table of Fig. 1, may be employed to ascertain on what day any day of the month of the century fell. The rule is:
First. Find over the given month in row b, the symbol of that month in row d; then find over the given year in the century table B, the symbol of that year in row c. Then find the corresponding month symbol in row fof the reference table-section (Land the corresponding year symbol in the column g of section C; the day of the week at the intersection of said column and row in section C will be the lirst day of the given month and year.
Example: Suppose we wish t find on what day January 1, 1892, fell. We lind 1892 in the seventh column of the century year table in Fig. 1, among the leap years, its symbol in row c being 1; and we iind that the leap year symbol of January,in row a, is also l. Turning now to the reference section C at the bottom of Fig. 1, we find in the respective row and column, j' and g, the numeral 1, and note by inspection that Fri. is in the column headed l in rowf, and in the row having 1 at or opposite to its end in column g. Therefore January l, 1892, fell on Friday. The first day of any other monthin any other year in the list of years in the table B may be found in the same manner by the use of the month and year symbols given.
In the century year table of Fig. 1, the years are grouped in columns under their respective symbols, and the leap years are separated from the ordinary years; but they may as well be arranged as seen in the fragment, Fig. 3. In this arrangement the numbers of the years are in arithmetical order: 1800, 1801 1802, dac., so that any year may be selected conveniently in a moment, and the leap years are designated merely by printing them with heavier faced type, or with differently colored ink. Tho year symbol is placed opposite the year number, as 1806-4 the numeral 4 being the symbol of 1806, as may be seen by reference to Fig. 1. The month symbol is also placed after the name of the month in this arrangement (Fig. 3), as Mar. 4, the numeral 4 being the symbol for March, as seen in Fig. l.
It is not always necessary that numbers be used as symbols; letters, or the names of the days of ythe week may be employed as well. Or these forms of symbols may be combined to a certain extent as will be explained with reference to Figs. 2 and 4.
Fig. 2 corresponds to the upper portion of Fig. l, except that, in addition to the row a, of numeral month symbols there is a row, a', of name month symbols: Sun, Mon, Tue., the., and a row a2, of letter month symbols: A, G, F, &c. The year symbols are arranged in the same way; in addition to the row o, of numeral year symbols, there is a row c of name symbols: Sat., Sun., Mon., dac., and a row, c2 of letter symbols: A, G, F, &c.
The central and main portion of the calendar table, Fig. 4, corresponds to the table or section C at the lower part of Fig. l, except in addition to the row of symbolsf, and row or column of symbols g, there is a row,f, of name symbols, a row, f2, of letter symbols, a column, g', ot' name symbols, and a column, g2., ot letter symbols. Indeed, in order to illustrate the use of combined symbols, there are three rows f of name symbols and two rows, f2, of letter symbols; and there are three co1- umns g, of numeral symbols,and two columns, g2, of letter symbols. Only a fragment of the table is illustrated in Fig. 2, as the century year table of Fig. 1 may be placed under it. I will give an illustration where name symbols are used for both months and years.
Suppose, as before that we wish to find on what day of the week January 1, 1892, fell. This year is in the Vseventh column, and the day symbol is Fri. as seen in Fig. 2. The day symbol January, in a leap year, as seen in Fig. 2, is also F1-i. In the upper row f of month symbols in Fig. 4, we find Fri. and in the corresponding column, g', for year symbols in Fig. 4 (that farthest to the right) we [ind Fri. Where this row and column intersect we nd Fri. showing that January ,1, 1892 fell on Friday. If letter symbols were used for both month and year, the third row of month symbols from the top in Fig. 4 would be used and the corresponding column,-third `from the i'ight,-in Fig. 4, would be used. An illustration is not necessary for this. But I may combine the symbols and use, say letter Symbols for the month and numeral symbols for the year, and of this I will give an example, supposing that, as before, I wish to ascertain on what day fell January 1, 1892. This year being in the seventh column and a leap year, We find the numeral symbol in Fig. 2, to be 1, and We also find the letter symbol for January, in a leap year, to be C. Now in the bottom row f2 of month reference symbols in Fig. 4 we find C, and in the corresponding row g of year reference numeral symbols in Fig. 4 (that farthest to the left) we find l. corresponding row and column intersect we find Fri. showing that January 1, 1892, fell on Friday.
I have designated the horizontal series as rows and the vertical series as columns, but this is only for convenience of explanation; by turning table- Fig. 4 a quarter Way round and righting the words, numerals and letters, the rows would become columns and the columns, rows; but the table could be used in this way` precisely as described.
I have shown various other modes of using the symbols which I will now explain.
Below the central part of Fig. 4, is a table of dates, D, from l'to 3l, represented in heavyfaced numerals; these dates are arranged in seven columns and six rows, like the datesof a monthly calendar. At the left of the central part ot Fig. 4, is a column, T, of sums of numeral symbols.- The following rule will explain the use of these:
Second. Find the numeral symbols of the given month and year in the table of Fig. 1, add them together, .find the sum in column T of Fig. 4, and use the cross row of days opposite in the central part of Fig. 4, with the table ot' dates D, below. If the sum found in column T be 7 or 14, for example, the given month will begin on Sunday In column R, of Fig. 4, we have the pro- Where the IOO IlO
ducts of the numeral symbolsndthesemay be used in precisely the same way as .the su ms in column T. A
In column S of Fig. 4 will be found combined the month numeral symbol and year letter symbol, ascertained by table Fig. 2. These may be used in lieu of the products of column R, or sums of column T.
In column Q of Fig. 4 will be found combined the mont-h name symbol and year numeral symbol (as Sat. 7 ascertained by table Fig. 2. These may be used in lieu ot the combined symbols ot' column S.
In Fig. 4, among the names of week days in the central part of the table, will be found number and letter symbols, a Sun. 7. G, Mon. 6. F, dac., inthe first row; and below the table of dates D in that figure is a row, O, ot' letter symbols, D, E, F, &c. These may be used as follows:
month and the numeral symbol of the given year, in the tables Figs. 1 and 2. Find the letter symbol of the month in reference row O, ot' Fig. 4, and the numeral symbol of the year in the column above such letter symbol among the cross rows of names of days in the central part of Fig. 4. That row of names of days should be used in connection with the table of dates D below.
Below row O in Fig. 4,is a row, P, of month letter symbols. The corresponding year letter symbols will be found in the rows of names of days in the central part of Fig. 4, and rule 3, above, may be applied to the use of three symbols.
Below row P, in Fig. 4, is a row, PP, of name symbolsWed., Tue., Mou, dac. This row may be applied by the following rule:
Fourth. Find the name symbols of the given month and year from the tables of Figs. l and 2, and find either of these symbols in row PP. In the column labove this name symbol find the other name symbol among the cross rows of names of days in the central part of the table of Fig. 4, and use thiscross row of days with thetable of dates D below.
Another rule is as follows:
Fifth. Find in the table Fig. 1, the numeral symbols of the given month and year and add them. together; find a number in the date table D corresponding to this sum, and use, in connection with table D, the cross row of names of days above in which Sat. is found in the same column with said number in table D.
' Fig. 5, is a reference table to be used in connection with Fig. 1, or with Figs. 1 and 2. The central portion, E, of thistable contains an ordinary annual calendar made up of monthly sections or tablets. The columns designated by QQ, RR, SS and TT, in Fig. 5, correspond to the columns designated respectively by theletters Q, R, S and T,in Fig. 4, and the symbols therein referto the monthly tablets of the central calendar E of Fig. 5. For example, if we add together the numeral symbols of the given month and year and find the .f
sum in column TT of Fig. 5, the monthly tablet opposite serves for the given month. For
January, 1892, for example, the sum of thev bols of the given vmonth and year; then findy either of these symbols in the columns N in Fig. 5, and the first date under Sat in the month tablet opposite. Find this date under the other name symbol at the top ofthe calendar and use the tablet of dates in which it is found for the given month.
Seventh. Find in Figs. land 2 the month letter symbol and year name symbol of the given month and year; then find the month letter symbol in columns L, of Fig. 5 and the lirst Third. Find the letter symbol of the given e date number under Sat. in the opposite calendar tablet. Find the same date number in a tablet of the calendar under the year name symbol and use the tablet in which it is found.
Column K in Fig. 5 contains the year letter symbols, and these may be used in a manner corresponding to the month letter symbol in rule 7, usi-ng a month name symbol in place of a month letter symbol.
Column M in Fig. 5 contains the combined letter symbols of the year and month. If we dnd inv column M the combined letter symbols ofthe given month and year, the tablet opposite will be that of the given month.
The following rule will apply to any ordinary annual calendar when used in connection with Figs. l and 2, or Fig. l alone:
Eighth Find in Figs. l and 2 the month name symbol and the year nu meral symbol of the given month and year.- Then find among the week days at the top of the calendar in Fig. 5 (opposite 1892) the month name symbol, and use for the given month the tablet below containing the year numeral symbol as a date in the same column with the month name symbol.
At the bottom of the calendar in Fig. 5, is a row, HH, of numeral symbols. If we find the numeral symbols of the given month and year, and find one of these symbols in row HH, and in the same column, find the other symbol as a date in one of the tablets above, that tablet may be used for the given month.
Just above the row HH, is a row OO of letter symbols. It we find the letter symbol of the given year in row OO, and the month numeral symbol as a date in the same column above, the tablet in which it is found may be used for the given month.
Over the calendar in Fig. 5 are tables, J,of name symbols, and a column, JJ, of name symbols between them. It we find in column JJ, the name symbol (as Fri.) of a given month (as Jan.) and in the row opposite of a table J, the name symbol (as Fri.) of a given year (as 1892,) we may use for the given month the tablet of the calendar wherein the IOCI Ilo;
date number l appears in the same column with the name symbol found in table J.
Either the month or year symbol may be found in column JJ, and the other be found in table J. The result will be the same in either case.
Below the table J, is a row, U, of numeral symbols over the calendar table. These may be applied by the following rule:
Ninth. Find the name symbols, as Sum, Mon, dac., of the given month and year as before. Then find in the row with 1892 at top of calendar in Fig. 5, either one of these name symbols and note the numeral symbol over it in row U. Then find this numeral asa date under the other name symbol in the row with 1892, and use for the given month the tablet in which it occurs.
Over the tables J in Fig. 5, are tables H, of letter symbols, arranged in rows; and between them is a column, H', of numeral symbols. One rule for applying these symbols is as follows:
Tenth. Find as before the numeral symbol of the given month and the letter symbol of the given year. Find the month symbol in column H', and in the row opposite the year letter symbol. The tablet of the calendar below which has 1 immediately below the said year symbol may be used for the given month.
In order to simplify the century year table, the century remainder table of Fig. 6 has been constructed. The upper portion of this table is the same as in Fig. 1, but in lieu of the year numbers a table, F, of remainders is employed, these being the remainders left after dividing the year by 28 This table may be used as follows:
Eleventh. Divide the given year by 28, and notetheremainder. Findthenumeralsymbol of the given month, and the numeral symbol of the remainder in table Fig. 6. Then nd these symbols, respectively, in the row of month symbols and column of year symbols in Fig. 4, and this will give the first day of the given month.
Twelfth. Ascertain the remainder as before; then find the `month numeral symbol. Then use the tablet in the calendar of Fig. 5, which has the month numeral symbol as a date in the column of the remainder found in the remainder table, KG, at the bottom of Fig. 4.
There are various other ways of using the table of remainders, but these Will suffice. For any year from 1752 to 1899, inclusiveuse the upper row c of remainder numeral symbols in Fig. 6, and for any year from 1901 to 2299, inclusive use the lower row c of symbols.
I may change the order or sequence of the symbols at pleasure; as shown in Fig. 6, for example, the month numeral symbols read (from left to right) 7, 6, 5,4, 8, 2, 1 instead of 6, 5, 4, 3, dac., as in Fig. l; and the name and letter` symbols may be changed in the same manner.
I may use the table in Fig. 8, in connection with the tables of' Fig. 1, by the following rule:
Thirteenth. Add together the numeral symbols of the given month and year and find the sum in row b, of Fig. 8. The name of the day of the week found in row b of Fig.`8 over said 'sum will be the first day of the given month.
Eample: Suppose we wish to find onl what day fell March 1, 1809. This year number appears in the first column of ordinary years in Fig. 1,and its numeral symbol is 7.77 The numeral symbol of March, is 4, and the sum is ll. Over 11 in Fig. 8 we find Wed. Wednesday was, then, the day on which March 1, 1809 fell, and we may use any cal# endar for that month where Wednesday appears as the first day.
I may say, in reference to the table of Fig. 3 that it is an evolution from the table of Fig. 1, the latter being first constructed and the table of Fig. 3 constructed from it.
Each kind of symbol employed has a special value according to the style of calendar to which a table may be applied, and each kind produces results peculiar to itself.
When using the tables in Fig. 4, and also in Fig. 5, by the application any of the rules herein given, itV is necessary to ignore all other parts of it except those named in the rule. In Fig. 5, the symbols at the left refer to the six tablets on the left in the central calendar and those at the right, to the six tablets at the right. In Fig. 4, the symbols pertaining to the months and years are respectively interchangeable; either set may be called the month symbols and used as such. This fact, taken in connection with the fact that the month symbols dier from those of the years, proves that these symbols have the character of exponents or co-efcients, rather than mere reference signs, such as asterisks, dac.
I may say that I am well aware of the use of simple reference characters or letters on calendars using a rotating disk and this I do not claim. I employ symbols and not mere reference characters which latter are not capable of combination as herein fully explained.
Having thus described my invention, I clain1- l. A calendar table comprising as its essentials seven month symbols, the names of the twelve months arranged with reference to their respective symbols, seven year symbols, a series of numbers representing the years arranged with reference to the respective year symbols, and the names of the seven days of the Week arranged for reference to and in connection with the said month and year symbols, substantially as set forth.
2. The combination with an ordinary calendar, of a calendar table comprising seven month symbols, the names of the twelve months arranged with reference to their respective symbols, seven year symbols, and a IDO IIO
series of numbers representing the years arranged with reference to the respective year symbols, the said calendar having also the symbols for the months and years marked thereon inproper positions with respect to the names of the days of the week on the calendar, substantially as set forth.
3. A calendar month table, comprising the following features, namely, a row a, of seven month'symbols, the names ofthe months of January and February arranged each under space between two of the adjacent month symbols, for the purpose specified and the names of the other ten months arranged under their respective symbols, substantially as set forth, whereby'the duplication of the leap years is avoided.
4. A calendartable comprising seven month CHAS. N. HOYT.
PETER A. Ross, HERBERT BLossoM.