|Publication number||US5073577 A|
|Application number||US 07/537,189|
|Publication date||Dec 17, 1991|
|Filing date||Jun 11, 1990|
|Priority date||Jun 11, 1990|
|Also published as||CA2040251A1, CA2040251C, DE69115139D1, DE69115139T2, EP0464989A2, EP0464989A3, EP0464989B1|
|Publication number||07537189, 537189, US 5073577 A, US 5073577A, US-A-5073577, US5073577 A, US5073577A|
|Inventors||Paul H. Anderson|
|Original Assignee||Morton International, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (3), Classifications (20), Legal Events (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention relates to stable mixed emulsions of liquid polysulfides and dispersions or curatives therefor, which mixed emulsion/dispersions are useful as sealants.
Liquid polysulfide and liquid polysulfide compositions are well known, having been described, for example in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,331,782; 4,060,570; 3,852,214; 3,817,930; 3,770,678; 3,637,574; 3,518,211; 3,518,107; 3,349,047 and 2,466,936. Generally, liquid polysulfide polymers are materials having the structure HS(RSS--R'--SS)x R"SH wherein R, R' and R" may be the same or different hydrocarbon, oxyhydrocarbon or thiahydrocarbon moieties. These polymers are generally linear, but may be branched, for example, by preparing these compositions with trichloropropane.
Liquid polysulfides are curable with a variety of oxidative curatives, particularly inorganic oxides and peroxides. Oxidative curatives link polysulfide polymers together by oxidation of terminal thio (--SH) groups to form disulfide (--S--S--) linkages. Examples of suitable curatives are given in U.S. Pat. No. 3,331,782, the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference. Cured polysulfides in combination with various fillers, pigments, plasticizers etc. are useful, for example, as sealants and caulking materials. The molecular weights of polysulfides may vary over a wide range, e.g., from 500 to upwards of 25,000. Typically, high molecular weight polysulfides are produced, and then the molecular weight is adjusted downward by a split stripping process. This process also provides the free terminal thio moieties. Typically, commercial liquid polysulfides have molecular weights in the 1000 to 10,000 range.
As described in referenced U.S. Pat. No. 3,331,782, liquid polysulfides are generally provided in a two-package system with the polysulfide material separately packaged from the curative. The curative is typically provided as a paste that is added to the liquid polysulfide material at the time of use. The high reactivity of liquid polysulfides with the curative, particularly when the curative is a peroxide, has generally precluded these components from being packaged in a one-package system.
Two-package systems are inherently disadvantageous relative to one-package systems. The need to mix at the site of application is at least an inconvenience for the user. Inadequate or improper mixing may result in an unsatisfactory cured product. The lack of mixing apparatus and/or the inconvenience of mixing may cause a potential user to seek an alternative sealing or caulking material. It is therefor a general object of the present invention to provide a one-package composition containing both polysulfide and an oxidative curative therefor.
There have been produced one-package mixtures of polysulfides and inorganic curatives in which premature curing is prevented by complete removal of water from the system. This type of system relies of absorption of water vapor from the atmosphere for eventual curing. A major disadvantage of such a system is the inordinately long cure time. Typically, such a system requires at least about 24 hours to become tack-free and much longer to completely cure. Such extended cure times are unacceptable for many sealing and caulking applications.
It is also known to produce polysulfide latexes in which liquid polysulfides are emulsified in an aqueous medium. Such latexes are described, for example in U.S. Pat. No. 3,770,678. These latexes do not contain an oxidative curative, but rather attain their final physical properties through coalescence of the latex particles upon evaporation of solvent or water.
This invention provides a one-package composition in which a liquid polysulfide is emulsified, through use of an appropriate surfactant, in an aqueous medium; and inorganic oxidative curative particles are dispersed, through use of an appropriate surfactant, in the aqueous medium. The one-package composition comprises: (A) between about 50 and about 70 wt. percent of the liquid polysulfide, (B) between about 5 and about 10 wt. percent oxidative curative, (C) between about 3 and about 7 wt. percent surfactant(s), and (D), balance water. The polysulfide is emulsified with a suitable surfactant in an aqueous solution. The oxidative curative particulates are separately dispersed with an appropriate surfactant. The emulsification of liquid polysulfide and dispersion of curative particulates are then mixed together. Additional components, such as fillers, colorants, etc. may also be mixed with the emulsified polysulfide and dispersed curative particulates.
Herein, unless otherwise noted, all percentages are by weight. Unless otherwise noted, all weight percentages are relative to the total weight of (A) the polysulfide, (B) the curative, (C) the surfactant(s) and (D) the water.
The liquid polysulfides useful in the invention include --SH--terminated polysulfides described in the above-mentioned patents, the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference, including branched and straight-chain polymers. All molecular weights of liquid polysulfides are considered useful for the present invention, although polysulfides having molecular weights in the 1000-10,000 range are preferred.
Inorganic curatives include inorganic oxides such as ZnO, PbO, MgO, CaO, BaO, FeO, Fe2 O3, CoO and CuO; inorganic peroxides such as ZnO2, MgO2, CaO2, MnO2, TeO2, SeO2, FeO2, As2 O3, Sb2 O3, Sb2 O5, SnO2 and Pb3 O4 ; and inorganic oxidizing agents such as Na2 Cr2 O7, K2 Cr2 O7 and (NH4)2 Cr2 O7. Inorganic peroxides, such as CaO2 are preferred.
It is found that the choice of the surfactant used to emulsify the liquid polysulfide is critical to establishing a stable mixed emulsion of the liquid polysulfide and dispension of the oxidative curative. In particular, it is found that the surfactant used to emulsify the liquid polysulfide should have a hydrophile/lipophile balance (HLB) of between about 18 and about 20. Measurements of HLB are described in a publication entitled THE HLB SYSTEM of ICI Americas Inc., Wilmington, Del. 19897, 1984.
Preferred surfactants for emulsifying the liquid polysulfide are block copolymers, particularly block copolymers of the ABA configuration, in which more hydrophillic "A" blocks flank a more hydrophobic "B" block. One suitable type of block copolymer comprises polyethylene oxide blocks flanking a more hydrophobic block of polypropylene oxide. Such block polymer surfactants are sold by BASF Wyandotic Corporation under the tradename Pluronic.
The amount of surfactant required for emulsification of the liquid polysulfide in water is at least about 3.5 wt. percent relative to the polysulfide; however, it is preferred to use higher amounts, e.g., up to about 10 wt. percent relative to the polysulfide to ensure stability of the polysulfide in the presence of dispersed oxidative curative particulates.
The choice of surfactant used for dispersing the particulates of oxidative curative is considered less critical than the choice of that which must be used for emulsifying the liquid polysulfide. Generally, the surfactant used for dispersing the oxidative curative particulates is one having a straight hydrocarbon chain and a hydrophyllic end group, e.g., sodium lauryl sulfate.
The final necessary ingredient in the mixed emulsions of the present invention is water (or an aqueous solution). The water maintains separation between the emulsified liquid polysulfide and the dispersed particulates of oxidative curative, preventing them from reacting. Eventual removal of the water, i.e., by evaporation, destroys the emulsification of the liquid polysulfide and the dispersion of the oxidative curative and allows the oxidative curative to react with the terminal thio groups on the liquid polysulfide and thereby effect the cure. Generally, at least about 20 wt. percent water is necessary to maintain a mixed emulsion.
The mixed emulsion/dispersion by itself is a viscous flowable material suitable for use as a sealant. However, the emulsion/dispersion can also be thickened into a paste by the addition of appropriate fillers. Such thickened formulations are useful, for example, as caulks. Suitable fillers, for example, include TiO2, carbon black, calcium carbonate, clays and limestone.
The mixed emulsion/dispersion may also include plasticizers for plasticizing the polysulfide composition when it is eventually cured. Generally, such plasticizers are hydrophobic plasticizers known in the art. These are admixed with the liquid polysulfide prior to emulsification. Suitable plasticizers include chlorinated plasticizers, such as chlorinated biphenyl and chlorinated paraffin, and plasticizers sold under the trade names Santicizer 160, 261 and 278 by Monsanto.
The composition may also contain a variety of additional components as is known in the art, such as whitners, pigments, latex stabilizers, etc.
To prepare the mixed emulsion/dispersions of the present invention, an emulsions of the liquid polysulfide is prepared and a dispersion of curative particulates is prepared separately. The polysulfide is admixed with any plasticizer, and the plasticizer and the surfactant for the polysulfide is added to an aqueous solution; high shear, such as that provided by an homoginizer is used to prepare the emulsion. This emulsion of polysulfide typically contains between about 50 and about 70 wt. percent liquid polysulfide, between about 3.5 and about 10 wt. percent surfactant, balance water, calculated relative to the total weight of polysulfide, surfactant and water. Some heat, e.g., to provide a temperature in the range of about 40°-50° C., facilitates emulsion.
In a similar manner, oxidative curative particulates, surfactant and water are mixed and a dispersion (or cure paste) formed. The shear needed to disperse the particulates may be somewhat less than that required to emulsify the liquid polysulfide. This dispersion contains between about 40 and about 60 wt. percent particulates, between about 0.5 and about 5 wt. percent surfactant, balance water, calculated relative to the total weight of particulates, surfactant and water.
After separately preparing the emulsion and dispersion, they are mixed together, using sufficiently low shear so as not to deemulsify the liquid polysulfide or destroy the dispersion of the particulates of curative. In this step, additional ingredients, such as fillers, may be added. It is preferable that any filler have rheological properties similar to that of the emulsified curative particulates.
That a mixed emulsion/dispersion of liquid polysulfide and oxidative curative should be stable is surprising, because such flowable one-package compositions have long been sought, yet never achieved.
The invention will now be described in greater detail in terms of specific examples.
______________________________________Liquid Polysulfide EmulsionLP-12 (liquid polysulfide MW 4000) 51.67Santicizer 160 (plasticizer) 15.52Pluronic F-88 (surfactant) 3.90Pluronic P-105 (surfactant) 1.29Water 25.65 100.00Cure Paste (CaO Emulsion)Water 44.00Tamol 731-SD (surfactant) 1.00CaO2 55.00 100.00BlendEmulsion 49.252-Mercaptoethanol (Chain stop agent 0.04to produce a soft rubber)Tamol 731-SD 0.33Titanox 2101 (TiO2 filler) 7.63Gamasperse 255 (CaCO3 filler) 38.17Cure Paste 4.58______________________________________
Both the Liquid Polysulfide emulsion and the Cure paste are prepared using high shear. The Liquid polysulfide emulsion and additional ingredients (except for the cure paste) are then mixed together at high shear. Finally, the cure paste is added in a low shear mix.
The physical properties of the cured rubber-like sealant are as follows:
______________________________________Physical Properties______________________________________Hardness 50 (Shore A)Tensile 73.1 psi100% modulus 71.8 psiUltimate Elongation 239%______________________________________
A black coating is produced containing as follows:
______________________________________Liquid Polysulfide EmulsionLP-32 (liquid polysulfide MW 4000) 67.00Pluronic F-88 3.00Pluronic P-105 1.00Santicizer 261 3.35Water 25.65 100.00Cure PasteWater 42.00MnO2 (Eagle Picher G) 57.00Tamol 731SD 1.00BlendEmulsion 56.07Marasperse CBOS-4 (dispersantfor carbon black) 0.75Raven 420 (carbon black) 18.692-Mercaptoethanol (chain stopper) 0.07Water 17.88Cure Paste 6.54______________________________________
The coating is prepared in the manner of the Sealant of Example 1.
The physical properties of the coating are as follows:
______________________________________Physical Properties______________________________________Hardness 66 (Shore A)Tensile 470 psi100% modulus 199 psi200% modulus 270 psi300% modulus 330 psiUltimate Elongation 540%______________________________________
An advantage of the emulsion/dispersions of the present invention is that they can be thinned with water. This is particulary important for spray applications where the viscosity must be reduced sufficiently for the compositions to pass through applicator nozzles. Previously, compositions containing liquid polysulfides and oxidatives curative particulates were thinned with organic solvents.
While the invention has been described in terms of certain preferred embodiments, modifications obvious to one with ordinary skill in the art may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention.
Various features of the invention are set forth in the following claims.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|U.S. Classification||524/609, 524/801, 528/374, 524/800|
|International Classification||C08J3/215, C08J3/03, C09K3/10, C08L81/04, C08G75/14, B01J13/00|
|Cooperative Classification||C08J3/215, C08G75/14, C08J2381/04, C08L81/04, C08J3/03, C08J2383/04|
|European Classification||C08J3/215, C08J3/03, C08L81/04, C08G75/14|
|Jun 11, 1990||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MORTON INTERNATIONAL, INC., A CORP. OF IN, ILLINOI
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:ANDERSON, PAUL H.;REEL/FRAME:005334/0393
Effective date: 19900608
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